Monthly Archives: February 2016

Kashmir-Its Re-organization (Ref: Tarikh-i-Hassan)


Kashmir-Its Re-organization (Ref: Tarikh-i-Hassan)

When Jalal-ud-Din Akbar occupied the big country, i.e. India, he divided his country into 19 provinces, out of which Kashmir was the nineteenth province. The list of provinces is stated as:

  • Province of Shahjahanabad Delhi
  • Capital Province Akbarabad alias Agra
  • Allahabad Province
  • Awadh Province
  • Patna Province famous as Azeemabad
  • Province of Bengala
  • Orissa Province
  • Aurangabad Province
  • Province of Brar
  • Province of Khandlees
  • Province of Malwa
  • Province of Ajmeer
  • Province of Gujarat
  • ———————-
  • Province of Multan
  • Province of Lahore
  • Province of Kabul
  • Province of Kandhar
  • Province of Kashmir

There are 58 districts in Kashmir Province, of which 6 districts are situated towards north-east corner: Ladakh, Askardu, Kanju, Nagri, Hasoora and Gilgit. Eight districts are towards north-west: Domiyan, Dardoo, Damtoor, Pakhlee, Kalak, Kagan, Drawah and Karnah, six districts are towards south-west corner: Poonch, Rajouri, Nowshehra, Khul, Banihal, Maruvadwan. Thirty eight districts are associated with Kashmir, in which one is the city of Srinagar and every district is named as Pargana.

During the period of Akbar Shah, the settlement records produced by Asif Khan to the highest office, contains 38 parganas for Kashmir and the settlement records maintained under the administration of the entire population of Kashmir. In origin, they were the same 38 parganas, to which Qazi Ali added two parganas of Dawah and Karnah, and divided the pargana of Sairamwazah into two and the foty villages towards Maraj were named as Havelli and eight villages towards Kamraj, were included in Sairamuwazah pargana.

At present (Hasan’s time), the old system has changed and there are only 34 parganas as per official records. The people in the past have divided Kashmir into two districts. The eastern district was referred as “Maraz”,while as the western district was named as “Kamraz”. The city of “Srinagar” as a district is sandwiched between them.

The City of Srinagar:

In the beautiful Kashmir region, the city of Srinagar is very famous. It is gifted with asll scenic charm. Its length from Nowshehra to Amirakadal is 4 miles and the width fron Chechbal to Naidyar is ——–miles and circumference is ——–miles.

In the middle of Srinagar city flows sweet water channel, reminds of Harwanand by whose waters the fertile lands are irrigated throughout the year. The river divides the city into two parts. One towards north and the other towards south. The northern part is very wide and delightful often, grand mosques and old building structures are cofined to this part of the city. “Mar” channel- (now extinct)- a reminiscent of Sultan Zain-ul-Aabideen flows in summer in the southern part, and four branch channels flow out of it. One is ‘Daulat Kul’, which flows through the house of Khajgan-i-Naqshbandi; second, the Sayid Buzarg Shah canal, which flows through Khanyar; third the Kawdara Canal and the fourth the Tarabal and Lachmi Kul, which is remembered after the wife of Lalal Thakoor and supplies water to northern part. On the southern part Kuta Kul, which reminds us of Yousuf Shah Chak, separates at Shergadhi and irrigates during summer season. Only two canals flow out of it, one is “Sunar Kul” and the other “Ganz Kul”. The Dudhganga canal after irrigating southern part, joind river Vyeth.

There are various lakes and wide tanks around the city, which add to its beauty and charm and provides entertainment and enjoyment to rich people. In its east is Dal Lake, Anchar Lake, Khushalsar to north, and Bemina Nambal in its south-(now extinct) and Brari Nambal lies in the middle of the city. Besides in the northern part of the city is the beautiful hill of Kohimaran and in the eastern corner lies the wonderful and pleasing hill called Kohi Sulaiman. In its west , lies the plain of Idgah, which has been endowed by Mir Mohammad Hamadani (RA) measuring 1600 ft in length and 500 ft. in width and in its centre lies the Ali Masjid. With Chinar trees and tank in its compound. At present there is agricultural land towards north of Idgah and the southern part is flat and leveled for Idgah. In the northern part of the city, is a vast plain land towards east, which has been endowed by Hazrat Mir Mohammad Hamadani (RA) and Baba Ismail Zahid and is called “Malakhah”. This is the main graveyard for people of city. (It has been fenced with iron grill recently, after many illegal encroachments by locals.)

The translator of Rajtarangini, records that the city was founded by Raja Parvaseen in 145 Bikrami / 88 AD. The said Raja planned to develop a city as a keep sake. With this thought, he searched for an ideal spot, but could not identify a spot for the settlement of the city. (The details of the towns of Kashmir shall follow in the next post)


The Rivers of Kashmir- (Ref: Tarikh-i-Hassan)


The Rivers of Kashmir- (Ref: Tarikh-i-Hassan)

The snow from Braribal the water of Verinag spring and the springs of Shahabad together form a river, which after irrigating fields join Brenghi and Arahpat rivers near Khanabal to form the river called as “Behat”.

