Monthly Archives: May 2012

Awrad-i-Fathiah-(author Mir Sayid Ali Hamdani d.786 AH)-English translation.



  اوراد فتحيه AWRADI-FATHIA


Hazrat Amir Kabir Mir Sayid Ali Hamadani (RA) has authored many books and pamphlets in Arabic and Persian, which lay stress on recognition of unity of God, worship of One God, His remembrance and reflection also full of sublime teachings and guidance on mystic experiences.

Awarad-i-Fathia is one of these priceless compositions. Its English translation has been done by Er. Haji Ghulam Hasan Khan of Srinagar. (This is published by J&K Muslim Wakf Board and sold at Rs. 100/- per copy and the income is to be utilized for the construction of Islamic University of Science and Technology. However there have been found many errors in spelling, grammar, typing & printing. It appears that no one has done the proof reading before sending it to press.) This is a concise primer, describing in a grand and sublime style, the attributes of the one and only Deity Allah, His beautiful names, prayers for ourselves and for our brethren, blessings on the Holy Prophet (PBH) all written by Shah-i-Hamadan (RA) in Arabic. It is recited twice daily after Fajr (early dawn) and Isha (before going to bed) prayers at the Khanqahi Mualla Srinagar and after Fajr prayers in most of the mosques of the Kashmir valley. It is committed to memory by tens of thousands of Kashmiris and has been found very effective whenever faced with any problem. It has been found to serve as a real healer of the worried mind, when recited with full understanding of its meaning.

“Verily in the remembrance of Allah do hearts find contentment.” (Q 13:28)

A brief sketch of Shah-i-Hamadan (RA) and that of Islam has been included by the translator for the benefit of English speaking people.

The recitation should not take more than 30 minutes. Have ablutions, sit facing the Qibla and recite it.

We must all seek the reward of fallah-felicity, salvation, the fulfillment of highest spiritual hopes – a supreme achievement indeed. Let us submit our will to Allah’s will, have faith, hope and trust in Him and in His benevolent government of the world. Let us offer our life, our wealth and goods in His cause and carry out His will, not attaching undue importance to the ephemeral things of this life.

Shah-i-Hamadan (RA) has himself given an account of how he came to give the title “AURAD-I-FATHIA” to this compilation in these words (translated from Persian)

“As I collected and compiled the Awrad obtained from 400 divines, the righteous, the scholars and was considering, what name to give to it, the Holy Prophet (PBH) graced me by his presence, when I reached Madina Munawara and said, “Hold this AL-Fathia”

When I took from the holy hands of the Holy Prophet (PBH), what was gifted to me and glanced over it, I saw it was the same ‘Awrad’ that had been compiled by me and these “Awrad are means to success and felicity.”

                                  SHAH-I-HAMADAN (RA)

Hazrat Amir Kabir Ali Sani, Mir Sayid Ali Hamadani (RA) was born in Hamadan, Iran in 714 AH/1314 AD. Hamadan was then a great center of Islamic learning. At a young age he (RA) mastered all the available knowledge in theology, philosophy, metaphysics and sufism and travelled extensively seeking knowledge and practicing spiritualism till he became a scholar of repute, a mystic and a perfect saint. He spent his life in propagating Islam and undertook several extensive tours through difficult terrains and over hazardous routes.

He came to Kashmir three times i.e. in 774 AH/1372 AD, 781 AH/ 1378 AD and 785 AH/ 1383 AD. The first visit lasted 4 to 6 months. During this brief stay he held intellectual and spiritual debates with a great Hindu Yogi Shahpore, the keeper and chief priest of the large temple built in the heart of the city of Srinagar by Raja Parversen in the second century AD. The learned Hindu Sadhu wielded great influence on the Hindu masses and also on the Hindu intelligentsia. The great Yogi accepted Islam amidst a large gathering. This in turn resulted in mass conversions.

The second visit lasted two and a half years. He was accompanied by 700 Sayids, whom he posted to various parts of the valley to give detailed instructions in the tenets of Islam to the newly converted Muslims. He left for Turkistan via Ladakh.

The third visit lasted a year. He left via Pakhli and breathed his last at Koner in 786 AH/1384 AD. His earthly remains were taken and buried at Khatlan, Turkistan besides his father Sayid Shahsab-ud-Din (RA).

The Muslims of Kashmir owe a great debt of gratitude to this luminary of Islam for bringing them en-masse within the fold of Islam. He is lovingly known as the founder of Islam in Kashmir -“Baniay-Musalmani.” He had brought two relics of the Holy Prophet (PBH) with him viz:

1.Tent Pole used in Jihad-e-Badr and 2. Standard of the Prophet (PBH). Being a great scholar he wrote many pamphlets and books in theology, sufism and pubic administration. Some of these are as under:

(1) “Awrad-i-Fathia” is a concise primer, describing the unity and attributes of Allah in a grand style. It is recited twice daily in unison after the Fajr and Isha prayers at Khanqahi Mualla and is otherwise also recited by tens of thousands of Kashmiris all over the valley. Even illiterate Kashmiris have committed it to memory. The word ‘Awrad’ means repeated short prayers.

(2) Chihil Asrar-‘The forty secrets’ pertains to sufism.

(3) Zakhiratul Maluk relates to the Art of Government and was given as advice to Sultan Qutb-ud-Din of Kashmir.

(4) Sirat-ul-Talibeen (5)Risala Dah Qaida (6)Mirat-ul-Talibeen (6) Risala Mashia Meeriah (7) Risala Munajat  Vol 1 & 2 (8) Risala Fatwia (9) Risala Zikriya (10) Risala Farsia (11)Risala Hamadania (12) Risala Wajoodia (13) Risala Eitiqadia (14) Masharibul Azwaaq (15) Munqabatul Jawahir (16) Muwadatul Qurba (17) Sharah Fasoosul Hikam (18) Asrarul Nuqt (19) Sharah Qasida-i-Khumria Fardia (20) Maktoobat dar soorat-u-seerati Insan (21)Risala Istilahat-i-ilm-ul-Qiyafah (22) Kitab-u-sabeen-fe-fazail Amirul Mumineen Ali, (23) Arbayeen, Raudatul Firdous, (24) Firdausul Akhyar, (25) Manazil-us-Salikeen, (26) Khulasat-ul-Manaqib.

‘Khanqahi Mualla’ the great Masjid, built by the son of Shah-i-Hamadan (RA) Hazrat Mir Muhammad Hamadani (774-854 AH) in 798 AH/1395 AD is held in high esteem and is the Islamic center for all the Muslims of the Valley. According to ‘waqfnama’ -Donation Deed drafted by him:

01) The Khanqah has been built on the stone platform erected by Shah-i-Hamadan (RA) under the inspirational guidance of the Holy Prophet (PBH)

02) The keeper and the disciples have small rooms built for them on northern and southern ends of the Khanqah for devotional purposes.

03) A superintendent is appointed to look to the comforts of inmates of the sanctuary, devotees, strangers, pious men and seekers after truth. He is advised to serve the elderly, obey the pious, and be a brother to youngster’s and a father to orphans. He should clothe the naked and feed the hungry.

Hazrat Mir Muhammad Hamadani (RA) presented a valuable jewel for the cost of the land and constructions. The two relics are taken out and exhibited, when offering mass prayers on the occasion of any natural calamity afflicting the Muslims.

Shah-i- Hamadan belonged to Shafi school of fiqh. But as the Muslims of Kashmir belonged to Hanafi school of fiqh, he suggested no changes in this practice in the overall interests of Islam. When Sultan Shahab-ud-Din was engaged in a war with King Ferozshah, Hazrat Shah-i-Hamadan (RA) got peace restored between them.



                           THE PROPHET MUHAMMAD (PBH)

GENEOLOGICAL CHART                                      SPIRITUAL CHART

                            (01)  HAZRAT ALI MURTAZA (KTW)

(02) Hazrat Imam Husain (AS)               (02) Hazrat Kh. Hasan Basri (RA)

(03) Hazrat Imam Zainul Abidin (AS)  (03) Hazrat Kh. Habib Ajmi (RA)

(04) Sayid Husain ul Asgar (RA)            (04) Hazrat Sayid Dawood Tai

(05) Sayid Abdullah Zahid (RA)             (05) Haz. Sh. Maroof Karkhi(RA)

(06) Sayid Jafar-ul-Mujjah (RA)            (06) Haz.Sh. Siri Mantaqi (RA)

(07) Sayid Husain (RA)                             (07) Haz. Sh. Junaid Baghdadi

(08) Sayid Ali (RA)                                     (08 )Haz.Sh. Abu Ali Rudbari(RA)

(09) Sayid Muhammad-Awal (RA)      (09) Haz. Sh. Abu Ali Katib Misri

(10) Sayid Abdullah (RA)                         (10) Haz. Sh. Abu Usman Maghribi

(11) Sayid Jafar (RA)                                 (11) Haz.Sh.Abdul Qasim Gurgani

(12)Sayid Muhammad Jafar sani         (12) Haz. Sh. Abu Bakr Nasaj (RA)

(13) Sayid Mohibullah (RA)                    (13) Haz. Sh. Ahmad Ghazali (RA)

(14) Sauid Sharf-ud-Din (RA)                  (14) Haz Sh. Abdul Qahir Suhrawardy

(15) Sayid Yousuf (RA)                              (15) Haz. Sh. Amoor Yasir (RA)

(16) Sayid Ali (RA)                                       (16) Haz. Sh. Najm-ud-Din Amad Kubra

(17) Sayid Muhammad (RA)                    (17) Haz Sh. Razi-ud-Din Lala (RA)

(18) Sayid Shahab-ud-Din Hamadani   (18) Haz.Sh. Jamal-ud-Din Zakir

                                                                           (19)  Haz Noor-ud-Din Abdur Rahman

                                                                           (20) Haz. Sh. Rukn-ud-Din (RA)

                                                                           (21)  Haz Sh. Sharf-ud-Din Muhammad Muzdaqani (RA)


                             ENGLISH TRANSLATION OF AWRADI FATHIAH

                  In the name of Allah, the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful

I seek forgiveness from the great Allah     –    03 times

Besides whom none is worthy for being worshipped, The Living, The Eternal. I turn to Him and seek repentance from Him.

O’ Allah! You are the Author of Peace and from You springs Peace and towards you is Peace. Keep me my Lord in Peace and grant me entrance in the Abode of Peace. Glory to Thee my Lord and Exalted are Thou, The Lord of Majesty and Bounty.

O’ Allah! Such Praise is due to you as will cover all Thy Bounties and will cover Your further Bounties. I am full of praise for all Your kindness of which I am aware and of which I am not aware and of all your gifts of which I am aware and of which I am not aware and I am grateful in all conditions.

I seek refuge with you Allah from the accursed Satan. Allah there is no God but Him, the Living the Eternal. Neither slumber nor sleep overtakes Him. His is what the heavens and the Earth contain. Who can intercede with Him except by His permission? He knows what is before them and what is behind them. They can grasp only that part of His knowledge which He wills. His throne is as vast as the heavens and the Earth and their preservation does not weary Him. And He is the Exalted, the Immense One.

Allah is the Pure (33 times), Praise be to Allah (33 times), Allah is Great (34 times).

There is no God but Allah. He is One. He has no partner. His is the kingdom. And all praises are due to Him. And He has power over all things (10 times)

There is no God excepting Allah the All Powerful Sovereign.

