Monthly Archives: January 2012

A Prelude to Maulood-i-Barzanji recited in Arab world ,outside and in Kashmir.



Among the scholars of Arabia, it was in 12th century Hijri, that Hazrat Rais-ul Ulama Allama Jafar bin Hasan bin Abdul Karim bin Sayid Muhammad bin Abdul Rasool Al-Barzanji Al-Shafi Al-Madani (d. 1177 AH), who wrote a book titled ‘Qisatul Mawlid-un-Nabwi, which was appreciated in the Prophet’s durbar and since then it’s chapters along with ‘naat-i-shareefs’ are being recited in Milad gatherings in Arabia and outside till date.

Hazrat Allama Barzanji (RA) was Imam of The Masjid Nabvi, of Hanafi sect, Murshid of Qadirya order, Muhaddis, teacher in the Haram-i-Nabvi. He has authored many books, one of which is titled Maulood-i-Barzanji and another Milad-nama Gaus-ulAzam (RA).

The Very name Muhammad means the praised one and his mention with praise is a part of the faith of Muslims and the mention of the ‘Milad-i-Nabvi’ i.e. birth of the Prophet has its own importance in the Islamic traditions, which continues since second Hijri to-date. The directions are derived from Holy Quran, ‘Wa Amma bi niamati Rabbika fahaddis’ and ‘Wa salamun alaihi yawma wulida wa yawma yamootu wa yubasu hayya’

Among the earlier scholars Hazrat Hafiz ibni Hajar (RA), Hazrat Allama Jawzi (RA) and thereafter Hazrat Mulla Ali Qari (RA) etc. have thrown light in detail on the justification of holding these gatherings. Among the later scholars Hazrat Haji Imdadullah Muhajir Makki(RA), Hazrat Maulana Rahmat-ul-lah Keranavi(RA), Hazrat Shah Abul Khair Naqshbandi (RA) Hazrat Maulana Rashid Ahmad Gangohi(RA), Hazrat Maulana Ahmad Raza Khan Barelvi(RA), and Hazrat Maulana Shah Abul Hasan Zaid Mujadidi Farooqi (fazil-i- Azhar) have issued firm based futwas in it’s favour.

Among the Indian scholars, Hazrat Shaikh Abdul Haq Muhaddis Dehlavi in his book ‘Masabt bil-sunnah’ and Imam Shah Wali-ullah Muhaddis Dehlavi in ‘Fayooz-ul-Harmain’ has mentioned in detail, particularly about the Milad gatherings of Hijaz. Despite predominance of the influence of the scholars of Najd in Hijaz, Milad gatherings are held there even now, one being at the residence of Hazrat Imam Ahl-i-Sunnah Sayedna Shaikh Muhammad Alvi Maliki ( a scholar of international fame)

In Kashmir although the Milad gatherings are being held since the period of Hazrat Shaikh-ul-Islam Shaikh Akmal-ud-Din Mirza Muhammad Kamil Beg khan Badakhshi (RA)(d.1131 AH)-[ due to reaching of Moi-Muqaddas] and when this relic was first shown openly to public by Shaikh Muhammad Radhu Cheshti (d.1126 AH) and he laid the foundation of such gatherings and the first such gathering was held in Khanqah-i-Naqshbandia Khwaja Bazar, yet it was in 1300 AH, when Allama Mir Sayid Hasan Qari Mantaqi (author of Fatoohat-i-Kubravia) -( buried in the graveyard of Hazrat Khadija-tul-Kubra (RA))-was blessed with the Hajj pilgrimage, he obtained the permission of it’s recitation from the progeny of Allama Barzanji and laid the foundation of the Milad gatherings in Kashmir where Mavlood-i-Barzanji is recited. After him Hazrat Mir Sayid Ghulam Mohammad Dwarki, Hafiz, Qari Moulana Muhammad Hasan Ahmadi (Imam Zain-ul-Abidin Mosque, Gadyar Zainakadal)and his son Hafiz Mohammad Inayat-ul-lah Ahmadi-Gadyari took the art of it’s recitation to it’s climax. The present reciters of Mavlood Barzanji continue to recite it in their established ways. Although the original manuscript is lying with these families, a pamphlet with Arabic text and it’s commentary and translation was published in Kashmir many a time in the past, a recent publication with Arabic text and it’s Urdu translation has been made by Jamiat-i-Hamadania Khanqah-i-Mualla Srinagar under the title: ‘Maulood-i-Barzanji’