Bringi: Brang, the ice of Hokarsar and Nowbug Nay mountains is the main source of this river. With the waters of Kokernag, it joins the Sandran and Arahpat rivers near   Anantnag and is referred as river “Behat”.

Arahpati: Its sources lie in Tahar Nag, Bramahsar and Rudrasar springs. The water from Margan mountains joining the spring water of Achhabal, Bawan and Anantnag, joins Bringi and Sandran rivers, together forms the river “Behat” at Khanabal.

Lidder or Lambodari: The icy water of southern mountains of Lar and Amarnath, through four streams meet at one place. One of these flowing through Gopa Brari side, the second from Warahdas mountains, the third from Tarsar spring of Pargana Phak and the fourth from perennial spring of Shashram Nag collect together  to form a river  after irrigating the fields rejoin at last to form “Behat”.

Vishu: Kousarnag is the real source of this river. Besides the waters from Himalayan mountains, Kousarsar and & Thahharsar springs adds to its charm and glory. At Ahrabal near Wutur, the water of river after passing through a narrow place falls below from a height of 300-400 yards like a sheet of water. Due to movement of air and great height of the place, water sprinkles like dust which makes environment wet anf forms a spectacle of divine power. The Mughal kings used to visit this spot for travel and recreation.

Then waters from various streams, springs and Bushi river, which comes down from Dewsar mountains, joins it. The Vuthwatra stream, with its source of Vuthwatra spring near Bamnoh, becoming augmented by the Sandra nar streams enhances the Vishu at Hablish, and with the residual waters of Rambiara, at which after irrigating the Parganas of Devsar, Adwin and Anantnag, joins the river Behat at Sangam adjacent to Naina village. Twelve big channels branch out of it and four of these are well known. One Sonamun, which after leaving from village Jamnagri and irrigating the lower Arwin joins the source again. The second is Baad Canal, which leaving Lakharpura meanders through Devsar area of Kulgam district joins the Vishau river at Qaimoh. The fourth Nandi Canal, which leaving Behat at Hablish and passing through district Nandi Pargana Anantnag upto Bijbhera, joins river Behat. It is said that Nandi was an immoral woman who had dug this canal.

Rambiarah: Its source lies in the waters of Nandansar, Chandansar and the ice cold waters of Ropri, Darahal and Pir Panjal mountain ranges. It originates from Hirapurah and several canals flow out of it. One og these is Sanguler which meanders through Chogam village and after irrigating fields of Adwin and Zainpora Pargana joins again with the source at Wachi. The second is the Nathoo which leaving the lower side of Chogam and passing through Trenz village joins Sangulu stream. The third is Lad stream, which after draining the fields of Suprahsuman, the Pargana of Shukruh and some village of Chhrat, passes through Tokna and Tahab village and at Goripora receive water of marshy lands of Gampora and at Lelhar village, the water of Ratnipora Nala, which is originally the Rambiara water, along with joins river “Behat” and adds to its glory. The fourth one after irrigating fields and passing through “Kawa Vanee” joins Behat. The river Rambiara itself passes through Pargana Sohvarah and irrigating croplands and passing through village Naina, joins Vishu river.

Romshi: Its source is supposed to be the water of Ramasar spring and ice cold waters of Shuphori and Kacha Galawan Wah mountains and it divides into three parts at “Dani-e-zab”, one is Mamshi Stream, which flowing via Pakharpora, upto Char town. The second Khamshi stream which irrigates Khanpur Karewa, flowing through Chhrat and irrigating agricultural fields, joins river, “Vitesta” at Kakapora.

Lolab Braen Stream: It has its source in the mountain waters of Chakas, Chaar and Pakharpora, via Qaisar Mulah, irrigating crop lands, joins Behat at village Vyethnar.

Dudganga: The ice water of Dudasar spring, Sang-i-Safeed, and Kachagalla mountains and the Vicineal springs, after irrigating villages between Arigam and Nagam joins river Behat at Chechabal. Its water is sweet and pleasant.

Ahech River: Its source is ice cold water of Rayhar mountains. The storage of water from different springs of the area, after irrigating the village of Manchama and Dinsow and the entering the Bemina swamp joins Hokarsar waters. (With the filling up of Bemina swamp, presently these waters must have found some other escape due to blockage.)

Kanihamah River: One of its sources is Sukhnag and ice cold waters of Beerwah mountains and the second , the ice cold waters of Pelas and Tosha maidan mountains, which flowing through various channels irrigates the fields. Three canals branch out of the river; the first one is Kanihama, second via Hanji Veera road and the third via Sultan pora; all join Pamasar lake and leaving Naidkhai opposite Hartar join Wular lake.

Ningal River: It has the source at Alapathri spring and the ice cold water of Apharwat mountains. Following through middle of Gulmarg and  gaining much discharge from waters of other mountains and irrigating Krohen Pargana fields, joins Wular at Tarzoo.