There is no God but Allah the One the Most Supreme.

There is no God but Allah the powerful the Forgiving.

There is no God but Allah the Kind the Sheeler.

There is no God but Allah the Great the High.

There is no God but Allah the Creator of night and day.

There is no God but Allah who is worshipped everywhere.

There is no God but Allah whose mention is made in every language.

There is no God but Allah who is known for all goodness.

There is no God but Allah whom each day sees in every new glory.

There is no God but Allah I say so with full faith in Allah.

There is no God but Allah I say so seeking Protection from Allah.

There is no God but Allah. This is trust with Allah

There is no God but Allah and no one has power and strength excepting Allah.

There is no God but Allah and we worship none but Him.

There is no God but Allah this is the real truth.

There is no God but Allah in faith and in truth.

There is no God but Allah I confess in humility and servitude.

There is no God but Allah the Kind and the Friend.

There is no God but Allah who existed before everything.

There is no God but Allah He will survive everything.

There is no God but Allah the evidently True Sovereign.

There is no God but Allah certainly the True King.

There is no God but Allah the very Great the most High.

There is no God but Allah the Forbearing the Noble.

There is no God but Allah the Sustainer of the Seven Heavens and the Sustainer of the Great Throne.

There is no God but Allah the Noblest of the Noble.

There is no God but Allah the Most Merciful of the Merciful.

There is no God but Allah who loves the repentant.

There is no God but Allah the Merciful of the needy.

There is no God but Allah the Guide of the Misled.

There is no God but Allah the leader of the Bewildered.

There is no God but Allah the Protector of the Frightened.

There is no God but Allah Who listens to those who pray to Him.

There is no God but Allah the Best of the Helpers.

There is no God but Allah the Best of the Protectors.

There is no God but Allah the Best of the Inheritors.

There is no God but Allah the Best of the Rulers.

There is no God but Allah the Best of the Providers.

There is no God but Allah the Best of the openers (of success).

There is no God but Allah the Best of the Forgiving.

There is no God but Allah the Best of The Merciful.

There is no God but Allah. He is One and His promise is true.

He granted success to (Solo need) Servant (The Prophet Mohammad PBH) and give upper hand to his forces and vanquished his enemies single handed and there is nothing  besides Him.

There is no God but Allah. He has the gifts to offer and the greatness belongs to Him and all the Best praises are due to Him.

There is no God but Allah. The count of His creation and the weight of His Throne and the volume of the ink of His letters cannot be gauged.

There is no God but Allah Who is One, Single, from the time when there was nothing to the time when there will be end to all.    Nothing is like Him, Nothing is comparable to Him. Nothing can be imagined to be like Him. And He has no partner.

There is no God  but Allah He is One. He has no partner. The Kingdom is His. All praises are due to Him. He brings to life and He causes death. And He is ever Alive. He is never to die. All good is in His Hands and He has power over all things. And to Him is everybody’s return. He is the First and the Last and the Manifest and the Hidden and He is aware of everything. Nothing is like unto Him and He listens and sees everything. Allah is enough for us and our best Patron Best Master and Best Helper (3 times). Our Lord! We ask for Your forgiveness and towards You is our return. You grant us and none can bestow O’ Allah! None can prevent what You prevent and no one change what You decree and no rich person’s riches can be of avail before You. Glory to my Lord, the High,  the Great Bestowal. Glory to my Lord, the High The Great Bestowal. O’ The Bestowal. Glory to Thee! I did not worship Thee as it was my duty to worship You. Glory to Thee! We did not seek to know You as it was our duty to know You. Glory to Thee! We have not been remembering You as we ought to have remembered . Glory to Thee! We have not expressed gratitude to You as we ought to do. Glory to Allah! The Ever Eternal Glory to Allah! The single, the independent, Glory to Allah! Who holds the heavens without any support.  Glory  to Allah Who has no wife and no children. Glory to Allah Who neither gave birth nor was born and Who has none equal to Him. Glory to the Sovereign Lord, the Holy One. Glory to The King of This World and that of the Angels. Glory to Him the Lord of Honor and greatness and power, dignity and might and Beauty, Perfectness,. Praises and Light,  the giver of the spiritual and worldly bounties and gifts. The Lord of Majesty and strength. Glory to Him the Living King who never sleeps nor will die.  Entirely  Pure and Holy. Our Lord and Lord of Angels and the Holy  Spirit. Glory to Allah and praises to Allah and there is no God but Allah and Allah is Great and none has power and strength excepting the Great and High Allah. O’ Allah! You are the True King without whom there is none fit to be worshipped excepting You. O’ Allah, O’ ,The Compassionate O’ The Merciful O’ The Sovereign, O’ The Holy One, O’ The Source of peace’ O’ The Bestowal of Security, O’ The Protector, O’ The Mighty, O’ The Subdue, O’ The Exalted, O’ The Creator, O’ The Maker, O’ The Fashioner, O’ The Great Forgiver, O’ The Most Supreme, O’ The Bestowal, O’ The Sustainer, O’ The Opener (of the doors of success), O’ The All-knowing, O’ The Controller, O’ The Enlarger, O’ The Depressor, O’ The Exalter, O’ The Bestowal of Honor, O’ The Abase, O’ The All-Hearing, O’ The All-seeing, O’ The Wise Judge, O’ The Justice, O’ The Incomprehensible, O’ The All Aware, O’ The Forbearing, O’ The Great, O’ The Most Forbearing, O’ The Great, O’ The Most Forgiving, O’ The Most Appreciating. O’ The High, O’ The Incomparably Great, O’ The Guardian, O’ The Preserver, O’ The Reckoner, O’ The Lord of Majesty, O’ The Noble, O’ The Watchful, O’ The Answerer of Prayers, O’ The Bountiful, O The Wise, O The Loving, O’ The Lord of Honor, O’ The Raiser (of the dead), O’ The Witness, O’ The True, O’ The Keeper, O’ The Powerful, O’ The Strong, O’ The Friend, O’ The Praiseworthy, O’ The Recorder, O’ The Author (of life), O’ The Repeater (of life), O’ The Life-giver, O’ The Destroyer, O’ The Living, O’ The Self-Subsisting and All-sustaining, O’ The Discoverer, O’ The Glorious, O’ The One, O’ The Unique, O’ The Independent, O’ The Powerful, O’ The Omnipotent, O’ The Provider, O’ The Postpone, O’ The First, O’ The Last, O’ The Manifest, O’ The Hidden, O’ The Ruler, O’ The Most High, O’ The beneficent, O’ The Acceptor of Repentance, O’ The Bestowal of favors, O’ The Awarder of Punishment, O’ The Effacer of sins, O’ The Compassionate, O’ The Lord of Sovereignty, O’ The Lord of Majesty & Bounty, O’ The Sustainer, O The Equitable, O The Gatherer, O The Self-sufficient, O The Enricher, O The Giver, O The Withholder, O The Inflictor of Punishment, O’ The Benefactor, O’ The Light, O’ The Guide, O’ The Originator, O’ The Survivor, O’ The Inheritor, O’ The Director of the right way. O’ The Patient, O’ The Truthful, O’ The Sheeler, O’ God! Whose self is free from being likened to anything and Whose attributes are free from being likened to anything and O’ You, so many signs give proof of you being the sustainer. You are one not because of any deficiency and you exist not because of any (external) reasons. O’ Thou are for kindness and then are renowned for unending kindness and you are praised without any beginning The First The Everlasting without a beginning and the Last and Kind without any end and Who forgives the sins of the sinners due to Kindness and Benevolence. O Nothing is like unto You and You are All-Hearing and All-Seeing. Allah is enough for us and the Best Keeper and the Best Master and the Best Helper. O The Everlasting without destruction and O The Stationery without any deterioration and O The Planner without any Vizier Resolve every difficulty of ours and our parents. I am unable to count all your praises as you have mentioned them. Whoever comes near you is honored, and your praises are high and your names  are Holy and your dignity is Great and none excepting You is worthy of being worshipped. Allah does what He wishes with His Might and orders what He Ordains with His Honor. Know that All things go to Allah. Everything will die excepting His Self. His is the order , to Him is our return. Allah will be enough to them all. And He is All-seeing and All-knowing. Allah is enough and sufficient for us. Allah listens to whosoever prays to Him. Excepting Allah there is none to be approached , whosoever  holds on to Allah attains Salvation. Glory to Lord who is ever Merciful and Kind. There is no God but Allah The Forbearing, The Kind. Glory to Allah and Blessed Allah The Lord of the seven Heavens and The Lord of The Great Throne and praise are due to Allah The Sustainer of the worlds. There is no God but Allah. He is One. He has no partner. He is One in person and One in attributes. The Independent. The Unique. The Single. The Living. The Eternal. The Permanent till Eternity. He never held a family and never had a son and He never had a partner in His kingdom and He never stood in need of a helper for warding off any distress and He is very Great and High. Allah is Great. Allah is enough to us in our religion Allah is enough to us in our world. Allah is enough to us in anything that may make us sad. Allah is enough to us against anyone who may trouble us. Allah is enough for us against envier. Allah is enough for us against ill-wishers. Allah is enough for us on our death. Allah is enough for us in our grave. Allah is enough for us when we are questioned. Allah is enough for us when we have to cross the bridge. Allah is enough for us when we have to render the account. Allah is enough for us when our deeds shall be weighed. Allah is enough for us at the time of entry into heaven and hell.Allah is enough for us when we come to see Him. Allah is enough to me. He besides whom none else is to be worshipped. I depend upon Him and to Him I shall return. There is no God but Allah; glory to Allah. How great is Allah. There is no God but Allah. Glory to  Allah. How forbearing is Allah. There is no God save Allah. Glory to Allah; how kind is Allah. There is no God but Allah. The One who has no partner. Mohammad is Allah’s messenger in truth. O Allah bless Mohammad when people remembering him remember You and bless Mohammad when people who have forgotten him keep away remembering him. We are well pleased with the Great God for sustaining us and with Islam as our religion and with Mohammad (blessings of Allah on him and salutations) as His prophet and messenger. And with Al-Quran as our Guide and with Kaaba as our Qibla and with Prayers as an obligation and with Believers as one Brotherhood and with Siddiq. Farooq, Uthman and Murtaza as our Imams. On all of them Allah the Great be well pleased. Welcome the new morning and the Blessed day and the two angels who keep record of our deeds, who are witness in justice and equity. We send You our greetings in the beginning of this day, do please record on the first page of our record in the name of Allah The Beneficent The Merciful and you remain witness to the face that we witness that there is none worthy to be worshipped excepting Allah The One. He has no partner and we bear witness that Mohammad is His (special) servant and Messenger whom He sent for guidance and with true religion which would overcome all the creeds even though the idolaters may dislike it. On this witness we live and on this we shall die, on this we shall arise on the resurrection , if the Great Allah so wills. We seek refuge with the assistance of all these perfect letters of Allah from the evil of all His creation. I begin with the name of Allah-all His best names I begin with the name of Allah-The Sustainer of the Earth and the Heaven. I begin with the name of Allah with whose name nothing in the earth and none in the heaven can cause any harm and He is All Listening and All-Knowing. All praises are due to Allah Who brought us into life from death and to Him we shall be raised and brought back. We met the morning and Allah’s entire domain met the dawn. Honor, Dignity, Greatness, Power, Government and clear proof are all for Allah and all spiritual and worldly bounties are of Allah and the night and the day are of Allah and everything that rests in them are of Allah-the One the Most Supreme. We met the dawn on the natural religion Islam and on sincerely believing in His being One and on the religion taught by our Holy prophet Muhammad. May Allah bless and keep him and on the field of Abraham the upright Muslim who was not one of those who treated any as partner of God. Blessings of The Great Allah and His angels and His apostles and His prophets and of the angels who bear His throne and of all his creation on our leader Muhammad and his family and on His companions, on him and on all others peace and mercy from Allah and His bounties, blessings and greetings on you-the Messenger of Allah. Blessings and greetings on you the beloved of Allah. Blessings and greetings on you –the friend of Allah. Blessings and greetings on you the apostle of Allah. Blessings and greetings on you- the chosen one of Allah. Blessings and greetings on you –the best of the creation of Allah. Blessings and greetings  on you-whom Allah has specially selected. Blessings and greetings on you—whom Allah has sent as messenger. Blessings and greetings on you-whom Allah has specially graced. Blessings and greetings on you-whom Allah has honored. Blessings and greetings on you- -whom Allah has made so great.  Blessings and greetings on you-whom Allah granted such greatness. Blessings and greetings on you-who is the greatet of all prophets. Blessings and greetings on you-the leader of the righteous. Blessings and greetings on you-the seal of the prophets. Blessings and greetings on you- the intercessor of those who have sinned (recite 3 times). Blessings and greetings on you- the messenger of the Lord of the worlds. Blessings and mercy of the Great Allah  and (prayers of the same) from His angels,  His apostles, His messengers, the bearers of His throne and His entire creation on our leader Muhammad and his family and his companions. On him and on his family and on his companions greetings of peace and Allah’s mercy and bounties. O’ Allah bless our leader Muhammad in the first creation and bless our leader amongst the last creation and bless our leader Muhammad amongst the selected group till doomsday and bless our leader Muhammad evey minute and every time and bless all your apostles and messengers and all angels, who have attained nearness to you and all your good worshippers and all those who obey your commands and have mercy on us along with them and have mercy on us along with them, O’ the Most Merciful among all, who show mercy.


