Monthly Archives: June 2014




He set on earth  mountains standing firm lest it should shake with you…… (Holy Quran Verse 10 Ayat 31)

—  Compared to older mountain ranges like the Aravallis in India and Applachian in USA, the Himalayas are known as Youngfold mountain, being the youngest range, with world’s tallest peak of 8,848m. These extend for 2,500 km in length & 50-100 km in width in a series of parallel ridges of folds.

—  About 250 million years ago, the earth’s land was a single super continent called Pangea, which was surrounded by a large ocean.Around 200 million years ago (known as the middle permean period) an extensive sea stretched along the longitudinal area presently occupied by the Himalayas. The sea was named The Tethys. Around this period the super continent began to  gradually split into different land masses & move apart in different directions.

—  Rivers from both the northern Eurasian land mass (Angara) & southern Indian land mass (Gondwana) deposited large amounts of sediments into the shallow sea that was the Tethys.

—  There were marine animals called ammonites living in the sea of the time. The present fossil finds on peaks, point to their coast dwellings.

—  The two land masses, the Eurasia and the Indian subcontinent moved closer and closer.

—  Indian plate-one of the fastest moving tectonic plate in the world- was moving north at the rate of about 16 cms/6.3 inches per year.

—  About 70 million years ago (upper cretaceous period) the initial mountain building process started, when the two land masses (or plates) began to collide with each other.

—   As a result the already shallow seabed rapidly folded & was raised into longitudinal ridges & valleys.

—  After about 65 million years ago (upper Eocene period) came the 2nd phase of mountain building.

—  The bed of Tethys started rising again.

—  The sea retreated and the sea bed was elevated into high mountain ranges.

—  Later about 25 million years (middle Miocene period) came another mountain building which led to the formation of low Shivalik ranges.

—  Next; the mountain building phases occurred as the Indian plate pushed against the Eurasian plate which led to the Himalayan ranges rising further.

—  The last major phase occurred 600,000 years ago.

—  Although the phase of major upheaval has passed, the Himalayas are still rising albeit at a much slower rate.

—  The Indian plate is continuously moving north at the rate of about 2 cms. every year, which raise Himalayas by 5mm per year=5km per million years (being world’s highest rate of uplift )

—  This means that  Himalayas are still  geographically active & structurally unstable.

—  Some of the greatest earthquakes have occurred in history due to tectonic forces released by the interaction of the two plates.

—  For this reason, earthquakes are a frequent occurrence in the entire Himalayan region.

—  There is a recent prediction of an imminent major earthquake in Hidukush mountains.

—  For this reason, earthquakes are a frequent occurrence in the entire Himalayan region.

—  There is a recent prediction of an imminent major earthquake in Hidukush mountains.

—  Area covered in North Western Himalayas: snow clad peaks, glaciers & dense forest cover  = 33 million ha=10% of the total geographical area of the country

—  Rural Population:  J&K 75.20 %, HP 90.20%, UK 74.30 %    against the national average of 72.20%

—  It is impossible to detect the movement of the plates and uplifting of the Himalayas by casual observation.

—  However Global Positioning System (GPS) has made it possible to measure even such a slow movement of plates.

—  The Alps in Europe is another example of a mountain chain that formed due to the collision of tectonic plates.

—     Praise be to Him who left His signs for us all around ………               

—  The Continents 180 million years agoThe continents 65 million years agoThe continents today






 Tectonic plates of the world


                The world plate movement

International boundaries of Himalayas: Pakistan,Nepal, China & India

                         The Snow covered peaks of Himalayas.

Natural Resources of the North Western Himalayas-Threats, Evaluation and Conservation.


National Seminar on Natural Resources of the North Western Himalayas- Threats, Evaluation and                  Conservation (March 26th-27th 2014 ) at Sri Pratap College Srinagar J&K State

            Natural Resources of the North Western Himalayas-Threats, Evaluation and Conservation.

                                                                  (A power point presentation)


                                                                Er. Mohammad Ashraf Fazili FIE

                                                                        (Retd. Chief Engineer)


                                                           A view of north western Himalayas

                                                                     Himalayan terrain

                                                                             Map of Himalayas


                                                                     TECTONIC PLATES OF EARTH


                                                                Indian plate pushing Eurasian plate


  •  About 40 million years ago Indian plate crashed into Eurasian plate, at the geographically breakneck speed of 4 inches per year to form Himalayas-
  • The collision created Himalayan mountains welded together by warped and shattered rock interlocking to form the highest chain on earth.