Harwan River: Like Marsar and waters of Phak mountain is the source of this river, which after flowing through the middle of Dachigam enroute Telbal, joins Dal Lake. Several channels branch out of it. Raja Bukhad dug a canal  from it at village Nagapora, which irrigated the norther part of Pargana Phak. It is called Man’s canal. King Jehangir had dug out another canal from Harwan, which added to the charm of Shalimar garden, a prototype of paradise. Asaf Jah Khan dug out another canal, which supplied water to Nishat garden. With the efforts of Khwaja Shah Niyaz Naqshbandi, a canal was made to flow above Harwan at the foot of the mountain, which drained crop lands at Braen village. The water of Harwan after joining Dal Lake, flows out through two courses; one from Nala Mar to Khujayarbal and another canal branching from Dal Lake, joins Brar-i-Nanbal and then through Nala Mar- which was dug out by Sultan Bud Shah in northern part of the city, irrigated the fields of Achan for eight months. Several canals flow out of it. One is Sayid Buzarg Shah canal, which was got dug out by Sayid Buzarg Shah Qadri. The second is Daulat canal, dug out by Daulat Chak during his reign, he had made it to flow through middle of the courtyard of his house which got destroued in fire in Khwajabazar and Khwaja Shah Niyaz Naqshbandi spent Rs. 7,000 in its repairs to restore it. The third is the Kawdara canal , which flowing through Mirjanpora joins Khushal Sar. The fouth is Tarabal canal, which separating from Ashraf Khul, passing through Khushal Sar joins Anchar Sar. (Note:- With the filling of Nala Mar and conversion into a four lane road, all the canal system of Nala Mar has vanished and now Brari Nambal has been connected to river Jhelum near Biscoe bridge.)

Another branch from Dal Lake waters flows through Tsunti canal via Drugjan bridge and joins river “Behat” at Shergadhi.

Amravati: The water from Dachinpora mountains and ice cold water from Amarnath mountain, joining together flows , like a river through mountain passes. When water is in commotion, the winter clay mixes with water and turns it milky and below Sonamarg joins Sindlar.

Krankah Nadi: The water storage from Harmukht Ganga and Kolusar springs and ice cold water of Harmukh mountains, flow like a river and joins Sindlar at Kangan village. It is said that the its water is very sweat, pleasant and digestive.

Sindlar: The Wagah Sangan named lake is atop Zojila mountain. Its water divides into two parts, one part flows towards streams flowing from the mountains in the vicinity of Drass, forms a river.Then joining river Wakh it flows towards north through Kargil area. From there joining river Khalsai, which flows with gusto from mountains of Rudak, Changthan and Garduck etc., assumes the name of Attak below Attak fort.Then river Landa, which flows through mountains of Kabul, joins it  and creating commotion in Punjab rivers flowing below Multan, joins the sea.

The second part of the Lake flows towards west, and augments itself with water of surrounding mountain streams, and with waters of river Amarvati, flowing down from Dachinpora mountains, it becomes more voluminous and is called as Sindlar river. From there Nilagrad stream from Surah Farad and Kranka stream from Kangan village join it and then Bramahsar streams from Wussan village which irrigates Pargana Lar, joins it and dispersing from village Heran, its waters from different channels join Ancharsar.

In the past, Sindlar river, having crossed Shahpur village via Sahpur joins river Behat. But during the reign of Abdullah Khan Durrani, during floods, the river itself made in roads towards Anchar, and due to negligence of the rulers, for two to three days, it continued eroding the fields and in villages of Lar, destroyed about one lakh Khirwars of Paddy. During the reign of Sardar Azam Khan and by the efforts of Ali Quli Khan, people suffered during the repairs  and after two to three months, it was flooded and destroying the strong dam, flooded Ancharsar. It continues to happen so every now and then.

The water of Sindlar after joining with Amravati river waters, looks milky white and muddy in summer.

From Sindlar many streams branch out which irrigate fields and orchards. The first is Lar canal, which after separation from Wuhan village, irrigates fields of villages lying at the base of northern mountains and enriches the lower side of  “Sair-ul-Muvazah”. Since the aforesaid canal was dug out by Raja Larak, hence it is called as “Lar Kul”. In the past the canal was flowing up to Wandhama wherefrom Raja Jia Paed dug out a canal which flowed up to Anderkote. Presently it flows upto Badampur village, and enroute it flows through a tunnel.

Sultan zain-ul-Aabideen dug a canal at the fort of Dayasah Laree Mountain, named Laree canal- the drainage artery of Safapore etc.

The second is Dab Kul, which irrigates fields of Magam village and flows up to village Dab. The third is Arakul, which separating from Prang village athe foot of the southern mountain, crossing through rocky terrain spread around 12 krohs, irrigates crop lands of Pargana Phag. It is said that the said canal has been dug by Raja Arya Rai. Lashkar Khan who was the ruler of Kashmir during Mughal period, repaired this canal and made it to flow through his palace from Batapora village.

