The Rivers of Kashmir- (Ref: Tarikh-i-Hassan)
The snow from Braribal the water of Verinag spring and the springs of Shahabad together form a river, which after irrigating fields join Brenghi and Arahpat rivers near Khanabal to form the river called as “Behat”.
Bringi: Brang, the ice of Hokarsar and Nowbug Nay mountains is the main source of this river. With the waters of Kokernag, it joins the Sandran and Arahpat rivers near Anantnag and is referred as river “Behat”.
Arahpati: Its sources lie in Tahar Nag, Bramahsar and Rudrasar springs. The water from Margan mountains joining the spring water of Achhabal, Bawan and Anantnag, joins Bringi and Sandran rivers, together forms the river “Behat” at Khanabal.
Lidder or Lambodari: The icy water of southern mountains of Lar and Amarnath, through four streams meet at one place. One of these flowing through Gopa Brari side, the second from Warahdas mountains, the third from Tarsar spring of Pargana Phak and the fourth from perennial spring of Shashram Nag collect together to form a river after irrigating the fields rejoin at last to form “Behat”.
Vishu: Kousarnag is the real source of this river. Besides the waters from Himalayan mountains, Kousarsar and & Thahharsar springs adds to its charm and glory. At Ahrabal near Wutur, the water of river after passing through a narrow place falls below from a height of 300-400 yards like a sheet of water. Due to movement of air and great height of the place, water sprinkles like dust which makes environment wet anf forms a spectacle of divine power. The Mughal kings used to visit this spot for travel and recreation.
Then waters from various streams, springs and Bushi river, which comes down from Dewsar mountains, joins it. The Vuthwatra stream, with its source of Vuthwatra spring near Bamnoh, becoming augmented by the Sandra nar streams enhances the Vishu at Hablish, and with the residual waters of Rambiara, at which after irrigating the Parganas of Devsar, Adwin and Anantnag, joins the river Behat at Sangam adjacent to Naina village. Twelve big channels branch out of it and four of these are well known. One Sonamun, which after leaving from village Jamnagri and irrigating the lower Arwin joins the source again. The second is Baad Canal, which leaving Lakharpura meanders through Devsar area of Kulgam district joins the Vishau river at Qaimoh. The fourth Nandi Canal, which leaving Behat at Hablish and passing through district Nandi Pargana Anantnag upto Bijbhera, joins river Behat. It is said that Nandi was an immoral woman who had dug this canal.
Rambiarah: Its source lies in the waters of Nandansar, Chandansar and the ice cold waters of Ropri, Darahal and Pir Panjal mountain ranges. It originates from Hirapurah and several canals flow out of it. One og these is Sanguler which meanders through Chogam village and after irrigating fields of Adwin and Zainpora Pargana joins again with the source at Wachi. The second is the Nathoo which leaving the lower side of Chogam and passing through Trenz village joins Sangulu stream. The third is Lad stream, which after draining the fields of Suprahsuman, the Pargana of Shukruh and some village of Chhrat, passes through Tokna and Tahab village and at Goripora receive water of marshy lands of Gampora and at Lelhar village, the water of Ratnipora Nala, which is originally the Rambiara water, along with joins river “Behat” and adds to its glory. The fourth one after irrigating fields and passing through “Kawa Vanee” joins Behat. The river Rambiara itself passes through Pargana Sohvarah and irrigating croplands and passing through village Naina, joins Vishu river.
Romshi: Its source is supposed to be the water of Ramasar spring and ice cold waters of Shuphori and Kacha Galawan Wah mountains and it divides into three parts at “Dani-e-zab”, one is Mamshi Stream, which flowing via Pakharpora, upto Char town. The second Khamshi stream which irrigates Khanpur Karewa, flowing through Chhrat and irrigating agricultural fields, joins river, “Vitesta” at Kakapora.
Lolab Braen Stream: It has its source in the mountain waters of Chakas, Chaar and Pakharpora, via Qaisar Mulah, irrigating crop lands, joins Behat at village Vyethnar.
Dudganga: The ice water of Dudasar spring, Sang-i-Safeed, and Kachagalla mountains and the Vicineal springs, after irrigating villages between Arigam and Nagam joins river Behat at Chechabal. Its water is sweet and pleasant.