               States touched

  •  Area Covered

 North Western  Himalayas  comprise of three states viz. J&K, Himachal Pradesh (HP) & Uttrakhund (UK), covering an area of about 33 million hectares, forming about 10 % of the total geographical area of the country.

Map of Himalayas


Location & Cover

  • The region occupies the strategic position in the northern boundary of the nation and touches international boundaries of Nepal , China & Pakistan.
  •  Most of the area is covered by snow-clad peaks, glaciers of higher Himalayas & dense forest covers of mid Himalayas.




  •  The region comparatively shows  a thin and dispersed human population due to its physiographic conditions and poor infrastructure development.
  • The rural population  in HP, J&K and UK constitutes  90.20, 75.20 and 74.30 % respectively as compared to the national average of 72.20 %.


Livestock population


  • The livestock population in the region has increased substantially during last three decades and is 21.33 million against human population of 29.53 million (1: 1.38)

 The Dominant Sector

  • The agriculture including livestock continues to be the dominant sector despite the fact that the area is exposed to adverse and harsh geographical and agri-silviculture conditions.

The Climate

  • The Himalayas exhibit  great diversity in climate,physiography,  soil & vegetation between the outer and inner Himalayas, ethnicity, resource availability and agricultural practices controlled by altitude.
  • The region experiences coldest temperatures in the world during winter. Mostly the hill stations of the Western Himalayas like Srinagar, Pahalgam, Shimla, Manali (Kallu valley), Kangra, Dharamsala, Maclodganj, Chambra & some regions in UK like Kamaon, Garhwal experience monsoon showers.

Major natural resources

  • The major natural resources of Western Himalayas are  water, forests, floral and faunal biodiversity.
  •  Forests constitute the major share in the land use of the region covering more than 65 % of the total geographical area of the region.


Largest Concentration of Glaciers


  • The Himalayas have world’s  largest concentration of glaciers outside the polar regions in spite of being the youngest mountain ranges on the planet with substantial growth occurring in just last million years.

Snow peaked tops

 Mountain ranges

The mountain ranges in this region are usually 50-100 Km wide and 1000-5000m high. Dhandhar range in HP, Pir- Panjal in J&K and Mussorie in UK are some of the important hill ranges.

Soil loss

The estimated annual soil loss from north western Himalayas  is approximately 35 million tons, which is estimated to cost around US $ 32.20 million.

  Fodder need

  • Strategies by planting fodder trees or grass in the waste/degraded lands (representing 7.9, 9.8 & 11.5 % of the geographical area  in HP, J&K &UK respectively) is  needed for enhancing the fodder production.

Growing plants

  • Climate of the region is conducive for growth of a large variety of plants ranging from tropical to temperate due to different altitudinal ranges varying from 100m above msl to more than 4000 m amsl i.e. sub tropical to cold temperate alpine  zone.

Medicinal & Aromatic plants

  • The region is the natural abode of large number of medicinal and aromatic plants and the value of medicinal herbs from forests is enormous.

Hydrological Potential

  •   The hydrological potential of these states consists of vast & rich water resources as glaciers, rivers & lakes. The high altitude areas of lesser and greater Himalayas are covered with glaciers and snow fields & are the origin of a number of perennial  rivers, which heavily drain into Indus and Gangetic basins & form a most fertile Indo-gangetic region of the country, known as “food bowl of India”.

Hydro power potential (HP)

  • Catchment area & hydro power potential of different rivers in Himachal Pradesh:

 Major Basin Tributary- Area (sq,kms)-Hydropower pot.(MW)

  • (A)  Indus

    Chenab                         – 7,500               – 3,032

     Ravi                             – 5,451               – 2,159

     Beas                             – 20,402             – 4,604

     Sutlaj                           – 20,000              – 10,355


     Total                             – 53,353             – 20,150

(B) Ganga

     Yamuna                         – 2,320               – 592


TotalA+B                          – 55,673             – 20,742


  © Mini-Projects                                           –     750


GT                                      – 55,673            – 21,492

 Hydro power in J&K

  • Potetial assessed by Dr. Ramshoo : 25,000 MW
  • Potemtial assessed by PDC           : 20,000 MW