                                 Prayers  for release of the hold on the necks.

                             In the name of Allah the Beneficent the Merciful

O’ Allah! O the Master of our necks and O’ the Opener of the gates (of mercies) and O’ the Provider of causes, provide to us means for provisions for seeking which we have no strength. O’ Allah keep us busy in carrying out our commands; keep us secure in Your justice; make us unconcerned with Your creation; make us attached to You in love; keep us away from those who are not Yours; keep us happy with what you decree for us, make us patient to bear all Your vicissitudes; Make us content with what You give us; Make us grateful for all your gifts; Allow us to enjoy Your remembrance; Make us happy with Your Book, Praying to You during nights and during the days; unattached  and unlinking the world and loving the hereafter, anxious to meet You, attentive to Your Lordship, ready to die (anytime). Our Lord! Grant us what You have promised (to us) through your messenger and do not disgrace us on the day of judgment and do not go back on your promises. O’ Allah! Help us to be near You. And help us to follow the straight path. O’ Allah! Help us to attain our objectives and accept our repentance. Certainly You are kind and You accept repentance. O’ Allah! We begin the dawn with Your name and we meet the nightfall with Your name and we are kept alive by You and You will cause us to die and towards You is our return. O’ Allah! Grant us the pleasure of looking at Your Holy Face and the desire of meeting You. O’ Allah enable us to judge the truth in its reality and to follow it; enable us to judge the untruth in its true colors and to keep away from it. O’ Allah! Show us the reality of the things as they really are and let our need be as Muslims and attach us to Your noble servants, keep away from us the evil of tyrants and make us partners in the prayers of the faithful and wake us up from the slumber of the forgetful and enable us to benefit from the intercession of the leader of the messengers and grant us entry to paradise in peace and security and raise us with the righteous and spare us from hell fire, O’ the Protector. O ’Allah! Forgive the followers of Mohammad (S.A.W.S), have o’ Allah mercy on the followers of Mohammad (blessing of Allah and peace be on him ), O’ Allah! Assist the follower of Mohammad (blessing of Allah and peace be on him ), O’ Allah! Grant victory to the followers of Mohammad (blessing of Allah and peace be on him), O’ Allah reform the followers of Mohammad (blessing of Allah and peace be on him), O’ Allah! Extend bounty to the followers of Mohammad (blessing of Allah and peace be on him), O’ Allah! Honor the followers of Mohammad (blessing of Allah and peace be on him), O’ Allah!  bestow greatness on the followers of Mohammad (blessing of Allah and peace be on him ), O’ Allah! Forgive the sins of the followers of Mohammad (blessing of Allah and peace be on him ), O’ Allah! Thou loveth those who repent , turn to us accepting our repentance and O’ Thou, Who granteth security to those who bare stricken with fear, grant us  security  and Thou Who guideth the misled  show us the straight path and Thou Who bringeth the lost , guide us in the right direction and Thou Who answers the prayers of the suppliant, answer our prayers and Thou the hope of the hopeless , do not set aside our hopes and O’ Who shows mercy to the sinners, show us mercy and O’ Who forgives the sinners, forgive us our sins and change us from sinners to right doers and let our end be with the good people. O’ Allah forgive our sins. O’ Allah! Shield our defects. O’ Allah! Open our breasts. O’ Allah! protect our hearts. O’ Allah! Enlighten our hearts. O’ Allah! Enlighten our graves. O’ Allah! Ease our affairs. O’ Allah! Enable us to attain our objectives. O’ Allah! Remove all our faults. O’ Allah! Save us from what we fear. O’ Thou, Who showers kindnesses in secret. O’ Allah! Forgive us and also our parents and our elders and our teachers and our companions and our friends and our relatives and our tribe and to whom we have an obligation and to entire followers of Mohammad- on him be mercies and peace (from God) and save us our Lord from the evil of what you have ordained and save us from the punishment in the grave O’ our Lord, and from the punishment of hell-fire and the torment of the doomsday and raise us among the righteous and the good people. O’ Allah! In honor of this “Awrad-i-fathiyah” (which we have recited) open for us the gates of Your bounties and your kindness and enable us to be obedient to You and to worship You and protect us from trials and calamities and enhance for us Your bounties, our life spans and virtues. O’ Allah keep mus safe. O’ the Blesse from all vicissitudes and diseases and mercies and blessings of Allah on the best of creation Mohammad and his followers and companions-one and all Amin!  O’ the Lord of the worlds.














Second Edition of ‘MY CONCERN’ published in USA.


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Er.Mohammad Ashraf Fazili CEng (I), FIE, MIRC, MASCE

About The Book

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This book comprises of a collection of burning topics that caught the attention of various forums particularly The Institution of Engineers India (J&K Centre Srinagar) during the last couple of years. These subjects reflect a useful data that shall go a long-way in planning future course of action both at individual and collective level. This effort may serve as a safeguard in preservation of the interest in the areas of concern lest it is lost in the course of changing times and diverse attention.The subjects touched are : The future of our earth, sustainable developments, our water resources, globalization, solar energy, housing, Inland water transport, World peace and environment.

About The Author

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About the Author Born on 19th December 1942 in Srinagar Jammu & Kashmir State, educated in Srinagar- Learnt Quran in local Madrasa at five year’s age; got primary and secondary education in Govt. Middle School Nowhatta (1948-56), M.P. High School Baghi Dilawar Khan (1956-57), Sri Pratap College (1957-59); Degree Engineering in Annamalai University South India (1959-63); served in J&K Government Public Works Depatment in the capacity of Assistant Engineer, Executive Engineer, Superintending Engineer and Chief Engineer from 1964 to 2003; worked in CIE Ltd. as Construction Manager from 2004 to 2008; Presently Consultant Engineer, Chartered Engineer India (Registered), Fellow Institution of Engineers India, Life Member Indian Road Congress, Member American Society of Civil Engineers, Member Working Committee Institute of Arabic and Islamic Studies Srinagar; Member Citizens Welfare Council; Travelled in India, Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates; Authored over a dozen books on environment, history and religion; Presented over 50 papers in various Local, State, National and International seminars; Freelance Writer.

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MY STORY (Second Edition) published in USA


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Er.Mohammad Ashraf Fazili CEng (I), FIE, MIRC, MASCE

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Every person is a unique being,hence special with his unique nature and life experience worth putting on record.Hence this book starting with a prayer, address to self, in superiority of knowledge, in Allah’s creation, reason of our being here, incidents in my life during 68 years from 1942, my genealogical lineage, reference to available manuscripts, my education, my service carrier and my post retirement life, besides some photographs. This shall surely be of interest to all including our progeny.

About The Author

The “About The Author” text is displayed on the back cover of your book. It reads as follows:

Born on 19th December 1942 in Srinagar Jammu & Kashmir State, educated in Srinagar- Learnt Quran in local Madrasa at five year’s age; got primary and secondary education in Govt. Middle School Nowhatta (1948-56), M.P. High School Baghi Dilawar Khan (1956-57), Sri Pratap College (1957-59); Degree Engineering in Annamalai University South India (1959-63); served in J&K Government Public Works Depatment in the capacity of Assistant Engineer, Executive Engineer, Superintending Engineer and Chief Engineer from 1964 to 2003; worked in CIE Ltd. as Construction Manager from 2004 to 2008; Presently Consultant Engineer, Chartered Engineer India (Registered), Fellow Institution of Engineers India, Life Member Indian Road Congress, Member American Society of Civil Engineers, Member Working Committee Institute of Arabic and Islamic Studies Srinagar; Member Citizens Welfare Council; Travelled in India, Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates; Authored over a dozen books on environment, history and religion; Presented over 50 papers in various Local, State, National and International seminars; Freelance Writer.

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Infrastructure Arabia summit- Abu Dhabi UAE- April 2012



Building a sustainable framework for the Middle East

I had an opportunity to attend the Infrastructure ARABIA Summit conference alongside WORLD ecoConstruct, 22-25 April 2012 Abu Dhabi National Exhibition Centre (ADNEC). Extracts are presented here for awareness of the readers,

Among other seminars, there was presented a White Paper examining the opportunities and challenges facing the infrastructure industry in the Middle East in the wake of economic and political turmoil. (In certain issues parallels can be drawn as highlighted in bold letters ,with   conditions in J&K State, which need our urgent attention.)

Infrastructure projects worth billions of dollars have featured high on the agenda of most countries in the region, in spite of the turmoil that swept across the Middle East in the past year.

The total value of infrastructure projects stands  at US$ 408.8 billion. While many industry experts now point to Saudi Arabia and Qatar as the two GCC states offering the most opportunity in infrastructure and construction at wide, the UAE still holds the lion’s share of infrastructure projects.  Accounting  for US$ 187.2 billion. Abu Dhabi alone has earmarked US$ 15 billion on expansion of infrastructure projects between 2009 and 2012. (In J&K State funds are earmarked in the Annual plan for various development works, which include infrastructure development  in public sector.)