The original text has 21 chapters, however the common recitation in Kashmir is made in seven chapters only, which are titled as: 01) Introduction. 02) Shajra Tayiba of Prophet. 03) Forecasts of Prophet’s arrival. 04) Birth of the Prophet. 05) 06)Description of the Prophet. 07) Conduct of the Prophet. On recitation of each chapter in Arabic, Naat-i-sharif of versatile scholar poets like Shaikh Saadi Shrazi, Hazrat Mir Sayid Ali Hamadani, Hazrat Maulana Jami, Hazrat Amir Kusrow, Hazrat mirza Akmal-ud-Din Badakhshi, Asim Malaratti, Mahmood Gami, Wali-ul-lah Mattoo,Hazrat Shaikh Yaqoob Sarfi (RA), Hazrat Imam Abdullah Muhammad bin Sayeed Boosiri (RA), Fakhir, Haqqani, Jeelani etc. are recited and the gathering is closed with a dua, fateha etc. Most people arrange a feast for the gathering in their homes.

Compiled by: Er. Mohammad Ashraf Fazili



The Mawlid of Imam al-Barzinji

Zawiyah Qadariyah Dhu al-Hijja 1426


“Surely Allah and His angels send blessings upon the Prophet 􀁄 O you who believe send blessings upon him and ask for him peace” 􀁄 O Allah, grant prayers, peace and blessings upon our master, Muhammad, the point of the holy fitra circle manifest upon him in the mihrāb of Your holiness and intimacy; and upon his family and companions (٣ times) Then know that “There is no god but Allah” (١٠٠ times) 􀁄 Praise belongs to Allah Who began this existence with the Light of Muhammad (al- Nūr al-Muhammadiya)—the Night Traveler, whose light is the secret in each affair 􀁄 And Who made his appearance its seal and completion 􀁄 And Who bestowed upon his glorious family and pure descendants the divine secrets 􀁄 They being, for the people of the earth, an invulnerable fortress, and for the religion (dīn) a guardian 􀁄 Blessing and peace be upon our master, Muhammad, the best of mankind 􀁄 And upon his family, companions, followers and whoever supports him 􀁄 So I, the ‘arif, who gains from the overflowing every splendid and brilliant favor 􀁄 And who is adorned with the two knowledges—the outward and the inward—so that it becomes his practice and most cherished goal 􀁄 The one with the pure lineage whose love for the standing (before his Lord) delivers him from the burning fire 􀁄 Our master Sayyid Ja‘far ibn Hasan who traces his lineage to al-Barzanji 􀁄 Starts this recitation in the name of the Exalted Essence 􀁄 Causing the flow of blessings on what I work for and obtain 􀁄 I praise its wholesome source easily imbibed 􀁄 Riding the mounts of good thanks 􀁄 I give blessings and send peace upon the light described as foremost and first 􀁄 Conveyed in the noble white marks placed on foreheads and faces 􀁄 I humbly ask Allah the Exalted to bestow a special favor upon the pure prophetic ‘itra 􀁄 Which includes his companions, followers and those who support him 􀁄 I implore Him for a guidance by which I will travel the clear established ways 􀁄 And for safety from the raise belongs to Allah Who began this existence with the Light of Muhammad (al- Nūr al-Muhammadiya)—the Night Traveler, whose light is the secret in each affair 􀁄 And Who made his appearance its seal and completion 􀁄 And Who bestowed upon his glorious family and pure descendants the divine secrets 􀁄 They being, for the people of the earth, an invulnerable fortress, and for the religion (dīn) a guardian 􀁄 Blessing and peace be upon our master, Muhammad, the best of mankind 􀁄 And upon his family, companions, followers and whoever supports him 􀁄 So I, the ‘arif, who gains from the overflowing every splendid and brilliant favor 􀁄 And who is adorned with the two knowledges—the outward and the inward—so that it becomes his practice and most cherished goal 􀁄 The one with the pure lineage whose love for the standing (before his Lord) delivers him from the burning fire 􀁄 Our master Sayyid Ja‘far ibn Hasan who traces his lineage to al-Barzanji 􀁄 Starts this recitation in the name of the Exalted Essence 􀁄 Causing the flow of blessings on what I work for and obtain 􀁄 I praise its wholesome source easily imbibed 􀁄 Riding the mounts of good thanks 􀁄 I give blessings and send peace upon the light described as foremost and first 􀁄 Conveyed in the noble white marks placed on foreheads and faces 􀁄 I humbly ask Allah the Exalted to bestow a special favor upon the pure prophetic ‘itra 􀁄 Which includes his companions, followers and those who support him 􀁄 I implore Him for a guidance by which I will travel the clear established ways 􀁄 And for safety from the seduction in the plans of those who make errors and from following in their footsteps 􀁄 I will simplify from the story of the noble Prophet’s birth beautiful burdas 􀁄 Making from the noble lineage a beautiful necklace that will ornament the ears with its beauty 􀁄 I ask for assistance by Allah’s might and power 􀁄 For surely there is no might or power except by Allah 􀁄