  Chenab                  – 10,654 MW

  Jhelum                    – 3,141 MW

  Indus                       – 1599 MW

  Ravi                         –    417 MW


Total                           – 15,811 MW


Exploited                    -2327 MW

Lakes in J&K State

  • A unique culture emerged on the banks of lakes surrounded and protected by Himalayan mountains on all sides. In Srinagar in Dal Lake entire community living in boats depends on lake for subsistence. These hospitable people claim their decent from Prophet Noah. In Ladakh a small community of nomads still herds yaks along the shores of giant Pangong lake. In the northern part of the state in Baltistan, a series of high altitude lakes exists in the high mountain valleys above Skardu. J&K abounds with such natural treasures. Various lakes  of the State include : Dal  (8 x 6.4 km),Nigeen , Anchar (8×3 km), Manasbal (5x1km), Wullar (16×9.6km), Hokersar(5×1.5km), Konsarnag (5x3km), Gangabal,Sheshnag, Neelnag, Tarsar Marsar, Sherasar, Sukh & Dukh- the two frozen lakes at Harmukh.

Dal Lake Srinagar

A Houseboat in Dal Lake

Wullar Lake (the largest fresh water lake in South Asia)

Sheshnag Lake

Mansar Lake

Threats to Water bodies

  • With deforestation, increasing tourism & steady urban growth along the shores of some lakes and rivers, the centuries old balance between man and nature has been disrupted and desperately needs to be restricted.
  • Deforestation  and the consequent erosion of the top-soil is having a devastating effect on the rivers & lakes. The silt & the soil being washed off of the barren mountain sides is rapidly  transferring the Himalayan water ecosystem while hastening the shrinkage of large lakes

Dal Lake endangered

  • Runoff of chemical fertilizers from the vast drainage basins around the lake, sewage and other oxygen demanding wastes, which bring in 15 tons of phosphorous & 300 tons of nitrogen every year combine to place the lake’s internal life process under severe stress.
  • Oxygen levels fall, the fish die out & the lake loses its aesthetic appeal. Decaying organic matter produces disagreeable odors & unsightly green scum of algae and weed infested waterways.

KEWA report

  • Although Dal has not reached such an advanced level of eutrophication, the process has begun to set in. Tourism has added increased pressure on the delicate environment of the Dal, for instance the number of house boats around the Dal lake has grown to 1400 from 400 in 1975.
  •  If current trends continue, the experts opine that the Dal lake will be destroyed within 80 years-Brar- Numbal mini lake in the heart of the city is a living example of this.
  • The upcoming KEWA report concludes with a series of suggested solutions for safeguarding of J&K lakes & waterways including the possibility of eco-tourism & environmentally sound urban planning. It is hoped that this report will bring about awareness in the administration and among inhabitants of J&K with the hope that the threat to J&K lakes can be averted.

Lakes in HP

  • Water from Beas & Sutlej rivers has been stored in Poong Dam & Bhakra Govind Sagar reservoirs having capacity  of 7290 & 9621 million cubic meters resp. for irrigation & power generation. It is major source of irrigation to Punjab, Haryana & Rajasthan.

Hydropower/lakes in Utrakhund

  • Water from Beas & Sutlej rivers has been stored in Poong Dam & Bhakra Govind Sagar reservoirs having capacity  of 7290 & 9621 million cubic meters resp. for irrigation & power generation. It is major source of irrigation to Punjab, Haryana & Rajasthan.
  • The catchment area of Ganges in India is approx. 8,63,000 sq. kms., which covers 26,20 % of total geographical area of the country, particularly of northern states of India & is considered most fertile region of the world.

Soil Conservation & Ecosystem

  •  The growing stock of trees outside the forest land (ToF) under agro forestry or social forestry  has played a significant role  to enhance the GDP of the country from 1 to 1.70 %. However the tree cover in J&K received a great set back in last three decades. The tree cover increased significantly during last 3 decades when ICAR initiated  All India Research Project on Agroforestry (AKRP-AF) during 1982-83 & farmers were encouraged to grow fodder trees & enhance their income & to meet their domestic demand.

Other renewable resources

  • Amongst other renewable resources are deposits of Boron, lead, lithium, coal, chromium,  ores of iron, copper, tungsten, zinc and deposits of building materials like limestone, dolomite & marble

Cement Industries

  • These deposits occur across length and breadth of Himalayas cutting across international boundaries. Due to mineral deposits many cement industries have come up during last 3 decades.


