Category Archives: History of Kashmir



If you want to know:

  • How Islam reached Kashmir and Kerala at the very time of Prophet Muhammad (PBH)
  • How besides other individuals from time to time since then, a century earlier than the arrival of Hazrat Bulbul Shah (RA) Sayid Baqir arrived from Iran along with 1200 Sayids and was buried in Thune Wusan village near Kangan in 655 AH.
  • About the Sufi orders common in Kashmir like Suhrawardyah, Kubraviah, Qadiryah, Naqshbandyah, Chistyah, Shazlyah, Madinyah.
  • About Hamadanis, Baihaqi Sayids and Rishi order of Kashmir.
  • About Hazrat Sultan-ul-Arifin (RA), his miracles and those of his disciples.
  • Biographies of ancestor Saints of Fazili dynasty (Family tree in Urdu Version)
  • Family tree and biography of Shaikh Sayid Abdul Qadir Jeelani (RA)from Hazrat Adam (AS)
  • Spiritual lineages of the orders of Suhrawardyah , Qadiryah, Shazlyah, Madinyah Chistyah, Naqshbandyah orders with biographies of certain local saints.
  • Family tree of Dedamari dynasty.
  • Biographies of Saints of Zunimar Nowshehra Srinagar with certain family trees.
  • Biographies of ancestors of Mirwaiz dynasty.
  • Family tree of Mujaddad Alf Sani Hazrat Shaikh Ahmad Sirhindi (RA) from Hazrat Umar Farooq (RA), his spiritual lineage with certain biographies.
  • List of rulers and some contemporary Saints of Kashmir from 1343 AD to 2014 AD (671 years).

You can order on line your issue of “SUFI SAINTS OF KASHMIR” from or Also you can buy its Urdu version “Tazkira Salikin-i-Kashmir” from Shaikh Usman & Sons Gawkadal Srinagar Kashmir.

Book Review of Sufi Saints of Kashmir and Tazkira Salikin-i-Kashmir


Book review of Sufi Saints of Kashmir (English) and Tazkira Salikin-i-Kashmir (Urdu) Usman Publishers Gawkadal Srinagar (Author: Sayid Ashraf Shah)

English Version:

Book: Sufi Saints of Kashmir

Author: Sayid Ashraf Shah

Publisher: Partridge India (Panguin)

Order from:

ISBN: Soft cover: 978-1-4828-4062-9

eBook: 978-1-4828-4061-2

Year of Publication: 2014

Pages: 780

Urdu Version:

Book: Tazkira Salikin-i-Kashmir

Publisher: Shaikh Usman & Sons Book sellers Gawkadal Srinagar

ISBN: 978-81-8339-247-1

Year of Publication: 2015

Pages 698

In these books the gist from the age-old rare manuscripts makes startling revelations and provides insight into many aspects of our rich cultural heritage that has shaped our thoughts and beliefs over the centuries.
Part I makes a startling assertion about the earliest introduction of Islam in Kashmir in the very time of the Prophet Mohammad (PBH), when two of his companions (Sahabis) visited Kashmir and King Rana Dutta adopted simplicity and fixed one tenth of his revenue (ushur) for the poor. Another handwritten manuscript reveals abour burial date of Sayid Baqir at Thune village in Wusan Kangan in 655 AH (A century earlier than the arrival of Hazrat Bulbul Shah, the former had arrived here along with 1200 Sayids. It carries an introduction by late Mubarak Shah Fitrat – a versatile scholar. The subjects like introduction of Islam in Kashmir and the details of the fourteen  orders (silsilas) that sprang from the Prophet (PBUH) and the orders that became popular in Kashmir like Suhrawardya, Qadirya, Kubravya, Chishtya and Naqshbandya, are covered in the book. A brief life sketch with lineage of Sayid Abdul Qadir Jilani (RA) Mir Syed Ali Hamdani (RA), Baihaqi Sayids, and the details of descendents of Naqshbandi, Qadiri and Rishi orders have been  included.

Part II covers various topics with introduction from the compiler. The book is based on the Urdu translation of the Persian poetry – MAJMOOA MASMOOA – the related stories written by Pirzada Ghulam Rasool Shaiva Zunimari ( migrated later to Gamroo Bandipora), father of the renowned historian of Kashmir Pir Hasan Shah Fazili Khoihami. The Urdu  translation was accomplished by late Kh. Nazir Ahmad Kashtwari (Retd. Under Secretary General Department J&K Govt.). The subjects cover praises of Allah, Prophet Mohammad (PBUH), the four Khalifas (RA), Hazrat Sulta-ul Arifeen Sheikh Hamza Makhdoom Kashmiri (RA), conversion of Ganesh Koul the Qanoongo to Islam at the hands of Sheikh Hamza (RA), and the miracles of the disciples and their descendents. It has also an advice by the author to his sons. The Persian poetry of the manuscript has been ranked at par to the Masnavi of Maulana Rumi (RA).