The White Paper has been drafted based upon a round table discussion held by Matthew Plumbridge, Consultant, Environment and Sustainability Planning, Department of Municipal Affairs (DMA), Abu Dhabi; Ivan Woods, Head of Project Finance Advisory, BDO Corporate Finance (Middle East) LLP and Dr. Ghassan Ziadat, Director of Infrastructure (UAE) and Regional Head of Bridges, Middle East and India, Atkins. The moderator was Meelanie Mingas, Head of Editorial, The Big Project. The discussion was organized by Informa Exhibitions.


The Middle East region experienced a wave of political turmoil, when the world was starting to recover and regroup in the wake of the global economic crises, which contributed to the challenges being faced across all industries. The construction industry on the whole continues to deal with delays, projects on hold or shelved, while the tender process becomes more rigorous and stringent.

Social Infrastructure

In light of the Arab spring and the seismic shift in global finance opportunities, governments in the region are placing more emphasis on social infrastructure in order to create sustainable communities, job opportunities and comfortable living.

According to Ghassan Ziadat, “the UAE government has responded to make sure social infrastructure was adequate for the population, and the people are satisfied with the level of education and healthcare they receive.

“Social infrastructure has been less well served (in recent years) than the big power and water projects.” ( J&K State has witnessed a haphazard growth of social infrastructure development in violation of Master Plans, particularly in Srinagar.)

Sustainable workforces

Yet, a result of political turmoil is the talent gap. While the UAE remains relatively unscathed by the Arab Spring, many skilled expatriate workers have left the region, specially Libya, Bahrain and Egypt, which once again draws a spotlight on the region’s reliance on international, skilled workers employed in order to fulfill project’s needs. (Most of the workforce in Srinagar city consists of migrant laborers from Bihar and local labor seems to be diminishing.)

City versus rural living

The ratio of people living in cities to those living in rural areas is approximately 4 to 1. According to  Dr. Ziadat. “It is a misconception that in the Middle East, people are still living basic lifestyles in rural areas. Across the region, actually about 80% of the population lives in cities and this itself creates challenges. ( Reverse is the case in J&K State, where 80% population lives in rural areas and the trend to shift to the urban areas is on the increase.)

“If you plan infrastructure to create new jobs, you may be solving one problem and creating another in Abu Dhabi, and across the region, there is significant migration from the rural areas to the cities which puts pressure on the built environment of that city. By leaving the rural areas, we deprive them of the working population and its sustainability in the long term.” (This holds true in case of J&K State too. Most of the new generation is reluctant to attend to ancestral agricultural jobs and are on hunt for alternative office works.)

There needs to be investment, not just in the urban population centers but in the rural areas too in order to stem the migration and relieve the pressure on the cities. To achieve that, you need a whole gamut of different measures. (In J&K State too we need to create facilities in rural areas like those of the urban areas in order to check migration from rural areas , putting pressure on the existing urban facilities designed for the existing urban population only.)

“People don’t mind living in rural areas such as the Western Region  of Abu Dhabi, as long as they have the necessary high quality social infrastructure provided- healthcare, housing, jobs and education (This shall equally be true for J&K State as rural areas provide attractive natural surroundings.)

“In addition they must be well-connected with the rest of the country. If they decide to go to the city it should only take them an hour or two in comfortable transport.”( So is the case of J&K State, which warrants construction of good quality roads of standard design.)

One of the biggest changes witnessed at the turn of the decade, in light of the economic downturn has been a shift to a more managed economy. Dr. Ziadat explained, “Two or three years ago, the market was driving things, particularly in the private sector with the property market boom. There was a lot of construction going on to service the private sector and the private investor which created a lot of jobs and economic growth. With the global financial situation, this has been slowed down significantly and so the governments are dealing with the fact that the private sector has slowed down. would help solve the age old problem of unemployment of the younger generation.) (Unfortunately the private sector has not grown much in J&K State except construction of a few individual houses, and some shopping malls here and there. The development of private sector could generate lot of jobs, which could solve the longstanding problem of unemployment in new geheration.)

“Many countries in the region… are trying to steer the economy into growth, create jobs by investing in infrastructure, which is a good thing for the industry but the type of construction has now changed quite dramatically in the last few years with more emphasis on wider infrastructure than the high-end property type construction.”  (The high rise buildings are already restricted in J&K State in order not to obstruct mountain view and also because of the area being a seismic zone. Hence the lateral development has been recommended.)

Woods agreed, and stated ”The shift can only be a good one for the foreseeable future-the property bubble was clearly unsustainable, and in the short term governments are surely right to steer their economies to more sustainable sectors.” (In case of J&K State the power and tourism sector would be the sustainable sectors.)

Today’s Middle East landscape

Dr. Ziadat and Plumbridge use examples outside of the Middle East from which the region can learn when dealing with economically and politically challenging times. Now is the time, they believe, for governments in the region to spend and intervene to keep the ‘bicycle’ moving, from both an economic and psychological point of view.

Public Spending Injections

Dr. Ziadat identifies the Far East-citing countries such as Singapore, Malaysia and Hong Kong-which take advantage of slow cycle in construction. He said, “when the economy is booming and the private sector is healthy and strong, (the governments) slow down on public expenditure to prevent the economy from overheating.

“But when the economy slows down, they want to prevent the economy from shrinking, so they invest by spending into infrastructure. They got much better value for their money in upgrading the infrastructure when the market prices are more competitive, they invest in the economy and the public spending on infrastructure maintains job creation and keeps things going.”

Plumberige said,”This has been the case historically. The Hoover Dam helped America out of the Great Depression and today we see Obama’s government look at infrastructure projects as critical to economic recovery. Drawing a similarity:  ”{History is witness to the event, when people of Kashmir were struck by famines and in order to provide livelihood, The Moghul King Akbar engaged common people of the valley in building a huge wall of stone masonry around the Hari Parbhat/ Kohi Maran hillock.)

In Australia, during the down times, Contractors will tender on low margins, but they make their money in between payments, that they receive and then they pay to the sub-contractors. So they invest in the short-term money market and the little amount they eke out keeps them afloat.” (Such practice already exists in J&K State.)

Woods also says that, “Governments often see infrastructure spending as a good way to help an economy out of a downswing.

“While this should still involve the private sector as much as possible, countries across the globe are increasing public investment on needed infrastructure-even with the austerity measures many are enforcing-to boost employment and give a long-term stimulus to their economies.” (So is the case with J&K State. Construction of roads, railways, drainage etc, is made possible only with public investment with little private sector involvement.)

Regulation Codes

With sustainability now on every business and government agendas, cynics question the viability of implementation. Plumbridge points to the energy code currently being phased into the industry in Abu Dhabi as the “best in class”. He said, ”We will hit the UN Green Building targets for ‘extremely hot climates’. If the UN gives you achieve that. You’re doing pretty well as a minimum standard.”

Dr Ziadat believes achieving the water balance in the sustainable design phase is an important factor.  “If you look at the overall picture in terms of carbon emissions  on the sustainability agenda,  the majority are water, electricity and energy related. Cutting down the demand for water, electricity, heating, cooling and making optimal use of water recycling is vital to achieving the carbon emission targets set in Copenhagen.”

“Each country and geography has been set targets and they have signed up to achieving those targets by 2020. In terms of annual carbon emissions per capita, the USA is one of the largest at about 30 carbon tonnes  per year per person, which is similar to the UAE’s carbon emissions.”

“Everyone in the world realizes something needs to be done about it. The UAE is committed to driving down carbon emissions and introducing sustainability initiatives such as Estidama and model city in MASDAR. The Estidama  program  goes a long way towards setting a benchmark to encouraging people to design sustainable buildings and communities.”Plumberidge reiterated that Estidama is a rating system under which a robust set of regulations is needed.

Understanding the codes and the way they are applied to your region is vital, says Dr. Ziadat, in being able to create designs at tender which can stand up against the sustainable agenda and save money. “You could, with good design, save about 20 percent of construction materials in a project.

{ During the question hour in one of the seminars, I asked, ”What methods were adopted to ensure implementation of codes of practice and if the testing laboratories are licensed, which is necessary for ensuring the safety of the structures?”  The reply was that tests were being conducted; besides implementation of the proper design was ensured by timely inspection by the authorities. In addition the testing facilities are being centralized under one roof, for which a central laboratory has been proposed to be constructed. In fact I found that the construction of a ten story block in our neighborhood in Abu Dhabi was stalled by the Municipal authorities due to use of lesser than designed  reinforcement in the foundation. However in J&K State It is a matter of great concern that in spite of the fact that the area falls under seismic zone, there is hardly such a check being conducted by the authorities. Besides the laboratories conducting the tests are hardly licensed from the recognized authorities, putting the  lives of the people in great danger without proper verification of the safety of the structures, which are mostly made of reinforced Cement Concrete as against the timber structures of the earlier days.}

“Integrating the design and construction through the Design and Build collaborative approach can also be a catalyst to innovate and produce more buildable and cost-effective infrastructure.”

“I think the market here is still fairly conservative and people have been traditionally suspicious of the construction industry. I think it’s reached the stage now where it needs a re-look. The quality of construction on some projects in the UAE now is absolutely world class and this is a good reflection on the capability and professionalism of the developers, consultants and contractors in the region.” (We have yet to see a world class construction to come up in J&K State)

Plumbridge points to the Burj Khalifa as a ‘feat in engineering’ and believes the UAE must play to its strengths-the speed and rate of construction while moving towards more modern methods of construction such as modular, pre-fabrication, pre-casting and using prototypes more often in order to increase worker health and safety and reduce waste.

Urban Planning

Today, the focus in Abu Dhabi is to create a cohesive city where people can comfortably live, work and raise families; addressing the fact that living in an extremely hot climate plays an important role in achieving that.

One of the aims of the landscape strategy currently being compiled by the DMA is to create continuous pedestrian and cycling networks throughout the UAE capital but when the sun’s influence affects your daily movements this is especially challenging. Plumbridge believes we can learn from ancient cities in Morocco and Egypt in which passive breezes are maintained and the overall objective is to keep the sun off everything. “Urban planning (in this region) is driven by sun and breeze,” he said. { In J&K  State in our city of Srinagar, not to talk of cycling network, even pedestrian foot paths are occupied by vendors to the  great inconvenience of the pedestrians. Being a tourist destination, we need to provide  proper pedestrian and cycling networks in the city and ensure and even enforce their use without any hindrance.}

This form of natural cooling is essential according to Dr. Ziadat. “For cities to be more sustainable it makes sense for the buildings to be closer together and in a dense environment so people can walk from one tower to another. This dense environment is going to be the future across the globe for city planning.” {The old city of Srinagar contained houses huddled together, with narrow lanes, which proved favorable in severe winters as heat loss was minimized and very few homes needed hamams as against the new trend of construction  where hamams or central heating is needed in isolated houses in the newly developing residential areas.}

Woods is also encouraged that “new developments such as Masdar have integrated traditional techniques from the region (such as use of shading and wind) with modern technology” and believes that such sustainable planning models will only become more important going forward in the region.

And cultural and leisure infrastructure is also important to recognize. “Once the infrastructure is there, where basic needs are met, people don’t want  to be bored spending all their free time at home; they want to be outside and they want to live in cities that are exciting and interesting.

“The Government is investing in culture, such as museums, water parks and attractions like Ferrari World and the value of these destinations should not be underestimated.” (There is need for providing in J&K State  recreational parks for children  and for public stroll in all the localities where such facilities are lacking.)