The fourth is Nukri Kul, which separates from Sind at Wailoo village and together with Ara Kul, irrigates village at Dhak. This canal was built by Raja Zashak, for the village Zakra, established by him. During the reign of Salateen Delhi, the canal flowed through the gardens of Aishabad, Naseem Bagh, Daulatabad and Afzalabad.

The fifth canal , Shah Kul separates from Wailoo village. It was Sultan Zain-ul-Aabideen who dug it from Pargana Arvi, the gardens and the Royal Palace. Lachhma Khatoon, wife of Jalal Thakur had dug a separate canal out of Shah Kul up to Jamia Masjid. That is why this canal is named Lachhma Kul. (Presently the Kul has become extinct as the raised bund that carried it from Rangil to the city was leveled and converted to a 90 ft. road and the adjacent paddy fields have developed in to residential colonies,)

The Mughal kings during their rule, had modified and widened Shah Kul, in a decent manner and carrying its water to Bagh-i-Ilahi, Bagh-i-Bahar Ara, Bhagi Gulshan, Darshini Bagh, Bagh-i-Inayat and Zafarabad, which added to their beauty, charm and glory. Saif Khan dug out a separate canal next to Shah Kul to supply water to Bagh-i-Saifabad, which does not exist today. Akhund Mulla Shah , for glory of his garden dug one more canal up to Warand village, but its site is unknown at present. At present Maharaja Ranbir Singh, joining Shah Kul and Ziker Kul made it to flow upto Saifabad for providing water to Paddy Husking machines and Silk industries.

Arni River: Its source lies in Sherasar and many lakes which joining alongwith Harmukh mountain waters flow through Nadihal pass of Pargana Khuihama and joins Wular Lake from three sides. Three streams branch out of it. Two streams flow through Aragam District and irrigate fields and the third atream flowing at the foot of northern  mountain irrigates village fields and supplies water to Paddy Husking mill at Bandipora.

Madhumati:The ice waters of northern mountain of Harmukh and the water of Nilsar and Bonar stream is the source of river Madhumati. After irrigating crop lands and flowing through Natipora village joins the Wular Lake. Three canals branch out  of it from upper side, one en-route Bandipora, second towards Watpora, third towards Qazipora and after irrigating crops it flows down into Wular Lake. At the foot northern mountain two canals have been dug out, which irrigate crops of some villages upto Aaloosa and then join with Wular. The water of Madhumati is very pleasant and digestive.

Nalah Pohru: It flows through Kamraj valley, and its source is water from Lolab mountains and springs. This way water of mountains and spring water of Pargana Wutur passes through Kahmal stream with its source in Satah Kul Nag, join it at Aadikola and it so deepens that heavy boats sail over it. Afterwards it is full with waters of surrounding springs and streams of Kupwara where it joins Marvan river, its source at Kajinag, and at Dukhahbal by Hamal stream with its source at Gurchan spring, and torrents and streams which flow down from Kaji Nag mountain augment itself and joins Behat at Doabgah. Budshah in his time changed the course of Pohree Nala at Pohru and has made its water available  to people of Pargana Zainagir, where wonderful buildings were built and attractive gardens were laid. The data has been recorded as “Jui Khurram”. After death of Sultan, the dam got demolished and Pohru Nalla regained its original course. Afterwards Mugha kings tried hard to block it but were not successful.

Krishna Ganga: Its source is Krishnasar lake waters, that is why it is called Krishna Ganga river. Its water along Vishansar and Prangsar and other famous well known springs, flows via Babnar, towards north. Afterwards water from yamsar, Gadsar, northern mountains, Telal, Devasar, Burzabal, Gurais, Khuihama, Lolab, Wutur, Sharda and Karnah etc. and waters of northern mountains and the surrounding areas collectively assume the form of a voluminous river which at Muzaffarabad joins Behat and is referred as river Jhelum.

Sandran River: It flows down from Shahabad valley and Bringi stream flowing down through mountains  of Pargana Brang and Arapati Nala from Kothar mountains, join with one another at Anantnag town. Then receiving water of Anantnag springs, it deepens at Khanabal and then meanders through plain level land surface. Here its water flows at a speed of half a mile to three miles distance per hour, depending upon the volune of water. At Khanabal it is called Vitesta in the Shastra language, Behat in the Persian and Vyeth in Kashmiri language. Then its volume increases due to flow of water from adjoining streams, canals and springs. It flows through the middle of the Srinagar city and irrigates crop lands. The water level during winter is very low while during summer, it attains a depth upto four yards and when it exceeds this limit, floods do occue, which break the banks of the river. From Khanabal, the Lambodari river joins the Behat at four places, first below Khanabal, second at Marizgund, third at Gora veer and fourth at Krecha Teng.