O Allah, scent his noble grave with an aromatic fragrance of blessings and peace 􀁄

O Allah, bless him, grant him peace and barakah I say he is Sayyiduna Muhammad son of ‘Abd Allah son of ‘Abd al-Muţţalib, named Shaybat al-Hamd whose brilliant qualities were praised 􀁄 Son of Hashim, whose name is ‘Amr, son of ‘Abd Munāf, whose name is al-Mughira to whose exaltedness the ascension is related 􀁄 Son of Quşay, whose name is Mujammi‘ because he used to travel far into Quđā‘a land 􀁄 Until Allah brought him to the sacred haram and its protection 􀁄 Son of Kilāb, whose name is Hakīm, son of Murrah son of Ka‘b son of Lu’ay son of Ghālib son of Fihr, whose name is Quraysh, to whom the clans of Quraysh are related 􀁄 What is above Quraysh is Kināni as accepted by many 􀁄 Ibn Mālik son of al-Nađr son of Kinānah son of Khuzaymah son of Mudrikah son of Ilyās, the first to offer camels as a present to the sacrosanct precinct 􀁄 And in whose loins the Prophet was heard mentioning Allah and responding to Him 􀁄 Son of Muđar son of Nizār son of Ma‘add son of ‘Adnān—this is a thread whose precious gems were strung by the finger of the brilliant sunnah 􀁄 ‘Adnān, whom Allah connected to the Khalil, Ibrahim (upon him be peace), whose way Sayyiduna Muhammad took and whose father he is 􀁄 And here there is no doubt for those who have knowledge of his ineage 􀁄 That ‘Adnān descends from the Sacrificed, Ismā‘īl, where Sayyiduna Muhammad’s lineage ends 􀁄 How great a necklace whose pearls like stars shine 􀁄 And why not, since its most precious, the Master the Noble, is among the lineage 􀁄 That ‘Adnān descends from the Sacrificed, Ismā‘īl, where Sayyiduna Muhammad’s lineage ends 􀁄 How great a necklace whose pearls like stars shine 􀁄 And why not, since its most precious, the Master the Noble, is among them 􀁄 Lineage measures exalted nobility by his adornment Gemini beautifies the necklace of stars Deference to the necklace of dominion and glory In which you are the orphan and jewel How noble is the lineage that Allah has purified from the immorality of jahiliyya 􀁄 (Referencing Zayn al-Iraqi’s book The Wholesome Mawlid) 􀁄 Allah has preserved the nobility of Muhammad His noble forefathers safekeeping his name Never having indulged themselves in immorality From Adam to his father and mother he light of prophethood appeared as a beautiful white mark on their foreheads 􀁄 His new moon appeared on the foreheads of his grandfather and his son ‘Abd Allah (Sayyiduna Muhammad’s father) 􀁄

O Allah, scent his noble grave with an aromatic fragrance of blessings and peace 􀁄

O Allah, bless him, grant him peace and barakah When Allah wanted to send forth His Muhammadan Reality 􀁄 His appearance as a body and soul in form and meaning 􀁄 He moved it to its resting place inside Āmana, the Radiance of Beauty 􀁄 Allah the Most Near the Responder selected her to be the mother of His Chosen One 􀁄 It was announced in the Heavens and on Earth that she was carrying the lights of Allah Himself 􀁄 Every ardent lover turned toward the scented breeze of his beloved 􀁄 After long being barren, the Earth became clothed in lush green 􀁄 Fruits ripened and trees bowed heavy laden easy for the picking 􀁄 In tongues of clear Arabic the animals spoke of his conception 􀁄 Beds (of tyrants) and idols tumbled landing on their faces and mouths 􀁄 Beasts of East and West, of land and sea, exchanged the good news 􀁄 The worlds drank from the cup of great joy 􀁄 The jinn were told the approach of his time, soothsayers prophesied, and monks became afraid 􀁄 Every learned rabbi was eager for news of his coming and became lost in astonishment by the display of his beauty 􀁄 His mother was visited in her sleep and was told: “You have become pregnant with the Master of the Worlds and the Best of Mankind” 􀁄 “So when you give birth to him, name him Muhammad, for surely all that issues from him will be praised” 􀁄