It is expected that this cultural investment will help curb the transient nature of the UAE and contribute to retaining talent. Plumbridge said, ”The Municipal System is looking at social responsibility, promulgating areas such as volunteerism, getting to know your neighbors etc.” (In the old city of Srinagar people were living closer  sharing joys and sorrows together as compared to the new colonies, where  individual cares little for his neighbor. Now mosque is the only place, where people can meet.)

Financing mega projects

In relative terms, the UAE and other GCC states such as Saudi Arabia and Qatar are wealthy nations rich in resources and are not as dependent on foreign investment as other countries. The increase in the number of mega projects in the region, however, does shine in the spotlight on capital finance and the introduction of public private partnerships (PPPs).

The number and scale of large infrastructure projects currently being developed in the UAE, such as the Step Tunnel, MASDAR city, the new energy and power desalination stations, the nuclear programme and the number of transportation programmes from roads and railways, port and airport expansions to bus stations and depots, create financial constraints.

Dr. Ziadat believes that the region must pull together in order to survive and PPPs need to be considered, especially in less wealthy nations. “The majority of our countries in the Middle East may well need to on foreign direct investment and private sector investment to achieve their development programmes. The wealthy countries in the region are playing a part; they are investing and helping their neighbors, which is essential for the region’s stability, but involving the private sector and bringing in foreign direct investment is a must, it has to happen.” (Presently there seems to be no policy for the foreign investment in J&K State. It could definitely change the shape of the country/state, if foreign investment was allowed for the development of the infrastructure on the mutually agreed terms.)

Woods points to countries like Kuwait and Egypt which have successfully utilized PPPs but warns that many countries come across issues when getting these projects started, largely due to complications in developing new financial models and fully understanding the requirements of a PPP project.

He believes, ”PPPs can be of great benefit, particularly to maximize the private sector’s involvement and added value. The challenges of implementing a PPP properly, however, and ensuring value for money for the government and the wider public, must be addressed upfront. In some cases projects have fallen over because initial plans weren’t well thought through-look at the Mafraq-Gweihat highway.”

Woods says that financing remains a challenge given global economic concerns, although for good projects funding should still be available and the region is generally seen as a relatively safe investment opportunity.

Transparency, says Plumbridge, is the key to attracting foreign investment and the genesis of the PPP model is to provide  critical infrastructure.

The adoption of the PPP model is growing in Abu Dhabi,; Plumbridge highlights both a sewerage infrastructure project and a crushed  rock, recycled concrete aggregate facility which are being constructed in collaboration with the private sector.

Aside from financial constraints, one of the biggest challenges in delivering mega projects in the region is finding the human resources and skilled labor. “The boom time happened here (in the UAE) now it’s in Qatar and Saudi Arabia,” said Plumberidge. “If  you want to do a mega project now. The resource pool has moved so you might have to bring in people who don’t necessarily know or appreciate how the UAE operates.”

Underserved areas in infrastructure

Woods believes that the region still has some way to go before the needed level of infrastructure is available. “There are significant shortfalls in a number of areas,” he said. “Affordable housing has not been made available in sufficient quantity and this has been recognized in Saudi Arabia, Bahrain and Oman.”

Given increasing demand for improved social services such as health and education, as well as needed improvements to transport links and the continuing need for clean water and power, he emphasizes, ”it’s a long list.”

And while Woods believes power projects have been developed more successfully than housing in the region, Dr Ziadat points to the energy sector as the still most important infrastructure factor in the Middle East, particularly as they relate to water projects because of the lack of natural resources. He explained, “Jordan only has water supplied to its population once a week for a few hours. It is the poorest country in terms of water in the world and it has a growing population and no financial resources to address the situation.” (We should be thankful to nature, who has provided us with water in abundance, but its exploitation for power production and as portable drinking water is much behind the target and has a great scope of investment.)

“Energy, water and environment are all related in this region: you need to desalinate the water and you can’t create energy to desalinate without affecting the environment. The UAE is very fortunate with its hydrocarbon reserves and is trying to diversify its energy supplies through the nuclear programmes and through renewable solar and wind power. If you have adequate and renewable energy supplies, the water issues can be solved.”

Plumbridge refers to Abu Dhabi’s Critical National Infrastructure Authority which is driving programmes such as aquifer storage, which will see the amount of desalinated water in storage increase from three to four days ‘worth to two months’ worth, in light of an unforeseen circumstance or natural disaster. “If you take out the water and you take out the power, you don’t last so long,” he said. (J&K State is rich in both water and power resources, but for their proper exploitation.)


The Middle East is facing an opportunity now, in light of global financial crisis and the Arab Spring. The pressure on the construction industry at large and specifically infrastructure professionals is different to the overwhelming urgency and speed expected in the mid-2000s. Dr. Ziadat believes now is the time to take stock, evaluate and identify how the industry can work more efficiently and provide an even better quality service to the population and environment into the future.

The private sector is so focused on short term return on investment and so now, those pressures have lessened,” he said. “The government-driven properly planned long-term programmes can look at implementation of sustainable policies taking advantage of recycling, efficiency, modular construction, how to improve in the long run and how to attract long term sustainable investments such as pension funds into infrastructure this is where you can move from being a developing country to the next step.

“Being more sustainable by design is an urgent issue which needs to be addressed but it is a journey you have to go through which cannot be simply introduced overnight.”


One key area of opportunity and growth for the Middle East is the rail industry, according to Dr. Ziadat. He believes the region is poorer off for the lack of an inter-nation railway infrastructure and that the Middle East was ‘left behind’ in the railway transportation age. He asks,  can you imagine Europe without a proper rail network? (So has been the case with J&K State too. Although railway link was introduced in India in British period, it had not reached Kashmir uptil now due to rugged mountainous terrain. However work on the project linking Kashmir is in progress now.)

“I think for sustainability in transportation, (rail) is the future, it is currently more sustainable than air and road travel. Railway transportation is much more sustainable in terms of carbon emissions but you need to have a long-term investment programme to achieve it and build a whole industry around it. You need to support the operation and the maintenance of it, the safety, security and the technological aspects. It would really help to connect and integrate the economies here and in the region in ways other than roads, sea and air transport.

“In Europe, inter-trade is around 60 percent of the gross national product; in the Middle East it is far lower partly because of limitations on efficient rail transportation links. Rail has been left behind over the years because it is quicker to build roads and import cars, but as governments look for medium to long term gains, it is a good investment, it creates healthier environments and makes the economies more sustainable.”
Woods fully supports Dr. Ziadat and says,” The region would be very well served with a rail network, both economically and environmentally. This should continue to be a priority for regional governments as the benefits should substantially outweigh the costs over the long term.”

Human resources

One of the biggest challenges reiterated throughout the round table discussion was the need to retain skilled workers and reduce the amount of talent leaving the region. A direct impact of the economic downturn, many expatriate workers lost jobs and returned to their home countries or moved to other emerging markets throughout Africa and Asia. (Major chunk of workers from India including Kashmiris were affected adversely).

Dr. Ziadat believes that the implementation of GCC-wide working permits would help you curb that trend and retain skills by providing better mobility and flexibility for workers. “At times you’ll have a boon in Saudi and a quiet time to Bahrain or Qatar. Moving to a regional work system would allow the skilled workers and labor to move freely between the GCC countries and thus maintain stability and create flexibility. The cycles in different countries don’t always happen at the same time.”(We have no dearth of skilled labors both within theJ&K State and from outside. Only the opportunity needs to be created.)

“The suggestion of implementing a GCC-wide working permit could be expected because otherwise, these projects will have constraints.”

Creating a legacy

In committing to a more sustainable workforce, Plumbridge believes we take a step closer to engendering a sense of legacy in the region. He calls for professionals in infrastructure to increase their levels of pride and job satisfaction, echoing the achievements from their home nations. “Your building is your legacy and the legacy of your company and of Shaikh Zayed and his vision, and thus we have to consider the quality of our work as the core in what we do and to have pride in every nut and bolt we put in place. Be prepared to put quality and safety first because that is what you do in your home town and it shouldn’t be any different here.”

Compiled by:

Er. Mohammad Ashraf Fazili FIE. (Retd. Chief Engineer)

Shajra Nasb of Er. Mohammad Ashraf Shah Sayid Fazili (prepared in UAE in May 2012)





MURRAH                                                                              ADI

KILAB                                                                             RAZAH

QUSSY                                                                             QURAT

ABD MANNAF                                                              RIYAH

HASHIM                                                             ABDUL UZZA

ABDUL MUTTALIB                                                NUFFAIL

ABDULLAH                                                                  KHITAB





5.                                                                   SHAIKH IBRAHIM(TABEEN)

6.                                                            SHAIKH ISHAQ  (TABATABEEN)

7                                                                                 SHAIKH ABUL FATAH

8                                                 SHAIKH ABDULLAH (WAIZ-I-ASGAR)

9                                                                                           SHAIKH MASOOD

10                                                                                 SHAIKH   SULAIMAN

11                                                                                  SHAIKH   MAHMOOD

12                                                                            SHAIKH NASIR-UD-DIN


14                                                                                         SHAIKH YOUSUF

15                                                                                          SHAIKH AHMAD

16                                                                                          SHAIKH SHOAIB

17                                                                                  SHAIKH ABDULLAH

18                                                                                             SHAIKH ISHAQ

19                                                                                         SHAIKH YOUSUF

20                                                                                 SHAIKH SULAIMAN

21                                                                            SHAIKH NOOR-UD-DIN

22                                                                             SHAIKH RAFI-UD-DIN

23                                                                             SHAIKH HABIBULLAH

24                                                                                 SHAIKH ABDUL HAI

25                                                                     SHAIKH ZAIN-UL-ABIDIN

26                                   SHAIKH ABDUL AHAD SIRHINDI FAROOQI




            SHAIKH ISMAIL BUKHARI AHMADI (migrated to Kashmir)

31                                                           SHAIKH INAYATULLAH AHMADI

32                                 SHAIKH MOHAMMAD SIDDIQULLAH AHMADI

33                                                                                   HAFIZ AHMADULLAH

34                                                                                        HAFIZ WALIULLAH

35                                    HAFIZ MOHAMMAD SHAH QADIRI CHESHTI

36                                    HAFIZ MOHAMMAD HABIBULLAH AHMADI


38                               Er. MOHAMMAD ASHRAF SHAH SAYID FAZILI


40                                                                         AFRAH FAZILI   AMBAR    WAMIQ




01)      SHAIKH MOHAMMAD MOOMIN SHAH SAYID ( a   pious man  and direct disciple of Baba Dawood Khaki ‘RA’’-d. 994H). A Shajra Mubaraka of Silsila Qadirya, Chishtya, Shazlia, Madiniya and Naqshbandya as hand-written manuscript given by Shaikh Abdul Haq Muhaddis Dehlavi (d. 1052 H). to Allama Haidar bin Feroz Kashmiri (d. 1057 H) and Shajra Mubaraka –a hand-written manuscript of Shaikh Muhammad Murad Naqshbandi in Qadirya, Kubravia, Chishtya and Naqshbandya silsilas on 14 pages written by his disciple Kh. Mohammad Azam Dedamari has been found in our family possessions, besides Awrad of Hazrat Baha-ud-Din Zakaria Multani (RA) (d.666 H)- a hand-written manuscript of over 300 pages pertaining to Silsila Suhrawardya and a manuscript stating burial of Sayid Baqir of Iran in 655 H at village Thune in Wussan Kangan area of Kashmir, who was accompanied by 1200 Sayids who spread in various areas of Kashmir.; another manuscript of Shahi Firman of Aurangzeb Mughal king appointing Mubariz Khan as Governor of Rahimabad, and Shaikh Gayas-ud-Din as Qazi of Daulatabad, Shaikh Baqir as Kotwal and sanctioning a grant of 300 bighas of land at Allahdadpore to Shaikh Abdul Gaffar. There was also a  manuscript travalogue of Central Asia written  by a contemporary of Moulana Abdur Rahman Jami of over 200 pages but with no beginning and end covers. This has been got preserved in Allama Iqbal Library Kashmir University Srinagar.