The rivers Vishar at Sangam, and Rambiara at two places i.e. one at Kawni village and another at Lalahar, the mountain springs of Olar at Chursoo, the water of big springs at Wuhu Pargana and water of Balhama marshes at Pampore; the Ramshi river at Kakapore, the Nagam river waters at Vethnar, the river Telbal and Dal Lake water in front of Shergadhi, the Dudganga river at Chattabal, the Aynech water stream along with Bemina marshy water at Parimpora, Sindlar waters with Ancharsar waters, Khshalsar and Tullamullah waters at Shahabdeen Pora, Mansar Lake waters at Nai Nara – all join river Behat and with these waters the river with its full spate enters Wular Lake via Banayari.

In the past, the lower area of Hajin was touching Wular Lake. In the year 1240 AH, Banyari Nala dug by Suraj Bhan was flowing as at present. Since then waters of Behat joining waters of Wular Lake and streams of Khuihama Mountains flow towards west collectively. Then, receiving water from Ningli and Pamasar stream, it flows through Sopore town, then joining Pohru Nala at Doabgah and flows slowly and softly up to the boundaries of Baramulla and from there onwards, it is neither called Behat nor Vitesta. In winter and spring season, small and big boats always navigate on it from Khanabal to Baramulla town. Its distance from Khanabal to Baramulla including the loops and xig zag routes is about 100 miles and from Baramulla town towards west, it flows through narrow passes with great force and roaring sound. Then increasing its volume with waters of the mountain of Dachina and Khawerah and up to Muzzafarabad it is referred as the river of Kashmir. From there on joining the waters of Kishenganga from north, it is named as Jhelum. (While as at present it is named as Jhelum right from Khanabal tp downstream onwards.) From Muzzafarabad it turns southwords and with Kanhar river, which flows down from Pakhli, it reaches onfines of Charnak Mirpur, between the mountain passes. Then traversing through middle of Punjab and irrigating croplands, it joins Chenab, Ravi, Beas and Attock rivers and then disembogues in to the ocean.

Kuth Kul: It breaches from Behat river near Shergadi, which during summer irrigates Southern part of city and joins river Behat near Safakadal.

Soner Kul: A canal separates from Kutakul near the shrine of Sayid Mansur Sahib anf joins Doodganga.

Nala Shadipora: From river Behat, a canal separates at Shadipora which joins Hokersar and Pamasar waters and discharge in to Wular Lake.


The Kashmir Soils (Ref: Tarikh-i-Hassan)


The Kashmir Soils (Ref: Tarikh-i-Hassan)

The topography of Kashmir is divided into three categories: The flat and level land, The mountain passes and the foothills of mountains with karewas.

Category first: On an average, a part of Kashmir is a rectangular flat plain land free from sand, stones and devoid of pits and thorny bushes. Its length from Achabal spring to extreme corner of Zaingir Pargana measures about 50 Krohs in length with an average width of about 8 Krohs. The soil is ideal for wet and dry crops. The soil is brown and fertile. The crop is rich and fully grown and production is two to three times more than the highlands. There are large and small lakes like Wular, Dal, Anchar, Mansar, Pamasar, Hokarsar, Gilsar and Khushhalsar around it. Underground water  and swamps, pools and reeds are dotted everywhere. The famous city of Srinagar is in its centre. Above and below are many populated villages. Through its middle flows the river Vyeth. At times, due to floods in the river the adjoining areas are inundated, which causes great destruction to building structures of the city. The population of some villages and the cropping fields and especially the lower side of the city is desolate due to floods,( This was the picture a century back, At present we find a reverse status, when most of the low-lying flood lungs have turned to housing colonies.)

Category second: Around Kashmir mountains, their central parts being flat and plain are extended towards all sides. Many villages are located on the high altitudes.

Category third: This is confined to the foothills of mountains and karewas which are circular, plain areas with a height of 100 to 200 ft above the level of category first. These are mostly flat and level and suitable for cultivation and rank third in terms of strength, growth and production of crops. In some places it is rocky, thorny and desolate. (These areas are also under the pressure of urbanization at present.)

The Kashmir Mines: (Ref. Tarikh-i-Hassan)


The Kashmir Mines: (Ref. Tarikh-i-Hassan)

It is said that in the past, there were various mines in Kashmir mountains, which are not available nowadays. Only the iron mines are left.

  • Emerald Mine: This mine is confined to Harmukh mountain peak, that is why, the snakes are not found there.
  • Gold Mine: About one hundred (now 200) years ago, the people of Drass, discovered a gold mine on the bank of river near Zojbal towards east. One day a body of gold without its two arms was found by people and they fought with each other for its distribution and wounded themselves in the skirmish. At once the body jumped into the middle of river and a huge stone slided down from the mountain covering the mine. It is recorded as a surprising incident.

As recorded in the “Ain-e-Akbari” golden sand is available from river Abasind, Padmini stream and Kishenganga river. It is obtained by “Khakshoee” or by spreading long haired hide in the river keeping stones on its corners so that it may not be carried by flow of water. Then the same is lifted and is dried  in sunlight. On drying it is swooped and the particles of gold are collected.