O Allah, scent his noble grave with an aromatic fragrance of blessings and peace 􀁄

O Allah, bless him, grant him peace and barakah Two months after his conception, according to the most well-known narrations 􀁄 His father, ‘Abd Allah, died in Madinah al-Munawwarah 􀁄 Passing by his uncles on his mother’s side, Bani ‘Uday from the tribe of Bani Najjār 􀁄 He fell ill, and for a month remained among them while they tried to treat him 􀁄 

O Allah, scent his noble grave with an aromatic fragrance of blessings and peace 􀁄

O Allah, bless him, grant him peace and barakah Nine lunar months passed after his conception, according to the numerous traditions 􀁄 Now, time’s thirst for him would be quenched 􀁄 On the night of his noble birth, Āsyah and Maryam with other women of paradise attended his mother 􀁄 The moment labor pains began she gave birth to him (Allah’s blessings and peace be upon him) as a radiance whose brilliance illuminates the world 􀁄 O Allah, scent his noble grave with an aromatic fragrance of blessings and peace 􀁄 O Allah, bless him, grant him peace and barakah Several imams of narration and knowledge say that standing at the mentioning of his noble birth is preferred 􀁄 So paradise is for the one whose sole aim is to honor his greatness 􀁄

O Allah, scent his noble grave with an aromatic fragrance of blessings and peace 􀁄

O Allah, bless him, grant him peace and barakah Recite the Fātiĥah and make a du‘ā p He (Allah bless him and grant him peace) appeared putting his hands on the earth and raising his head up to the exalted heaven 􀁄 This raising of his head indicating his sovereignty 􀁄 His high rank above mankind 􀁄 And that he is the Beloved One whose character and personality are good 􀁄 His mother called ‘Abd al- Muţţalib who the while had been performing ţawāf of the Ka‘bah (of the unseen), the Ka‘bah built for the angels (before the building of the Ka‘bah in the sensory) 􀁄 He came quickly and looked at him with utmost pleasure 􀁄 Then he took him inside the Ka bah, the Noble and Unique, and stood making dua with sincere intention 􀁄 Thanking Allah, the Exalted, for what He gave freely and with His pleasure 􀁄 He (Allah bless him and grant him peace) was born clean, circumcised, the embilical cord cut by the hand of Divine Power 􀁄 Scented, oiled, and with the kohl of divine care on his eyes 􀁄 It is also said that he was circumcised seven nights after his birth by his grandfather, ‘Abd al-Muţţalib 􀁄 Who served a feast and fed the people and named him Muhammad, and honoring him in his abode 􀁄

O Allah, scent his noble grave with an aromatic fragrance of blessings and peace 􀁄

O Allah, bless him, grant him peace and barakah At his birth abnormal and strange events appeared 􀁄 In order to facilitate his prophethood and notify (the world) that he is Allah’s Chosen One 􀁄 Heaven (alsamā’a) was increased in protection and the vicious and powerful jinn and those humans with devilish natures (nafs) were driven away 􀁄 The luminous stars stoned every accursed one at his raising himself 􀁄 And then lowered themselves to him in nuturing love 􀁄 By their light the valleys and hills of the Haram (Makkah) were illuminated 􀁄 A light came out with him (Allah bless him and grant him peace) illuminating the Roman castles of Sham for him 􀁄 And thus he saw from the valleys of Makkah, his home 􀁄 That the Persian palace at Mada’in had cracked 􀁄 The high and strong palace built by Anu Sharwan (a Persian king) 􀁄 And that fourteen of its high balconies had fallen 􀁄 The bed of King Kisra was broken—a shocking frightening event 􀁄 The fires worshipped by the Persian kingdoms went out 􀁄 At the appearance of his illuminating full moon and the dawning of his noble countenance 􀁄 Lake Sāwah which had been between Hamadhān and Qom dwindled away 􀁄 Because its source which had been gushing with water, dried up 􀁄 The valley of Samāwah a dry desert overflowed with water 􀁄 Before it had been without water to wet the mouth of the thirsty 􀁄 He (Allah bless him and grant him peace) was born in Makkah at the place known as al-‘Arāş 􀁄 The sacrosanct area in which the trees and plants were not to be cut 􀁄 Some scholars have been documented as being in disagreement about the exact year, month, and day of his birth 􀁄 But most accept that his birth was before the dawn of Monday the twelfth of Rabi‘ al-Awwal in the year that Allah protected the Ka‘bah by stopping the elephant (in the army of the enemies of the Ka‘bah) from entering the Haram 􀁄