  • The Himalayas present a store house of biodiversity, where flora and fauna vary extensively with climate diversity from one region to the other and this biodiversity is used for developing new varieties / hybrids in agriculture and horticulture crops to enhance the productivity.

Intensive Agriculture

  • Intensive agriculture is practiced in Kangra, Kullu in HP & Kashmir valley in J&K and Doon valley in Babhar and Tarai region in UK. In these low hills, agriculture fields are terraced in some parts except plain areas and fruit plantations are raised along with several arable crops such as paddy, maize, pulses, wheat, oil seeds, potatoes and vegetables etc. Cultivation is practiced upto 2500 m elevation.


  • Floriculture is also fast emerging as an important cash generating activity of the production systems in certain areas. Fruit orchards of several species are found in the hills of HP, J&K and UK. Plantation on agriculture lands was not common in the past as enough forests were available in the vicinity.


  • However after clearing the forests for plantation of fruit trees as orchards in the hills during last 4-5 decades has created acute shortage of firewood and fodder and has compelled the farmers  to grow trees on their farmlands as a part of their farming systems to meet their daily needs of fuel, fodder and timber

Indigenous Agro-forestry Systems

  •  Various indigenous agro forestry systems occur in different agro climatic zones of the region. A homestead (Kyaroo) is operational  farm unit in which a number of tree species for fodder, timber, and fuel wood are raised along with livestock, poultry and/or fish to satisfy the farmer’s  needs.

Kyaroo crops

  • In kyaroo multiple crops  are present in a multitier canopy configuration. The fodder trees & bamboo for both timber & fodder are managed in upper storey, whereas  middle storey is constituted of bushes like medicinal plants etc.


  • The fruit trees like pear,plum, lemon & citrus etc. are grown  for domestic use. Wide variation in the intensity of  tree cropping is noticeable in different places.
  • Plantation  crop combination play a major role in national economics. The important plantation crop of the Himalayan region is tea.

 What Saints Visualised

  • Over 650 years back Shaikh-ul-Alam (RA) said:

 “Food is Subservient to Forests.”

              ان پوشہ تیلہ یلہ ون پوشہ









The UN General Assembly declared 2014 as the International Year of Small Island Developing States (SIDS). World Environment Day (WED) 2014 was celebrated under the theme of SIDS, with the goal of raising awareness of their unique development challenges and successes regarding a range of environmental problems, including climate change, waste management, unsustainable consumption, degradation of natural resources, and extreme natural disasters.
Climate change is a major challenge for SIDs, as global warming is causing ocean level to rise. Due to their small size and isolation, SIDs are more vulnerable to natural & environmental disasters, climate change & sea level rise. However some of these islands have also been successful in overcoming their environmental problems. From Palau to Puerto Rico, the stories of resiliency and innovation abound. For instance, Tokelau recently began producing 100% of its energy from solar sources. In Fiji, lacking the resources to make new drainage systems and seawalls, local residents are restoring mangroves and coral reefs to help prevent flooding and erosion. These stories and solutions can be applied to environmental concerns all over the world. The problems that they face are: climate change, waste management, unsustainable consumption, degradation of natural resources, extreme natural disasters in most of over population and continuing industrialization.