His son:

02)       SHAIKH MOHAMMAD ALAM SHAH SAYID ( disciple of his father and was married to the daughter of Shaikh Hasan Kamraji the grandson of Shaikh Gazi-ud-Din of Khoihama Bandipora who accepted Islam on the august hands of Hazrat Sultan-ul Arifeen Shaikh Hamza Makhdoom mKashmiri (RA) and became the disciple of Baba Dawood Khaki (RA)

His two sons:

03)  SHAIKH MOHAMMAD SALIH  SHAH SAYID FAZILI (disciple of Shaikh Mohammad Fazil Zoonimari and also of his son Shaikh Mohammad Maroof. The Governor of Kashmir would come to pay his respects to him. One day the Governor brought a tray full of gold coins as a present, which Shaikh declined to accept and on his insistence Shaikh Salih lifted one coin with his thumb and forefinger and squeezed it and blood oozed out  filling the tray.  Thus it was proved that it is the blood of poor masses and hence not acceptable to the Shaikh. Shaikh Salih passed away at the age of 101 years. His brother SHAIKH MOHAMMAD MUQIM migrated to Khoihama  on the direction of his preceptor SHAIKH MOHAMMAD FAZIL ZOONIMARI and he was the founder of the Gamroo village at Bandipora. After 12 years of tiring worship, he married there and settled thereat. He lies buried near the entrance of the mosque which he got built at Gamroo. Glimpses of the spiritual experiences of the two brothers are mentioned in MAJMOOA MASMOOA auth0red by Pir Ghulam Rasool Shaiva, which was got published by me along with Urdu translation as second volume of my book “HAMARE ASLAF AUR MASHAIKH-I-KASHMIR”.. Shaikh Muqim’s son Shaikh Abdur Rahan was a great saint who settled in Wunagam Bandipora. (d.1242 H). He had a son who followed his father’s footsteps and his name was Hafiz Muhammad Mukhtar. Their progeny  is called ‘Ramanis’.

His son:

04) SHAIKH MOHAMMAD SABIR SHAH SAYID FAZILI-(a great pious man lived in Zoonimar and is buried there) His guide was Shaikh Yaqoob Chattabali uncle of Shaikh Fazil Zoonimari. He died at the age of 89 years.

His son:

05)SHAIKH MOHAMMAD TAJ-UD-DIN SHAH SAYID- His guide was Shaikh Abdur Rahman Wunagami The revenue records of the land settlement obtained by me, from the J&K Government revenue repository mentions the title of the dynasty as ‘PIRZADA SHAH SAYID’. TAJ SAHIB has been a great pious person who attracted disciples from Lahore, Amritsar and is reported to have relations at Lahore through his marriage there. A letter written by Mirwaiz Molvi Yousuf Shah describes how he was benefitted by getting a double amount of relief given to Kashmiri migrants, when the concerned commissioner came to know that Mirwaiz’s  mother  was the grand- daughter of Taj Sahib as the Commissioners  ancestors were disciples and even relatives of Taj Sahib.Taj Sahib passed away at the age of 95 years in 1396 H/ 1885 C and was buried at his ancetaral graveyard at Zoonimar..

His son:

06)  PIR ABDUL GANI SHAH SAYID SUHRAWARDY. He was disciple of his father and engaged himself in tiring worship. The private two storied mosque built in his compound at Zoonimar is still existing with two small rooms meant for individual worship. It is reported that once Gani Sahib went out of his room but directed his disciple not to step on the round straw mat on which Gani Sahib was squatting. However the disciple out of curiosity stepped on the mat and was found missing. On thorough search, he was found in a nearby biting grass called “Soy” with hands and legs tied down. On enquiry, the disciple said that the moment he stepped on the mat, he knew nothing about himself. Gani Sahib used to write books. He was a calligrapher. His one manuscript :TARIKH-I-AZAMI” of Kh. Azam Dedamari witten on Kashmiri paper was found recently from his descendants at Zoonimar. Besides a stone with following carvind in Arabic script is preserved by them “WAQIF WA BANI EIN BUQQA SHAH-I-SHAHARYAR AST”. Gani Sahib died in 1335 H/ 1915C and had four sons and three daughters. One of his daughters was married to Moli Rasool Shah Mirwaiz of Kashmir, who became father of Mirwaiz Molvi Yousuf Shah. The other daughter was married to Baba Nasr-ud-Din Diwani of Konan Bandipora, who was father of Pir Hakim Hisam-ud-Din Diwani. The third daughter was married to Pir Mohammad yousuf of Kaich Budgam. One of his sons Pir MUSTAFA SHAH SAYID  migrated to Wurapash Ganderbal on the directions of his preceptor “Rasool Shah Sahib”, whose shrine exists there. The other two sons namely Pir Mohammad Shah and Pir Rasool Shah lived in Zoonimar along with their families.

His son:

07) The fourth son PIR AHMAD SHAH SAYID migrated to Kalal Doori Nayid Kadal and had established a school for Arabic and Persian languages at Midroo Tral by the side of the shrine of Sayid Yousuf Jallali. Almost all the villagers  of this village have a sir-name of Shah  and the grave stones of five Sayids buried in the shrine are of unique carving. Pir Ahmad Shah later settled at Kalal- Doori and rendered the service of Imamat (leading the prayers) in a local mosque for about 30 years and taught recitation of Quran to boys and girls of the area. Pir Ahmad Shah was married in the family of Dedamari dynasty living at Kalal Doori and that was the reason of his settlement in the neighborhood of his in-laws. Mirwaiz Molvi Yousuf was having great regard for his maternal uncle and would often visit  to pay his respects to him. Pir Ahmad Shah died in 1943 and was buried in the graveyard of Kh. Azam Dedamari near the shrine of Baha-ud-Din Ganj Bakhsh Srinagar.Pir Ahmad was a great scholar and one of his students was a blind person to whom he had got memorized whole of Masnavi Moulana Rum. Pir Ahmad Shah used to obtain books from all the possible publishers of the time and his collection of about 300 books mostly in Arabic and Persian languages has been got deposited in Allama Iqbal Library for digitization and preservation.

His sons

08)PIR AHMAD SHAH had two sons, one was PIR GHULAM MOHAMMAD who lived extremely a simple life and earned his living through embroidery work toiling day and night and brought up a family of three sons and two daughters. One of the daughters was married to Pirzada Mohammad Amin Shah son of Pir Habibullah Shah son of Pir Mustafa Shah of Wurapash Ganderbal. The other daughter was married to Salam-ud-Din Bandey of Khalifa pora Khanyar. His other three sons namely Pirzada Ghulam Rasool , Pirzada Mohammad Yousuf and Pirzada Ghulam Ahmad have migrated to Soura. Pir Ghulam Mohammad Shah was also buried at the graveyard of Kh. Azsam Dedamari by the side of his father.

09) PIR MOHAMMAD YASIN SHAH SAYID was the secong son of Pir Ahmad Shah Sayid, who got initial lessons from his father and learnt some books from Molvi Husan Shah Wafai of Khanyar. Due to domestic compulsions, against his wishes  he could not continue his studies inspite of an offer from Deoband and Lahore as arranged by his cousin Molvi Yousuf Shah. He opened a shop of watch repars at Drugjan Dalgate and I remember, whenever I would accompany as a child with my father to the shop, mostly army officers used to stop  their vehicles near our shop to get their watches repaired. Later the shop had to be abandoned due to some serious sickness of father and he took to other trade of dealing with Pashmina. I remember father returning from a trip to Lahore and Rawalpindi before 1947, when I was of about 4-5 years of age.After some time father again opened a watch repair shop at Habbakadal, which was ultimately closed. He later took to accounting work of the units of Govt. Arts Emporium, which too was abandoned after our migration to Bachpora. Father also performed the duties of Imamat for about 30 years at Kalal Doori and also got revived an old abandoned mosque called JAHAZ MOSQUE at Kalal Doori. He also taught Quran to many boys and girls of the area. It was all the persuasion and interest of my father and mother that I learnt Quran at a young age of five years and they  took great care in my schooling in a nearby Govt, School and then SP College. Credit goes to my parents for taking the risk of sending me as far as Tamil Nadu for Degree Engineering training, in spite of the fact that I was the only survived child out of five births and it was after grant of their prayers that Allah had been kind enough to them, for which they were ever thankful to Him and paying extra care to me. My father was earlier married to Sarwa Bano daughter of Pir Sad-ud-Din Diwani of Konan Bandipora, but unfortunately, she had not survived just after the birth of her first child namely Mohammad Shafi, who too passed away after some time. His second marriage took place in the family of Ahmadi Farooqi family of Gankhan known as Gadyaris due to their leading the prayers for generations together at Masjid Zain-ul-Abidin (Gadyar) Zainakadal. Pirzada Mohammad Yasin Shah passed away in 1407H/1987C and was buried in the newly acquired graveyard at Umerhair behind Bilal Bachpora.

His son:

10)Er. MOHAMMAD ASHRAF SHAH SAYID FAZILI. Born in Srinagar in December 1942, got educated from Govt Midlle School Nowhatta Srinagar, M.P. High School Srinagar, S. P. College Srinagar -Jammu & Kashmir University till 1959, degree engineering from Annamalai University South India; served J&K State as Assistant Engineer, Executive Engineer, Superintending Engineer, Chief Engineer, retired in 2000, but got reappointed till 2003. He worked in CIE Ltd. till 2008. Presently he is Consultant, Chartered Engineer, Fellow Institution of Engineers India, Member Indian Roads Congress, Member American Society of Civil Engineers , authored over a dozen books on environment, history and religion; presented over 50 papers in seminars; freelance writer; toured India and abroad.

His siblings:

11)Thanks to Allah who bestowed upon us  four children, whom we have been able to bring up with His grace and who live up to the expectations and who bear the standard of their ancestors, whose background one must know to arrest any diversions in which new generations get distracted to follow, resulting into their ultimate repentance.

12)   (a)Daughter  Dr. Tawhida Fazili M.D. Lecturer GMC Srinasgar.

(b) Daughter Abida Fazili Education Department J&K Govt.

©  Son Gowhar Ashraf Fazili M.A.Phd. Delhi.

(d) Son Ar. Mohammad Irfan Fazili- UAE.