O Allah, scent his noble grave with an aromatic fragrance of blessings and peace 􀁄

O Allah, bless him, grant him peace and barakah His mother suckled him for a few days then Thuwaybah al-Isalamiyah 􀁄 Who, when she gave her master Abu Lahab the good news (bushra) of the Prophet’s birth, was immediately set free (as a reward) 􀁄 She suckled him with her son, Masrūĥ, and Abu Salamah, receiving him with great pleasure 􀁄 Before him she had suckled Hamzah, who is praised for his support of the dīn 􀁄 From Madinah he (Allah bless him and grant him peace) would send her well-deserved gifts and clothing 􀁄 Until her body was put in the grave and covered 􀁄 Some said that she kept the dīn of her people in jahaliyah until her death 􀁄 Others said that she submitted, and this has been proven and narrated by Ibn al-Mundah 􀁄 Then he (Allah bless him and grant him peace) was suckled by a young woman, Ĥalīmah al-Sa‘diyah 􀁄 The people had rejected her as a wet nurse because of her indigence 􀁄 By nightfall (the day she took him) her barren life became fertile, she gave her right breast to him and it immediately overflowed with milk like pearls and her left one also gave milk to his suckling brother 􀁄 After weakness and poverty she became wealthy 􀁄 Her female camel and her sheep became fat 􀁄 And then all difficulties and misfortunes were removed from her shoulders 􀁄 Good fortune embroidered her cloak in good living, beautified 􀁄

O Allah, scent his noble grave with an aromatic fragrance of blessings and peace 􀁄

O Allah, bless him, grant him peace and barakah By divine care, he (Allah bless him and grant him peace) grew in one day what a child would grow in one month 􀁄 So he stood upon his feet in three months, walked in five months, and was able to talk articulately in nine months 􀁄 While in her care, two angels (visited him and) opened his chest and took out from his noble heart a clot of blood 􀁄 After removing the portion of the shayţān, they washed it with ice and filled it with wisdom and meanings based upon faith 􀁄 Then they closed it, sealing it with the seal of prophethood 􀁄 Lastly, they weighed him and found him to be heavier than one thousand of his good nation 􀁄 He grew up with the most perfect qualities of a young child 􀁄 Then she returned him to his mother though she wanted to keep him 􀁄 She feared harm might befall him 􀁄 Ĥalīmah visited him during the time he was living with Khadījah, al-sayyidah al-marđiyyah 􀁄 And he gave generously to her with shyness and modesty 􀁄 On the day of Ĥunayn, she came to him and he stood up selflessly to meet her 􀁄 He unfolded for her his noble shawl of generosity and honor 􀁄 The correct (belief) is that she, her husband and her children became Muslims 􀁄 A group of trustworthy narrators consider her and her husband to be among the companions 􀁄

O Allah, scent his noble grave with an aromatic fragrance of blessings and peace 􀁄

O Allah, bless him, grant him peace and barakah When he (Allah bless him and grant him peace) reached four years of age his mother took him to Madinah al-Munawwarah 􀁄 While returning she died either at al-Abwā’ or at Shi‘b al-Ĥajūn (somewhere between Makkah and Madinah, but closer to Madinah) 􀁄 He (Allah bless him and grant him peace) was then carried by his nurse maid, Umm Ayman, the Ethiopian, whom he later married to his freed slave Zayd ibn Ĥārithah 􀁄 She took him (Allah bless him and grant him peace) to his grandfather ‘Abd al-Muţţalib who hugged him and showed him great tenderness and raised his status 􀁄 He said: “This son of mine has a great affair. So bravo! to he who shows him respect and support” 􀁄 In his childhood his noble soul never complained from hunger or thirst 􀁄 Often his food was only the nourishment to be taken from the water of zamzam, which satisfied him and quenched his thirst 􀁄