The effect of climate change was witnessed by us too in J&K State, with an elongated winter this year with frequent rains and snowfall in hilly areas even in the month of May. This has adversely affected our agriculture, horticulture, floriculture causing late sowing of seeds/saplings, late pollination of fruit trees, late blooming of flowers like tulips etc. respectively. Even in the month of June we still feel comparatively lower temperatures in the mornings & evenings. Besides the other threats of pollution of our water bodies, air & noise pollution, inadequate solid & liquid waste management, forest denudation etc. persist despite Kashmir being branded as heaven on earth.
Stop killing our oceans:
In her book “The Sea Around us” Rachel Carson saw the oceans as one last haven safe for ever. How it could be otherwise, when the oceans are so vast that continents are mere islands in their midst, so deep that a Mount Everest could be lost beneath their surface? How does one pollute a volume of almost 320 million cubic miles? How poison an environment so rich that it harbors 200,000 species of life?
Even though the oceans blanket three fourths of earth, their productivity is limited mostly to the narrow bands of undersea land existing from coastlines which comprise the continental shelves. 80% of the world’s salt water – fish catches taken from these shallow coastal waters, which make up only a tiny fraction of the total sea. In addition almost 70% of all usable fish & shell fish spend a crucial part of their lives in the estuaries- the coastal bays, tidelands & river mouths that are 20 times more fertile than the open sea, seven times more fertile than a wheat field. Cut the chain of life in these areas, destroy the myriad bottom organisms, pollute the continental shelf waters & you will also eliminate the vital ocean fisheries.
Already pollution or overfishing & sometimes both have gouged fisheries around the world. Meanwhile in a headlong rush to create more land , vital coastal tidelands are being filled for highways, industry, bridges and water front homes. At the same time the remaining estuaries are fed billions of gallons of sewage & industrial waste every day. These poison fish choke our oyster & render the bays & tidelands unfit for anything.
Pressure also builds on the oceans beyond, for instance in 1968 some 48 million tons of solid wastes were carried out by barges and ships& dumped in ocean waters of the USA. These wastes included garbage, waste oil, dredging spoils, industrial acids, caustics, cleaners & sledges, airplane parts, junked automobiles & spoiled food. During the two papyrus boat trips across the Atlantic, author explorer Thor Heyerdahl sighted plastic bottles, squeeze tubes, oil & other trash that had somehow been swept by the currents to mid-ocean. On some days the crew hesitated to wash because of the amount of pollution. Ugly brown raw sewage is piped from Miami beach Florida that sprawls over blue green waves. Fishermen, divers & others report similar situations all along US coast lines & many other parts of the world.
Steps needed:
” Stop dumping of wastes in to the sea, the big & small lakes & coastal areas, our rivers & bays except for treated liquid wastes equal to natural quality of the ocean waters. Instead recycle wastes back in to economy.
” Set tough controls before undertaking new ocean activities such as buildings, off shore jet ports & drilling off shore oil wells in new areas.
” Halt the reckless dredging & filling of priceless tidelands & carving of ocean front in the name of progress.
With the present trend the marine biologists predict that it will put an end to significant life in the sea in 50 years or less. This would be a catastrophe posing grave consequences to a world dependent on these vital resources for food, raw materials, recreation & in the near future, probably living space.
The largest island in the world is Greenland. Australia is considered a continent because it has unique plant and animal life. Antarctica also is a continent – larger than Europe and Australia. Greenland, although quite big, shares the habitat features of Northern America.
The smallest island in the world – according to the Guinness Book of Records – is Bishop Rock. It lies at the most south-westerly part of the United Kingdom. It is one of 1040 islands around Britain and only has a lighthouse on it. In 1861, the British government set out the parameters for classifying an island. It was decided that if it was inhabited, the size was immaterial. However, if it was uninhabited, it had to be “the summer’s pasturage of at least one sheep” – which is about two acres.
A lot of standing room – not much else. This is Bishop Rock, the world’s smallest island.
Going by the above parameters, most of the 179 584 “islands” around Finland and the almost 200 000 around Canada would not match Indonesia as the country with the most islands. In fact, Indonesia consists only of islands – 13 667 of them, 6000 of which are inhabited.
The remotest uninhabited island is Bouvet Island in the South Atlantic. The remotest inhabited island in the world is Tristan da Cunha. It is in the South Atlantic, 2575 km (1600 miles) south of St Helena, which is an island a few hundred kilometres (miles) off the coast of South Africa. Tristan da Cunha has no TV but it has one radio station. The population totals 242 and they only have 7 surnames (last names) between them, so they are all related. Tristan da Cunha does have a capital, called Edinburgh of the South Seas.
The smallest independent island country is the Pacific island of Nauru. It measures 21,28 sq km (8.2 sq mi). (Only the Vatican City and Monaco are smaller countries.)
Of the 6 billion+ people in the world, one out of ten lives on an island (600 million). Which is not so hard to imagine when you consider that more than 240 million people live in Indonesia alone – and some 61 million live in Britain, the only island connected to a continent through the chunnel (tunnel under the sea).