  • Silver and Copper Mines: Lawrence has recorded in his book, that silver and copper mines are present in Kashmir. It is said that Aishmuqam mountains are gifted with copper mines, but the income is less than the expenditure on its extraction.
  • Iron Mine: In Kashmir iron ore is found at 4 places. One at Pusher village in Kothar Pargana, which is very clear and soft; second in Pargana Woho at Kahar Yushar village which is of average quality; third at Harwan village at Zainagir village, which is inferior; and the fourth is in Chohen village of Pargana Shahabad.
  • Sulphur Mine: In Kashmir there are many springs with sulphur smell. It is recorded that there are sulphur mines below theses springs It is said that that there are many sulphur mines in the western mountains of Kamraj. At Machipora Pargana, there is ejection of smoke at the base of a mountain and during night there are flames of fire. The Pandits call it “sovuyum” and identify it as a spot of Lava, and during its occurance, the Pandits visit here in large numbers for offering prayers. They put rice and water cooked within one hour in pots and throw it in spring. There is no fixed time for its recurrence.
  • The Muslims treat it as a sulphur mine, the Europeans treat it as a coal mine.
  • Antimony Mine: The antimony is present in Boniyar village of Pargana Kharwah. (The name of village ‘Trikanjan’ is known to be the reason of existence of three mines there.)

Kashmir Stones- (Ref: Tarikh-i-Hassan)


Kashmir Stones- (Ref: Tarikh-i-Hassan)

  • Sangi Biloor:

In the past, these stones were confined to the mountains of Dachinpora and cold areas of Lal Pargana. In the present times the shepherds and tourists bring fragments of theses stones from the cold areas. In 1940 Bikrami, a mone was surveyed on Lal mountains, but became extinct later on.

  • Sangi Musa:

It is found in Khrew Shar village of Pargana Vohu and is black in colour. It is clear and soft. Wonderful articles are made from this stone. Some people refer it as “Sangi Patwal.”

  • Sangi Chekmaq:

It is called “Hijrul Nar”. It is available from Khrew Shar village.

  • Sangi Nulchain:

It is found in Mamal village of Dachinpara Paragna. It is very soft and red in colour. Utensils and cups are made out of it.

  • Sangi Dalum:

It is a very soft stone and is found in Verinag adjacent to Shahabad village. The gold and copper smiths powder it for melting gold and silver to make utensils.

  • Sangi Shesha wa Kanch:

It is confined to Duderhama, where people collect it as small stones and make glass and kanch out of it by application of fire.

  • Sangi Kech:

It is found in Baramulla and after treating in furnaces, it is brought to city. It is white in colour.

  • Sangi Chuna (Lime Stone)

It is found in abundance in Kashmir. The Ahtang mountain is all lime stone. There are ten lime stone furnaces at its base. It is also available in Ajas village of Pargana Khuihama. It is also found in Zachildara in Pargana Machipora. It is also found in Baramulla and Anantnag towns, besides in Pargana Devsar. (It is considered to be most suitable for building construction; when dressed these are used as Devri stones)

  • Sangi Samakh:

It is found in abundance in Kashmir.

  • Sangi Farshee:

It is found in Baramulla mountain and is used for flooring of hamams. The Nunar village of Pargana Lal provides superior quality of this stone.


The Caves of Kashmir (Ref. Tarikh-i-Hassan)


The Caves of Kashmir (Ref. Tarikh-i-Hassan)

  • Munda Cave:

It is a typical cave, in Pargana Shahabad, which lies towards south from Doru town at a distance of 3 miles in village Munda adjacent to Banihal mountain. While entering the cave through its mouth, with torches, there are two paths inside, one leading towards left and is very dreadful. It is very difficult to foot it. The second path leading straight has niche, with a wonderful spring in its middle, from which water flows out through the mouth of the cave. The water is sweet, tasty and cool. The drops of water  always trickle down continuously from the roof of the niche which freezes due to coldness of the place. People taste it like sugar and vegetables. The notion of historians, that icycles, when extracted out of cave turn into stones is absolutely wrong.

  • Aare Rai Cave:

It is a famous cave which lies in Bomazoo village of Mattan Pargana at the foot of the karewa on its north side. No one has been able to see its interior. Its width is 5 yards and height is less than 4 yards. Around the cave are small cells, the prayer houses of Rishis. One of the cells has a grave like structure, the entire cave is the dwelling place for bats and it is very difficult to enter the cave due to foul smell.

Haidar Malik Chadoora, in his historical accounts records, that he alongwith a party of 12 persons went inside the cave for investigation. Each person was provided with a lamp and onw ser of oil. Between each lamp holder a distance of one arrow was maintained. When they crossed the passage, they reached near a dome, which was 20 yards in height and 50 yards in circumference. There I noticed four passages The path towards right was circling like a snake, a passage was towards left and one path was leading upwards and forwards and ending downwards. Nobody had the courage to follow these routes but a stone was rolled downalong the downward path to observe what is inside. The sound of rolling stone was ringing for about one hour. Besides water trickled down from roof of dome and the land was laden with moisture. In the meantime it was informed that there was little oil left for the lamps, and therefore we had to retreat from the same route.