(Prepared by Er. Mohammad Ashraf Fazili)

12th May 2012 Sunday, Abu Dhabi UAE)

World’s Tallest Building



Burj Khalifa

برج خليفة


Burj Khalifa on 23 December 2009

Former names  Burj Dubai

Record height

Tallest in the world since 2010[I]

Preceded by      Taipei 101

General information

Status   Complete

Type      Mixed-use

Location               Dubai, United Arab Emirates

Coordinates       25°11′49.7″N 55°16′26.8″ECoordinates: 25°11′49.7″N 55°16′26.8″E

Construction started      January 2004

Completed         2010

Opening               4 January 2010[1]

Cost       USD $ 1.5 billion[2]


Architectural      828 m (2,717 ft)[3]

Tip          829.84 m (2,723 ft)[3]

Roof      828 m (2,717 ft)[3]

Top floor              621.3 m (2,038 ft)[3]

Observatory       452.1 m (1,483 ft)[3]


Technical details

Floor count         163 habitable floors[3][4]

plus 46 maintenance levels in the spire[5] and 2 parking levels in the basement

Floor area            309,473 m2 (3,331,100 sq ft)[3]

Design and construction

Owner  Azhar Bin Sulaiman

Main contractor                SOM, Besix and Arabtec, Samsung C&T

Supervision Consultant Engineer & Architect of Record Hyder Consulting

Construction Project Manager Turner Construction


Planning Bauer AG and Middle East Foundations[6]

Lift contractor Otis[6]

VT consultant Lerch Bates[6]

Architect             Adrian Smith at SOM

Developer           Emaar Properties[3]

Structural engineer        Bill Baker at SOM[7]


Burj Khalifa (Arabic: برج خليفة‎ “Khalifa Tower”),[8] known as Burj Dubai prior to its inauguration, is a skyscraper in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, and is the tallest manmade structure in the world, at 829.84 m (2,723 ft).[3][8] Construction began on 21 September 2004, with the exterior of the structure completed on 1 October 2009. The building officially opened on 4 January 2010,[1][9] and is part of the new 2 km2 (490-acre) flagship development called Downtown Dubai at the ‘First Interchange’ along Sheikh Zayed Road, near Dubai’s main business district. The tower’s architecture and engineering were performed by Skidmore, Owings and Merrill of Chicago, with Adrian Smith as chief architect, and Bill Baker as chief structural engineer.[10][11] The primary contractor was Samsung C&T of South Korea.[12]

The total cost for the project was about US$1.5 billion; and for the entire “Downtown Dubai” development, US$20 billion.[13] In March 2009, Mohamed Ali Alabbar, chairman of the project’s developer, Emaar Properties, said office space pricing at Burj Khalifa reached US$4,000 per sq ft (over US$43,000 per m²) and the Armani Residences, also in Burj Khalifa, sold for US$3,500 per sq ft (over US$37,500 per m²).[14]

The project’s completion coincided with the global financial crisis of 2007–2010, and with vast overbuilding in the country, led to high vacancies and foreclosures.[15] With Dubai mired in debt from its huge ambitions, the government was forced to seek multibillion dollar bailouts from its oil-rich neighbor Abu Dhabi. Subsequently, in a surprise move at its opening ceremony, the tower was renamed Burj Khalifa, said to honour the UAE President Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan for his crucial support.[16]

Due to the slumping demand in Dubai’s property market, the rents in the Burj Khalifa plummeted 40% some ten months after its opening. Out of 900 apartments in the tower, around 825 were still empty at that time.[17][18] Conception

Burj Khalifa was designed to be the centerpiece of a large-scale, mixed-use development that would include 30,000 homes, nine hotels (including The Address Downtown Dubai), 3 hectares (7.4 acres) of parkland, at least 19 residential towers, the Dubai Mall, and the 12-hectare (30-acre) man-made Burj Khalifa Lake.

The building has returned the location of Earth’s tallest freestanding structure to the Middle East where the Great Pyramid of Giza claimed this achievement for almost four millennia before being surpassed in 1311 by Lincoln Cathedral in England.

The decision to build Burj Khalifa is reportedly based on the government’s decision to diversify from an oil based economy to one that is service and tourism based. According to officials, it is necessary for projects like Burj Khalifa to be built in the city to garner more international recognition, and hence investment. “He (Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum) wanted to put Dubai on the map with something really sensational,” said Jacqui Josephson, a tourism and VIP delegations executive at Nakheel Properties.[19] History of height increases

Burj Khalifa compared to some other well-known tall structures

There are unconfirmed reports of several planned height increases since its inception. Originally proposed as a virtual clone of the 560 m (1,837 ft) Grollo Tower proposal for Melbourne, Australia’s Docklands waterfront development, the tower was redesigned by Skidmore, Owings and Merrill (SOM).[34] Marshall Strabala, an SOM architect who worked on the project until 2006, in late 2008 said that Burj Khalifa was designed to be 808 m (2,651 ft) tall.[35]

The design architect, Adrian Smith, felt that the uppermost section of the building did not culminate elegantly with the rest of the structure, so he sought and received approval to increase it to the current height.[citation needed] It has been explicitly stated that this change did not include any added floors, which is fitting with Smith’s attempts to make the crown more slender.[36]


Emaar Properties announced on 9 June 2008 that construction of Burj Khalifa was delayed by upgraded finishes and would be completed only in September 2009.[37] An Emaar spokesperson said “The luxury finishes that were decided on in 2004, when the tower was initially conceptualized, is now being replaced by upgraded finishes. The design of the apartments has also been enhanced to make them more aesthetically attractive and functionally superior.”[38] A revised completion date of 2 December 2009 was then announced.[39] However, Burj Khalifa was opened on 4 January 2010.[1][9]

Architecture and design

Cross-section comparisons

A Hymenocallis flower showing six spokes, as pattern for the three-lobed design

The tower is designed by Skidmore, Owings and Merrill, which also designed the Willis Tower (formerly the Sears Tower) in Chicago and the new One World Trade Center in New York City among numerous other famous high-rises. The building resembles the bundled tube form of the Willis Tower, but is not a bundle tube structure. Its design is reminiscent of Frank Lloyd Wright’s vision for The Illinois, a mile high skyscraper designed for Chicago. According to Marshall Strabala, an SOM architect who worked on the building’s design team, Burj Khalifa was designed based on the 73 floor Tower Palace Three, an all residential building in Seoul. In its early planning, Burj Khalifa was intended to be entirely residential.[35]

Subsequent to the original design by Skidmore, Owings and Merrill, Emaar Properties chose Hyder Consulting to be the supervising engineer with NORR Group Consultants International Limited chosen to supervise the architecture of the project.[40] Hyder was selected for its expertise in structural and MEP (mechanical, electrical and plumbing) engineering.[41] Hyder Consulting’s role was to supervise construction, certify SOM’s design, and be the engineer and architect of record to the UAE authorities.[40] NORR’s role was the supervision of all architectural components including on site supervision during construction and design of a 6-storey addition to the Office Annex Building for architectural documentation. NORR was also responsible for the architectural integration drawings for the Armani Hotel included in the Tower. Emaar Properties also engaged GHD,[42] an international multidisciplinary consulting firm, to act as an independent verification and testing authority for concrete and steelwork.

The design of Burj Khalifa is derived from patterning systems embodied in Islamic architecture.[22] According to the structural engineer, Bill Baker of SOM, the building’s design incorporates cultural and historical elements particular to the region. The Y-shaped plan is ideal for residential and hotel usage, with the wings allowing maximum outward views and inward natural light.[22] The design architect, Adrian Smith, has said the triple lobed footprint of the building was inspired by the flower Hymenocallis.[43] The tower is composed of three elements arranged around a central core. As the tower rises from the flat desert base, setbacks occur at each element in a spiralling pattern, decreasing the cross section of the tower as it reaches toward the sky. There are 27 terraces in Burj Khalifa. At the top, the central core emerges and is sculpted to form a finishing spire. A Y-shaped floor plan maximizes views of the Persian Gulf. Viewed from above or from the base, the form also evokes the onion domes of Islamic architecture. At its tallest point, the tower sways a total of 1.5 m (4.9 ft).[44]

To support the unprecedented height of the building, the engineers developed a new structural system called the buttressed core, which consists of a hexagonal core reinforced by three buttresses that form the ‘Y’ shape. This structural system enables the building to support itself laterally and keeps it from twisting.[22]

The spire of Burj Khalifa is composed of more than 4,000 tonnes (4,400 short tons; 3,900 long tons) of structural steel. The central pinnacle pipe weighing 350 tonnes (390 short tons; 340 long tons) was constructed from inside the building and jacked to its full height of over 200 m (660 ft) using a strand jack system. The spire also houses communications equipment.[45]

More than 1,000 pieces of art will adorn the interiors of Burj Khalifa, while the residential lobby of Burj Khalifa will display the work of Jaume Plensa, featuring 196 bronze and brass alloy cymbals representing the 196 countries of the world.[46] The visitors in this lobby will be able to hear a distinct timbre as the cymbals, plated with 18-carat gold, are struck by dripping water, intended to mimic the sound of water falling on leaves.[47]

The exterior cladding of Burj Khalifa consists of 142,000 m2 (1,528,000 sq ft) of reflective glazing, and aluminium and textured stainless steel spandrel panels with vertical tubular fins. The cladding system is designed to withstand Dubai’s extreme summer temperatures. Additionally, the exterior temperature at the top of the building is thought to be 6 °C (11 °F) cooler than at its base.[48] Over 26,000 glass panels were used in the exterior cladding of Burj Khalifa. Over 300 cladding specialists from China were brought in for the cladding work on the tower.[45]

A 304 room Armani Hotel, the first of four by Armani, occupies 15 of the lower 39 floors.[3][49] The hotel was supposed to open on 18 March 2010[50][51] but after several delays the hotel finally opened the public on 27 April 2010.[52] The corporate suites and offices were also supposed to open from March onwards[53] but the hotel and observation deck remain the only parts of the building which are open.

The sky lobbies on the 43rd and 76th floors will house swimming pools.[54] Floors through to 108 will have 900 private residential apartments (which, according to the developer, sold out within eight hours of being on the market). An outdoor zero-entry swimming pool will be located on the 76th floor of the tower. Corporate offices and suites fill most of the remaining floors, except for a 122nd, 123rd and 124th floor where the At.mosphere restaurant, sky lobby and an indoor and outdoor observation deck is located respectively. Burj Khalifa will receive its first residents from February 2010. They will be among the first of 25,000 people who will live there.[54][55]

Burj Khalifa is expected to hold up to 35,000 people at any one time.[22][56] A total of 57 elevators and 8 escalators are installed.[45] The elevators have a capacity of 12 to 14 people per cabin, the fastest rising and descending at up to 18 m/s (59 ft/s).[22][57] Engineers had considered installing the world’s first triple-deck elevators, but the final design calls for double-deck elevators.[25] The double-deck elevators are equipped with entertainment features such as LCD displays to serve visitors during their travel to the observation deck.[58] The building has 2,909 stairs from the ground floor to the 160th floor.[59]

The graphic design identity work for Burj Khalifa is the responsibility of Brash Brands, who are based in Dubai. Design of the global launch events, communications, and visitors centers[60] for Burj Khalifa have also been created by Brash Brands as well as the roadshow exhibition for the Armani Residences, which are part of the Armani Hotel within Burj Khalifa, which toured Milan, London, Jeddah, Moscow and Delhi.[61]

Water supply system

The Burj Khalifa’s water system supplies an average of 946,000 l (250,000 USgal) of water per day through 100 km (62 mi) of pipes.[22][62] An additional 213 km (132 mi) of piping serves the fire emergency system, and 34 km (21 mi) supplies chilled water for the air conditioning system.[62]