Here I would like to reproduce the extracts of the report of Mr. Ronny Jumeau Seychelles Ambassador for Climate Change and SIDS issues on Expert Group Meeting on Oceans, Seas and Sustainable Development: Implementation and follow-up to Rio+20 at United Nations Headquarters 18-19 April 2013 and here I quote:
“While oceans play a key role in everyone’s lives, no one is more dependent on them than the small, vulnerable and isolated island developing states surrounded by the seas. Oceans are now firmly established on the global agenda after taking center stage at Rio+20 last year. However, the SIDS’ unique dependence on the marine environment means the oceans have commanded center stage in our development since humankind has been on the islands. We are the ocean people, so to speak: we live off and by the oceans and to varying degrees on and for them as well. The oceans define who we are and the coastal and marine environment is an integral part of our island lifestyle. Our islands may be small in land area, but we morph into large ocean states when our exclusive economic zones are factored in. Tuvalu’s EEZ for example, is 27,000 times the size of its land. The Republic of Kiribati, the largest small island developing state in terms of ocean territory, has the 13th largest exclusive economic zone on Earth. SIDS are the custodians of no fewer than 15, or 30 per cent, of the 50 largest EEZs.
Dependence on oceans
In the case of many islands, Seychelles, our no 1 pillar of the economy is marine-based tourism. It provides 26 per cent of GDP, 30 per cent of jobs and 70 per cent of foreign exchange earnings in a country where more than 80 per cent of what we consume is imported, mostly by sea. Fisheries, our second biggest industry, add another eight per cent to our GDP. Such a heavy dependence on oceans is repeated across the SIDS. Oceans are central to our sustainable development, to poverty reduction and achieving the Millennium Development Goals, and to our post-2015 development agenda. And yet, despite our best efforts to help ourselves, the lack of technical, institutional, technological and financial support means we are still to benefit to the fullest from our marine resources. Where we do benefit, it is not necessarily in the most sustainable manner.
Rio+20 :
It is no surprise therefore, that the small island developing states formed the loudest cheering section when the oceans won big at Rio+20.There definitely needs to be an international instrument regulating the conservation and sustainable use of marine biodiversity in areas beyond national jurisdiction. SIDS therefore welcome Rio+20’s call for a United Nations General Assembly decision to develop such an instrument under the Convention on the Law of the Sea by next year.
Marine Pollution
Nowhere are the effects of marine pollution more deeply felt and damaging than in the small island countries entirely surrounded by the ocean. This is especially so in SIDS like mine whose economies are heavily dependent on the state and indeed the attractiveness of our beaches, coastal waters, coral reefs and fisheries.
Sea Level Rise
The most serious long-term threat to SIDS is of course sea level rise which threatens to cover many of us with the oceans, thus turning the blue planet even bluerナthat is if we are not swept away first by coastal erosion which will be made worse by the slow collapse of dying reefs.
Ocean Acidification
Ocean acidification is the single greatest threat to coral reefs which provide SIDS with food and income. They also protect us from the ocean waves and tidal currents which, as extreme weather events such as storm surges and abnormally high tides intensify, threaten to sweep away some islands before they are covered by sea level rise.
Coral Reefs
Rio+20 drew attention to the important economic, social and environmental contribution of coral reefs, especially to islands and other coastal states, and the high vulnerability of coral reefs and mangroves to such impacts as climate change, ocean acidification, overfishing, destructive fishing practices and pollution, among others. Indeed, the growing pressures on coral reefs may cause them to be the first marine ecosystem to collapse.
Marine Protected Areas
SIDS thus see conservation measures such as marine protected areas not just as a way to protect our ocean biodiversity and resources, but also as a tool for sustainable development, because for us marine biodiversity has significant socio-economic and cultural value.
Finally on fisheries, I would like to return to the Rio+20 outcome document The Future We Want, specifically paragraph 168. In it we commit to intensify efforts and take measures to meet the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation’s 2015 target to maintain or restore stocks to levels that can produce maximum sustainable yield in the shortest time feasible. Once again the effect of illegal, unreported and unregulated or IUU fishing is most felt in those countries that depend most heavily on fisheries like the small island developing states. We place strong emphasis on paragraph 174 of The Future We Want. This urges that by next year there be strategies to further help developing states, especially the least developed and SIDS, develop their national capacity to conserve, sustainably manage and realize the benefits of sustainable fisheries, including through improved market access for their fish products. I cannot over-emphasize the importance of this to small island developing states. In the Pacific
SIDS, for example, the tuna fishery alone contributes more than 10 per cent of GDP and in some islands more than 50 per cent of exports. It is estimated that fish contributes at least 50 per cent of total animal protein intake in some SIDS. There certainly is no lack of international instruments in fisheries: they cover straddling and highly migratory fish stocks, responsible fisheries and IUU fishing. What has been lacking is the political will to effectively implement and enforce them. As I showed in the examples I gave earlier, SIDS certainly do not lack political will or innovative thinking: what we lack is capacity – technical, institutional, technological and financial” -en quote.