According to Hassan, the Raja Area Rai famous as Sandiman, abdicated his throne and donning a dear skin went inside the lane, but never returned from the cave. That is why the cave is referred as Area Rai cave. Later on Raja Ranadit accompanied by his Rani, entered this cave, but there was notrace about their life.

  • Amarnath Cave:

Lying in the mountains of Pargana Dachinpora towards east, there is a unique cave measuring 50 yards in length and width respectively with a height of 35 yards. Snow and ice in varied colours is formed there since ancient times and is not exposed to the sun rays. Quoting the historians of Kashmir, water drops trickle down from the roof  of the cave and like the tides of oceans, the trickling droplets from the roof freeze in moonlight in a corner of the cave. Pandits refer the mass of ice as “Ling of Mahadev.”  With the decrease in moonlight the trickling of water also stops and the mass of ice also melts, and during the nights when moon does not shine, there is no trace of freezing. It is said that it takes shapes every month in this manner and then it melts. But the European explorers however refute this version.

The Brahmans, the Sadhus, the Sanyasis and the Sosanals of India and the neighbouring regions visit the cave for pilgrimage on 15th of Sawan. Sudhi after undergoing great hardships. (Presently the yatra to Amarnath is being organized by Amarnath Shrine Board as there is lot of rush of general public from  outside Kashmir,)

  • Bazarhui Cave:

It is in Butu village in Pargana Khuihama on Aham mountain adjacent to the shrine of Sung Bibi Sahiba. It is a long cave and no one has seen its extreme interior. From inside this cave flows an old canal.

  • Kopewara Cave:

In Dachinpora Pargana there is a dark cave in Kopwara village and nobody goes inside it. It is said that Shaikh Zain-ul-Aabideen was meditating in this cave for some time.

  • Beerwah Cave:

Adjacent to the town of Beerwah, is a long cave and no one has seen its extreme end.

{Note:- With the availability of modern equipment and technology it opens a new chapter for explorers to investigate the unexplored caves of the Kashmir Valley.}

The Karewas of Kashmir: (Ref. Tarikh-i-Hassan)


The Karewas of Kashmir: (Ref. Tarikh-i-Hassan)

Very plain and isolated table lands (Karewas) are available through out  the length and breadth of this country (Kashmir) and are above 100-200 feet from average surface level. Some of these are connected with mountains while others though disconnected are elevated.

  • Mattan Karewa: Located towards south of Srinagar in Pargana Martand. At its bottom flow innumerable springs, the most prominent being “Bawan” and “Anantnag”. The land surface is flat and level and ideal for cultivation and habitation, but due to scarcity of water resources, it is desolate these days.

‘Ratnapuran’ records that in the beginning of Kaljug, Raja Ram Dev had built the town of Babul on the Karewah and temple ‘Martandeshor’ adjacent to the palace, whose foundations exist till date. Digging a canal from Khowerpora mountain, he made it to flow through the town. When the canal was frozen, his son RajaVasuda dug  a deep broad well in the town. After a long period of time the said town was desolate and the well got afflicted. But people while visiting the well would listen the cries from the heavens and people had the belief that two heavenly angels Harut and Marut were in a state of commotion in the well. With this ides, people began to offer presents to achieve divine proximity and fulfillment of their desires. In the year 781 AH, Hazrat Amir-i-Kabir (RA) arrived here and stayed for few days. When it was revealed to him that it was the ‘abode of satan.’ In order to do away with the myth, the well was filled up with stones and clay of temple. Later on Mir Muhammad Hamadani (RA) paid visit to this place and built a mosque over the well. One of the companions was advised to stay there, who passed his whole life there and is buried there. Later on people believed the grave of the devotee to be the “Ziyarat of Harut and Marut” and the ‘Karewa’ is referred as the “desert of Babul.”