Ahech River: Its source is ice cold water of Rayhar mountains. The storage of water from different springs of the area, after irrigating the village of Manchama and Dinsow and the entering the Bemina swamp joins Hokarsar waters. (With the filling up of Bemina swamp, presently these waters must have found some other escape due to blockage.)
Kanihamah River: One of its sources is Sukhnag and ice cold waters of Beerwah mountains and the second , the ice cold waters of Pelas and Tosha maidan mountains, which flowing through various channels irrigates the fields. Three canals branch out of the river; the first one is Kanihama, second via Hanji Veera road and the third via Sultan pora; all join Pamasar lake and leaving Naidkhai opposite Hartar join Wular lake.
Ningal River: It has the source at Alapathri spring and the ice cold water of Apharwat mountains. Following through middle of Gulmarg and gaining much discharge from waters of other mountains and irrigating Krohen Pargana fields, joins Wular at Tarzoo.
Harwan River: Like Marsar and waters of Phak mountain is the source of this river, which after flowing through the middle of Dachigam enroute Telbal, joins Dal Lake. Several channels branch out of it. Raja Bukhad dug a canal from it at village Nagapora, which irrigated the norther part of Pargana Phak. It is called Man’s canal. King Jehangir had dug out another canal from Harwan, which added to the charm of Shalimar garden, a prototype of paradise. Asaf Jah Khan dug out another canal, which supplied water to Nishat garden. With the efforts of Khwaja Shah Niyaz Naqshbandi, a canal was made to flow above Harwan at the foot of the mountain, which drained crop lands at Braen village. The water of Harwan after joining Dal Lake, flows out through two courses; one from Nala Mar to Khujayarbal and another canal branching from Dal Lake, joins Brar-i-Nanbal and then through Nala Mar- which was dug out by Sultan Bud Shah in northern part of the city, irrigated the fields of Achan for eight months. Several canals flow out of it. One is Sayid Buzarg Shah canal, which was got dug out by Sayid Buzarg Shah Qadri. The second is Daulat canal, dug out by Daulat Chak during his reign, he had made it to flow through middle of the courtyard of his house which got destroued in fire in Khwajabazar and Khwaja Shah Niyaz Naqshbandi spent Rs. 7,000 in its repairs to restore it. The third is the Kawdara canal , which flowing through Mirjanpora joins Khushal Sar. The fouth is Tarabal canal, which separating from Ashraf Khul, passing through Khushal Sar joins Anchar Sar. (Note:- With the filling of Nala Mar and conversion into a four lane road, all the canal system of Nala Mar has vanished and now Brari Nambal has been connected to river Jhelum near Biscoe bridge.)
Another branch from Dal Lake waters flows through Tsunti canal via Drugjan bridge and joins river “Behat” at Shergadhi.
Amravati: The water from Dachinpora mountains and ice cold water from Amarnath mountain, joining together flows , like a river through mountain passes. When water is in commotion, the winter clay mixes with water and turns it milky and below Sonamarg joins Sindlar.
Krankah Nadi: The water storage from Harmukht Ganga and Kolusar springs and ice cold water of Harmukh mountains, flow like a river and joins Sindlar at Kangan village. It is said that the its water is very sweat, pleasant and digestive.
Sindlar: The Wagah Sangan named lake is atop Zojila mountain. Its water divides into two parts, one part flows towards streams flowing from the mountains in the vicinity of Drass, forms a river.Then joining river Wakh it flows towards north through Kargil area. From there joining river Khalsai, which flows with gusto from mountains of Rudak, Changthan and Garduck etc., assumes the name of Attak below Attak fort.Then river Landa, which flows through mountains of Kabul, joins it and creating commotion in Punjab rivers flowing below Multan, joins the sea.
The second part of the Lake flows towards west, and augments itself with water of surrounding mountain streams, and with waters of river Amarvati, flowing down from Dachinpora mountains, it becomes more voluminous and is called as Sindlar river. From there Nilagrad stream from Surah Farad and Kranka stream from Kangan village join it and then Bramahsar streams from Wussan village which irrigates Pargana Lar, joins it and dispersing from village Heran, its waters from different channels join Ancharsar.