Part III contains topics with introduction by Dr. A.R.War. It covers brief biographies of the Sufi Saints referred in the second volume. It also contains the spiritual lineages (Shajras) of Suhrawardya, Qadirya, Shazilya, Madinya, Chishtya, Naqshbandya orders – copied from the original handwritten manuscripts of Sheikh Abdul Haq Muhaddith Dehlavi (RA), Sheikh Murad Naqshbandi (RA) – the preceptor of the historian Kh. Azam Dedamari; Sheikh Baba Daud Khaki, etc. The lineage of Sheikh Ahmad Sirhindi from Hazrat Umar(RA) to his descendants who migrated and settled in Kashmir  with a life sketch of Sheikh Ahmad Sirhindi Mujaddid Alf Sani (RA) is alo covered in the book. The family trees of Qadiris, Ahmadi Farouqis, Fazilis etc, is also recorded in the book. The compiling of the material for the book has called for a sustained effort on part of the compiler for decades together, and is an effort to bring to limelight the prevalent Sufi culture in Kashmir, which has shaped the humble, tolerant, hospitable and peace-loving nature of its inhabitants over the past few centuries.





This is in reference to the article by ZGM, “Of Persian Chronograms” in GK Sunday Special dtd. Dec. 09, 2012.

It is said that world came into being through ‘Spoken Word, Sound, Harmony and Vibration.’ The numbers are ancient. “Allah has kept a count of everything- Holy Quran.” The science of numbers goes back to pre-historic days, for the ancients knew it long before the pyramids were built. Tradition says that God taught it to a school of Angels, who in turn taught it to Adam and Noah. The Greek philosopher and mathematician Pythagoras who combined the mathematical disciplines of the Arabic, Druid, Phoenician, Egyptian and Essene sciences. Since then it has continued to evolve. The science of numbers has now assumed diverse applications.

Walter B. Gibson says, “The science of numbers is the practical application of the fundamental laws of mathematics to the material existence of man.”

The Arabic (even Hebrew) alphabets have been assigned particular numbers since earliest times. The number 786 accounts for ‘Bismillah-i-rahman-i-rahim.’ The “tawiz”-talismans used to be written in numbers calculated from Ayat of the Holy Quran. The practice of converting words into numbers was later adopted in Persian language too. This resulted into formation of chronograms-appropriate couplets of vital events like date of death, coronation, laying foundation stones etc., containing words, which sum up to the date of the important event. These chronograms would also be inscribed on tomb-stones and were also recorded in biographies and history books.

Among the scholars Kh. Azam Dedamari-the historian saint used to compose chronograms of  most of the saints mentioned in his book ‘Waqat-i-Kashmir’. Even the names of all the books written by him sum up to their date of writing like Waqat-i-Kashmir-1148 AH, Qawaid-ul-Mashaikh-1136AH, Asbat-ul-Jahar -1158 AH, Tajrabat-ul-Talibin-1126 AH, Ashjar-ul-Khuld- 1140 AH, Wasail-ul Azam etc. He started to write ‘Waqat-i-Kashmir’ in 1148 AH and due to ill-health he completed it in ten long years and composed its start and end like this:

“Shud sal waridati Kashmir-Ba name kitab “Waqat-i-Kashmir”

Agar pursand Tarikhash chisan yaft- Biguft tartib “Abwab-ul-janan” yaft.

Kh Azam Dedamari died in 1179 AH on 10th Muharram. Molvi Hidayatullah Mufti writes that Kh Azam Dedamari was ailing for a long time due to kidney trouble. When a person asked his hakim about his ailment, the hakim said , “Zaf-i-Gurdah” i.e. weakness of kidneys. On this Kh Azam said, “Think that this is my date of death.”

Agar pursand Azam az chi murdah- Bigo sal-i-wafatash “Zaf-i-Gurdah”

Zi kheel-Malik ba rasm- dua- Khudaish biamarzad amad vida.

Among  contemporary scholars was Pirzada Ghulam Hasan Masoodi, who composed chronograms of many persons with a great reluctance but it is a matter of great concern that these scholars of this art have left no successor. The art seems to be dying with their burial. It would be a great contribution if the chronograms inscribed on different tomb-stones are collected in a book form, giving description and location with each of these. This may preserve these vital clues to our history, which are vanishing with the tantalization of our age old graveyards that are getting converted to colonies due to pressure of urbanization and our disregard to preserve our heritage.

Er. Mohammad Ashraf Fazili