  • Navanagri Karewa: Situated in Pargana Chhrat and Shavra, in an isolated position.It is flat and broken and the land is mostly cultivated with paddy grown on onw side. It is devoid of trees and bushes. In the olden days Navnagri town on the karewa was built by Raja Gulkandar, hence it is called Navnagri karewa.
  • Zainapora Karewa: Located in Pargana Adwan. It has a level surface with some low lands in-between, where both wet and dry cultivation is practiced. Bushes and trees are in abundance, besides there are various villge settlements. Sultan Zain-ul-Abideen built Zainapora on this Karewa and with the construction of lofty buildings and strong majestic structures laid the foundation for his capital for supply of running water, he built a high and broad dam measuring 50-100 yards in length called “Zaina-Sathu” and by digging a canal called “Sona Kul”, making the Karewa ideal for habitation. It is said that inthose times a party of holy saints arrived in the palace. The spiritual guru (Murrabi) said to king that the saints are no less than the king in position and therefore two kings cannot share the same dwelling. Inorder to appease the saints, the king left the palace and established Nowshehra as his capital. Later on the place became desolate, the dam demolished and flow of water disappeared.
  • Bijbehara Karewa: It is pf low height and is delinked from all sides. In ancient times one of the Rajas had built his palce on its top.
  • Babapur Karewa: This Karewa is in Pargana Zainpora, adjacent to Adwan. With level land surface and invigorate climate; it is famous for its altitude. Its catchment area is gifted with wet and dry cultivation. Several villages are located on its top.
  • Khampur Karewa: Located in Nagam Pargana on way to Shopian, it is very wide and its land is ideal for wet and dry cultivation, especially for the cultivation of “moong’ having a special taste, size and energy.The Sarai of Ali Mardan Khan is located at its centre.
  • Nagam Karewa: On way to Chrar-i-Sharif, it is high, wide and cultivable Karewa, but due to non availability of water it is dry. In its centre was a an attractive spring, which is extinct now.
  • Damodar Wudar: Located on south of Srinagar in Ichh Pargana. It is about 17 miles long and 2 mile wide. It is detached from all sides and is flat. In between there are lowlands. There is no growth of bushes and trees and no flow of water. With irrigation facilities provides, the Rabi and Kharif crops are sound and energetic. It is said that Raja Damodhar, founded Damodhar city atop the Karewa.
  • Khoshipora Karewa: It is an isolated Karewa, one mile square, situated on the bank of Hokarsar on west of Srinagar. Sultan Zain-ul-Abideen built lofty mansions over its top.
  • Hanjak Karewa: Adjacent to Khoshipora Karewa, with an area of 3 square miles and cultivation of dry crops is common here.
  • Budgam Karewa: Situated in Pargana Densov and is isolated square inshape. Several villages are located on its top and people practice agriculture there.
  • Chandpura Karewa: It is a wide Karewa situated in Pargana Machan. Water is available and several villages are on its top.
  • Mukhhamah Karewa: It is 2-3 miles long Kareawa without water in an isolated position, in Manchmo Pargana adjacent to Dara mountains.
  • Chuvat wudar: Situated in Devsar Pargana this Karewa like mound is full of trees and bushes , with its back towards mountains.
  • Pattan Karewa: It is a wide mound, on which are habitations of Bangil villsage. At some places, paddy cultivation is common due to canal irrigation. The Kharif season is very productive. Dewan Nehal Chand had built the Nilhalpore village on its top.
  • Kriri Karewa: situated in Pargana Krohan it is connected with a mountain and extends to a long distance. It is fit for both dry and wet cropping. The shrine of Sayid Haji Murad Bukhari is located at its centre.
  • Ushkurah Karewa: Situated in Pargana Krohan. It is vast in length and breadth and ideal for cultivation and water is available in certain places. There are several villages. Thorns and bushes are in abundance. It is adjacent to a mountain.
  • Wagub Karewa: It is in Pargana Krohin in an isolated position with no source of water. Dry farming is common here. It is devoid of trees and is famous for its thorny plantation.
  • Bandipora Karewa: In Pargana Khuihama, there is availability of water resources. Its backside faces towards a mountain. Paddy and other crops are cultivated here. There are almond orchards on it. The building structures still existed there (till Hassan’s time.)
  • Safapore Karewa: It is in Telbal Srinagar on the bank of Mansar Spring with free flow of water. It is ideal for cultivation of Paddy and other crops. It is adjacent to a mountain.The village Safapore is in its centre.
  • Karehama Karewa: In Pargana Lal it is adjacent to Ahak mountain. It is very wide. There is plenty of water and the land is cultivable. There are some villages in it.
  • Waj Wudar: In Pargana Lal, it is adjacent to Feshal Teng mountains. It is mostly fit for dry cultivation and there is scarcity of water. Apricots grow here in plenty, which are very profitable to growers. At its foot flows the Royal canal, which meanders up to Srinagar.
  • Pandach Karewa: It is at at adistance of 3 Krohs from Baghi Mulla Shah uto Mohalla Soura. It is ideal for wet and dry cultivation. It is situated on the bank of Anchar lake. During the Mughal rule, it was rich in plantation.
  • Chendee Karewa: In Pargana Dachinpora, it is situated close to Kanalwan. It is 4 miles long in average and one mile wide. Water is available. Many villages also exist there.
  • Devapore Karewa: Situated in Sepra Simon Pargana, it is more than 4 miles wide. There are many rocky mountains.
  • Gos Wudar: Situated in Pargana Chhrat, there are many villages on it.
  • Dadi Wudar: In Pargana Dachinpora it in the vicinity of Marhama village. There are some villages on it.
  • Pampore Karewa: It is in Pargana Wehi, and is cut off from every side. On one of its sides flows the Vyeth and on the other side is a lake and in-between, there are many patches of lowlands and highlands. It has no water and is fit for cultivation of crops. About 1012 bighas of land is under saffron cultivation.