In the past, Sindlar river, having crossed Shahpur village via Sahpur joins river Behat. But during the reign of Abdullah Khan Durrani, during floods, the river itself made in roads towards Anchar, and due to negligence of the rulers, for two to three days, it continued eroding the fields and in villages of Lar, destroyed about one lakh Khirwars of Paddy. During the reign of Sardar Azam Khan and by the efforts of Ali Quli Khan, people suffered during the repairs and after two to three months, it was flooded and destroying the strong dam, flooded Ancharsar. It continues to happen so every now and then.
The water of Sindlar after joining with Amravati river waters, looks milky white and muddy in summer.
From Sindlar many streams branch out which irrigate fields and orchards. The first is Lar canal, which after separation from Wuhan village, irrigates fields of villages lying at the base of northern mountains and enriches the lower side of “Sair-ul-Muvazah”. Since the aforesaid canal was dug out by Raja Larak, hence it is called as “Lar Kul”. In the past the canal was flowing up to Wandhama wherefrom Raja Jia Paed dug out a canal which flowed up to Anderkote. Presently it flows upto Badampur village, and enroute it flows through a tunnel.
Sultan zain-ul-Aabideen dug a canal at the fort of Dayasah Laree Mountain, named Laree canal- the drainage artery of Safapore etc.
The second is Dab Kul, which irrigates fields of Magam village and flows up to village Dab. The third is Arakul, which separating from Prang village athe foot of the southern mountain, crossing through rocky terrain spread around 12 krohs, irrigates crop lands of Pargana Phag. It is said that the said canal has been dug by Raja Arya Rai. Lashkar Khan who was the ruler of Kashmir during Mughal period, repaired this canal and made it to flow through his palace from Batapora village.
The fourth is Nukri Kul, which separates from Sind at Wailoo village and together with Ara Kul, irrigates village at Dhak. This canal was built by Raja Zashak, for the village Zakra, established by him. During the reign of Salateen Delhi, the canal flowed through the gardens of Aishabad, Naseem Bagh, Daulatabad and Afzalabad.
The fifth canal , Shah Kul separates from Wailoo village. It was Sultan Zain-ul-Aabideen who dug it from Pargana Arvi, the gardens and the Royal Palace. Lachhma Khatoon, wife of Jalal Thakur had dug a separate canal out of Shah Kul up to Jamia Masjid. That is why this canal is named Lachhma Kul. (Presently the Kul has become extinct as the raised bund that carried it from Rangil to the city was leveled and converted to a 90 ft. road and the adjacent paddy fields have developed in to residential colonies,)
The Mughal kings during their rule, had modified and widened Shah Kul, in a decent manner and carrying its water to Bagh-i-Ilahi, Bagh-i-Bahar Ara, Bhagi Gulshan, Darshini Bagh, Bagh-i-Inayat and Zafarabad, which added to their beauty, charm and glory. Saif Khan dug out a separate canal next to Shah Kul to supply water to Bagh-i-Saifabad, which does not exist today. Akhund Mulla Shah , for glory of his garden dug one more canal up to Warand village, but its site is unknown at present. At present Maharaja Ranbir Singh, joining Shah Kul and Ziker Kul made it to flow upto Saifabad for providing water to Paddy Husking machines and Silk industries.
Arni River: Its source lies in Sherasar and many lakes which joining alongwith Harmukh mountain waters flow through Nadihal pass of Pargana Khuihama and joins Wular Lake from three sides. Three streams branch out of it. Two streams flow through Aragam District and irrigate fields and the third atream flowing at the foot of northern mountain irrigates village fields and supplies water to Paddy Husking mill at Bandipora.
Madhumati:The ice waters of northern mountain of Harmukh and the water of Nilsar and Bonar stream is the source of river Madhumati. After irrigating crop lands and flowing through Natipora village joins the Wular Lake. Three canals branch out of it from upper side, one en-route Bandipora, second towards Watpora, third towards Qazipora and after irrigating crops it flows down into Wular Lake. At the foot northern mountain two canals have been dug out, which irrigate crops of some villages upto Aaloosa and then join with Wular. The water of Madhumati is very pleasant and digestive.