Air conditioning

The air conditioning system draws air from the upper floors where the air is cooler and cleaner than on the ground.[63] At peak cooling times, the tower’s cooling is equivalent to that provided by 13,000 t (29,000,000 lb) of melting ice in one day.[62] The condensate collection system, which uses the hot and humid outside air, combined with the cooling requirements of the building, results in a significant amount of condensation of moisture from the air. The condensed water is collected and drained into a holding tank located in the basement car park; this water is then pumped into the site irrigation system for use on the Burj Khalifa park.[22]

Window cleaning

To wash the 24,348 windows, totaling 120,000 m2 (1,290,000 sq ft) of glass,[64] a horizontal track has been installed on the exterior of Burj Khalifa at levels 40, 73 and 109. Each track holds a 1,500 kg (3,300 lb) bucket machine which moves horizontally and then vertically using heavy cables. Above level 109, up to tier 27 traditional cradles from davits are used. The top of the spire, however, is reserved for specialist window cleaners, who brave the heights and high winds dangling by ropes to clean and inspect the top of the pinnacle.[65] Under normal conditions, when all building maintenance units will be operational, it will take 36 workers three to four months to clean the entire exterior façade.[45][66]

Unmanned machines will clean the top 27 additional tiers and the glass spire. The cleaning system was developed in Melbourne, Australia at a cost of A$8 million.[66] The contract for building the state-of-the-art machines was won by Australian company Cox Gomyl.[64]

The Dubai Fountain

Main article: The Dubai Fountain

Outside, and at a cost of Dh 800 million (US$217 million), a record-setting fountain system was designed by WET Design, the California-based company responsible for the fountains at the Bellagio Hotel Lake in Las Vegas. Illuminated by 6,600 lights and 50 coloured projectors, it is 275 m (902 ft) long and shoots water 150 m (490 ft) into the air, accompanied by a range of classical to contemporary Arabic and world music.[67] On 26 October 2008, Emaar announced that based on results of a naming contest the fountain would be called the Dubai Fountain.[68]

Observation deck

An outdoor observation deck, named At the Top, opened on 5 January 2010 on the 124th floor.[69] It is the third highest observation deck in the world and the second highest outdoor observation deck in the world, at 452 m (1,483 ft).[70] The observation deck also features the Behold Telescope, an augmented reality device developed by gsmprjct° of Montréal, which allows visitors to view the surrounding landscape in real-time, and to view previously saved images such as those taken at different times of day or under different weather conditions.[71][72] To manage the daily rush of sightseers, visitors are able to purchase tickets in advance for a specific date and time and at a 75% discount over tickets purchased on the spot.[73]

On 8 February 2010, the observation deck was closed to the public after power supply problems caused an elevator to become stuck between floors, trapping a group of tourists for 45 minutes.[74][75] Despite rumours of the observation deck reopening for St. Valentine’s Day (14 February),[76] it remained closed until 4 April 2010.[77][78][79]

Burj Khalifa park

Burj Khalifa is surrounded by an 11 ha (27-acre) park designed by landscape architects SWA Group.[80] The design of the park is also inspired by the core design concepts of Burj Khalifa which is based on the symmetries of the desert flower, Hymenocallis.[81] The park has six water features, gardens, palm lined walkways, and flowering trees.[82] At the centre of the park and the base of Burj Khalifa is the water room, which is a series of pools and water jet fountains. In addition the railing, benches and signs incorporate images of Burj Khalifa and the Hymenocallis flower.

The plants and the shrubbery will be watered by the buildings’s condensation collection system that uses water from the cooling system. The system will provide 68,000,000 L (15,000,000 imp gal) annually.[82] WET designers, who also developed the Dubai Fountain, developed the park’s six water features.[83] Construction

Aerial close up of Burj Khalifa under construction in March 2008

The tower was constructed by South Korean company, Samsung Engineering & Construction, which also did work on the Petronas Twin Towers and Taipei 101.[85] Samsung Engineering & Construction built the tower in a joint venture with Besix from Belgium and Arabtec from UAE. Turner is the Project Manager on the main construction contract.[86]

Under UAE law, the Contractor and the Engineer of Record, Hyder Consulting, is jointly and severally liable for the performance of Burj Khalifa.

The primary structure is reinforced concrete. Over 45,000 m3 (58,900 cu yd) of concrete, weighing more than 110,000 tonnes (120,000 short tons; 110,000 long tons) were used to construct the concrete and steel foundation, which features 192 piles; each pile is 1.5 metre diameter x 43 m long, buried more than 50 m (164 ft) deep.[25] Burj Khalifa’s construction used 330,000 m3 (431,600 cu yd) of concrete and 55,000 tonnes (61,000 short tons; 54,000 long tons) of steel rebar, and construction took 22 million man-hours.[10] A high density, low permeability concrete was used in the foundations of Burj Khalifa. A cathodic protection system under the mat is used to minimize any detrimental effects from corrosive chemicals in local ground water.[45] In May 2008 concrete was pumped to a then world record delivery height of 606 m (1,988 ft),[24] the 156th floor. Three tower cranes were used during construction of the uppermost levels, each capable of lifting a 25-tonne load.[87] The remaining structure above is constructed of lighter steel.

Burj Khalifa is highly compartmentalised. Pressurized, air-conditioned refuge floors are located approximately every 35 floors where people can shelter on their long walk down to safety in case of an emergency or fire.[45][88]

Special mixes of concrete are made to withstand the extreme pressures of the massive building weight; as is typical with reinforced concrete construction, each batch of concrete used was tested to ensure it could withstand certain pressures. CTLGroup, working for SOM, conducted the creep and shrinkage testing critical for the structural analysis of the building.[89]

The consistency of the concrete used in the project was essential. It was difficult to create a concrete that could withstand both the thousands of tonnes bearing down on it and Persian Gulf temperatures that can reach 50 °C (122 °F). To combat this problem, the concrete was not poured during the day. Instead, during the summer months ice was added to the mixture and it was poured at night when the air is cooler and the humidity is higher. A cooler concrete mixture cures evenly throughout and is therefore less likely to set too quickly and crack. Any significant cracks could have put the entire project in jeopardy.

The unique design and engineering challenges of building Burj Khalifa have been featured in a number of television documentaries, including the Big, Bigger, Biggest series on the National Geographic and Five channels, and the Mega Builders series on the Discovery Channel. Official launch ceremony

The opening ceremony of Burj Khalifa

The opening of Burj Khalifa was held on 4 January 2010.[99] The ceremony featured a display of 10,000 fireworks, light beams projected on and around the tower, and further sound, light and water effects.[100] The celebratory lighting was designed by UK lighting designers Speirs and Major.[101] Using the 868 powerful stroboscope lights that are integrated into the façade and spire of the tower, different lighting sequences were choreographed, together with more than 50 different combinations of the other effects.

The event began with a short film which depicted the story of Dubai and the evolution of Burj Khalifa. The displays of sound, light, water and fireworks followed.[100] The portion of the show consisting of the various pyrotechnic, lighting, water and sound effects was divided into three. The first part was primarily a light and sound show, which took as its theme the link between desert flowers and the new tower, and was co-ordinated with the Dubai Fountain and pyrotechnics. The second portion, called ‘Heart Beat’, represented the construction of the tower in a dynamic light show with the help of 300 projectors which generated a shadow-like image of the tower. In the third act, sky tracers and space cannons enveloped the tower in a halo of white light, which expanded as the lighting rig on the spire activated.[100]

The ceremony was relayed live on a giant screen on Burj Park Island, as well as several television screens placed across the Downtown Dubai development. Hundreds of media outlets from around the world reported liveAwards

In June 2010, Burj Khalifa was the recipient of the 2010 Best Tall Building Middle East & Africa award by the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat.[103] On 28 September 2010 Burj Khalifa won the award for best project of year at the Middle East Architect Awards 2010.[104]

The Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat bestowed a new award for Burj Khalifa at its annual “Best Tall Buildings Awards Ceremony” on 25 October 2010 when Burj Khalifa honored as first recipient of CTBUH’s new Tall Building “Global Icon” Award. According to CTBUH the new “Global Icon” award recognizes those very special supertall skyscrapers that make a profound impact, not only on the local or regional context, but on the genre of tall buildings globally. Which is innovative in planning, design and execution, the building must have influenced and reshaped the field of tall building architecture, engineering, and urban planning. It is intended that the award will only be conferred on an occasional basis, when merited by an exceptional project perhaps every ten or fifteen years.[105]

CTBUH Awards Chair Gordon Gill, of Adrian Smith + Gordon Gill Architecture said:

“There was discussion amongst members of the jury that the existing ‘Best Tall Building of the Year’ award was not really appropriate for the Burj khalifa. We are talking about a building here that has changed the landscape of what is possible in architecture a building that became internationally recognized as an icon long before it was even completed. ‘Building of the Century’ was thought a more appropriate title for it.”[105]

BASE jumping

The building has been used by several experienced BASE jumpers for both authorized and unauthorized BASE jumping:

In May 2008, Hervé Le Gallou and a British man (name unknown) dressed as engineers, illegally infiltrated Burj Khalifa (around 650 m at the time), and jumped off a balcony situated a couple of floors below the 160th floor.[106][107]

On 8 January 2010, with permission of the authorities, Nasr Al Niyadi and Omar Al Hegelan, from the Emirates Aviation Society, broke the world record for the highest BASE jump from a building after they leapt from a crane suspended platform attached to the 160th floor at 672 m (2,205 ft). The two men descended the vertical drop at a speed of up to 220 km/h (140 mph), with enough time to open their parachutes 10 seconds into the 90 second jump.[108][109]


On 28 March 2011, Alain Robert scaled the outside of Burj Khalifa. The climb to the top of the spire took six hours. To comply with UAE safety laws Robert, who usually climbs in free solo style, took the unusual step of using a rope and harness for the climb.[110]


Within 18 months of the building’s official opening, a man described as “an Asian in his mid-30s” who worked at one of the companies in the tower committed suicide on 10 May 2011 by jumping from the 147th floor. He fell 39 floors, landing on a deck on the 108th floor. Dubai police confirmed the act as a suicide, reporting that “We also came to know that the man decided to commit suicide as his company refused to grant leave.”[111]

popular culture

During the summer of 2009, while Burj Khalifa was still under construction, contestants from The Amazing Race 15 visited the 120th floor to collect a clue.

A substantial part of the plot of Mission: Impossible – Ghost Protocol, the fourth of the Mission: Impossible film series, takes place in and around the Burj Khalifa and involves Tom Cruise’s character Ethan Hunt having to scale a large section of the exterior using high-tech adhesive gloves. Filming included stuntwork on the building’s exterior with some scenes shot in the IMAX format.




New Year’s Eve fireworks display

On 31 December 2010, fireworks accompanied by lasers and lights were displayed from the Burj Khalifa, making it the highest New Year fireworks display in the world.[32]

The theme of the 2011 New Year fireworks was the “New Year Gala”, a tribute to the spirit of Dubai, which is home to over 200 nationalities. The display also marked the first anniversary of Burj Khalifa.[112] from the scene.[100] In addition to the media presence, 6,000 guests were expected.[102]

Compiled and Presented by

Er. Mohammad Ashraf Fazili (Retd. Chief Engineer) presently based at UAE.