Nalah Pohru: It flows through Kamraj valley, and its source is water from Lolab mountains and springs. This way water of mountains and spring water of Pargana Wutur passes through Kahmal stream with its source in Satah Kul Nag, join it at Aadikola and it so deepens that heavy boats sail over it. Afterwards it is full with waters of surrounding springs and streams of Kupwara where it joins Marvan river, its source at Kajinag, and at Dukhahbal by Hamal stream with its source at Gurchan spring, and torrents and streams which flow down from Kaji Nag mountain augment itself and joins Behat at Doabgah. Budshah in his time changed the course of Pohree Nala at Pohru and has made its water available to people of Pargana Zainagir, where wonderful buildings were built and attractive gardens were laid. The data has been recorded as “Jui Khurram”. After death of Sultan, the dam got demolished and Pohru Nalla regained its original course. Afterwards Mugha kings tried hard to block it but were not successful.
Krishna Ganga: Its source is Krishnasar lake waters, that is why it is called Krishna Ganga river. Its water along Vishansar and Prangsar and other famous well known springs, flows via Babnar, towards north. Afterwards water from yamsar, Gadsar, northern mountains, Telal, Devasar, Burzabal, Gurais, Khuihama, Lolab, Wutur, Sharda and Karnah etc. and waters of northern mountains and the surrounding areas collectively assume the form of a voluminous river which at Muzaffarabad joins Behat and is referred as river Jhelum.
Sandran River: It flows down from Shahabad valley and Bringi stream flowing down through mountains of Pargana Brang and Arapati Nala from Kothar mountains, join with one another at Anantnag town. Then receiving water of Anantnag springs, it deepens at Khanabal and then meanders through plain level land surface. Here its water flows at a speed of half a mile to three miles distance per hour, depending upon the volune of water. At Khanabal it is called Vitesta in the Shastra language, Behat in the Persian and Vyeth in Kashmiri language. Then its volume increases due to flow of water from adjoining streams, canals and springs. It flows through the middle of the Srinagar city and irrigates crop lands. The water level during winter is very low while during summer, it attains a depth upto four yards and when it exceeds this limit, floods do occue, which break the banks of the river. From Khanabal, the Lambodari river joins the Behat at four places, first below Khanabal, second at Marizgund, third at Gora veer and fourth at Krecha Teng.
The rivers Vishar at Sangam, and Rambiara at two places i.e. one at Kawni village and another at Lalahar, the mountain springs of Olar at Chursoo, the water of big springs at Wuhu Pargana and water of Balhama marshes at Pampore; the Ramshi river at Kakapore, the Nagam river waters at Vethnar, the river Telbal and Dal Lake water in front of Shergadhi, the Dudganga river at Chattabal, the Aynech water stream along with Bemina marshy water at Parimpora, Sindlar waters with Ancharsar waters, Khshalsar and Tullamullah waters at Shahabdeen Pora, Mansar Lake waters at Nai Nara – all join river Behat and with these waters the river with its full spate enters Wular Lake via Banayari.
In the past, the lower area of Hajin was touching Wular Lake. In the year 1240 AH, Banyari Nala dug by Suraj Bhan was flowing as at present. Since then waters of Behat joining waters of Wular Lake and streams of Khuihama Mountains flow towards west collectively. Then, receiving water from Ningli and Pamasar stream, it flows through Sopore town, then joining Pohru Nala at Doabgah and flows slowly and softly up to the boundaries of Baramulla and from there onwards, it is neither called Behat nor Vitesta. In winter and spring season, small and big boats always navigate on it from Khanabal to Baramulla town. Its distance from Khanabal to Baramulla including the loops and xig zag routes is about 100 miles and from Baramulla town towards west, it flows through narrow passes with great force and roaring sound. Then increasing its volume with waters of the mountain of Dachina and Khawerah and up to Muzzafarabad it is referred as the river of Kashmir. From there on joining the waters of Kishenganga from north, it is named as Jhelum. (While as at present it is named as Jhelum right from Khanabal tp downstream onwards.) From Muzzafarabad it turns southwords and with Kanhar river, which flows down from Pakhli, it reaches onfines of Charnak Mirpur, between the mountain passes. Then traversing through middle of Punjab and irrigating croplands, it joins Chenab, Ravi, Beas and Attock rivers and then disembogues in to the ocean.
Kuth Kul: It breaches from Behat river near Shergadi, which during summer irrigates Southern part of city and joins river Behat near Safakadal.
Soner Kul: A canal separates from Kutakul near the shrine of Sayid Mansur Sahib anf joins Doodganga.
Nala Shadipora: From river Behat, a canal separates at Shadipora which joins Hokersar and Pamasar waters and discharge in to Wular Lake.