O Allah, scent his noble grave with an aromatic fragrance of blessings and peace 􀁄

O Allah, bless him, grant him peace and barakah Then, when the camels of death were made to kneel down at the courtyard of his grandfather, ‘Abd al-Muţţalib, his uncle, Abu Ţālib, the brother of ‘Abd Allah from both parents, adopted him 􀁄 He carried his adoption with strong determination and zeal 􀁄 In bringing him up, he preferred him (Allah bless him and grant him peace) even to himself and his own children 􀁄

O Allah, scent his noble grave with an aromatic fragrance of blessings and peace 􀁄

O Allah, bless him, grant him peace and barakah When the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) was twelve years old, his uncle took him on one of his trips to Sham 􀁄 There, the monk Buĥayrā, in possession of the description of prophethood, recognized him 􀁄 He said: “I see him as the Master of the Worlds, the Messenger of Allah and His Prophet, for the trees and stones prostrated to him and they never prostrate except to a prophet, who sighs in repentance and asks for forgiveness” 􀁄 “Surely, we find his description in the ancient divine books” 􀁄 “And between his shoulder blades is the seal of prophethood, completely illuminated by light” 􀁄 His uncle ordered that he be returned to Makkah, fearing that harm might befall him from the Jews 􀁄 So he returned with him from Buşrā (a city in Sham now called Houran) in blessed Sham 􀁄

O Allah, scent his noble grave with an aromatic fragrance of blessings and peace 􀁄

O Allah, bless him, grant him peace and barakah When he (Allah bless him and grant him peace) reached twenty-five years of age he traveled to Buşrā (again, this time) in trade for the young woman, Khadījah 􀁄 With him was her servant, Maysarah, who served him and looked after his needs 􀁄 Near the hermitage of Nasţūr, the Christian monk, he rested under a tree 􀁄 The monk recognized him (Allah bless him and grant him peace) when the tree inclined its thick shade towards him 􀁄 He said: “No one ever rested under this tree except a prophet possessing pure qualities” 􀁄 “And a messenger for whom Allah has chosen to give moral excellence” 􀁄 Then he asked Maysarah: “Is there any redness in his eyes?” trying to uncover a hidden sign 􀁄 And he answered: “Yes.” So he confirmed to himself what he had been thinking 􀁄 Then he said to Maysarah: “Don’t leave his side. Be with him with sincerity, determination and honesty” 􀁄 “For he is one of those whom Allah has honored and selected for prophethood” 􀁄 When Khadījah was at ‘Uliyyah with a group of women, she saw him (Allah bless him and grant him peace) approaching, returning to Makkah 􀁄 With two angels over his noble head shading him from the heat of the sun 􀁄 Maysarah told her that he had seen this before during the trip and he told her of the advice the monk had entrusted him with 􀁄 Allah doubled the trade’s profits and made it grow 􀁄 So from what she saw and heard it became clear to her that he was the Messenger of Allah, the Exalted, to mankind, whom Allah had specially selected to be near Him 􀁄

O Allah, scent his noble grave with an aromatic fragrance of blessings and peace 􀁄

O Allah, bless him, grant him peace and barakah She asked him (Allah bless him and grant him peace) to take her pure self in marriage so that by his perfumed scent she might obtain the scent of īmān (belief) 􀁄 He then told his uncles what this pure and pious woman had asked him for 􀁄 And they agreed, for they were pleased by her virtue, her religion, her beauty, her wealth, and her lineage—all cherished qualities 􀁄 Abu Ţālib made a speech, praising Allah and him (Allah bless him and grant him peace) 􀁄 He said: “By Allah, his future deeds will be praised” 􀁄 She was married to him by her father; it is also said by her uncle; and it is also said by her brother—her happiness having been preordained 􀁄 To him, she gave birth to all his children except the one he called al- Khalīl (Ibrahīm) 􀁄

O Allah, scent his noble grave with an aromatic fragrance of blessings and peace 􀁄

O Allah, bless him, grant him peace and barakah When he reached the age of thirty-five, the Quraysh were rebuilding the Ka‘bah because its walls had cracked from the floodwaters of Abţaĥ (one of the valleys in Makkah) 􀁄 They disputed over who would lift the black stone to its place in the Ka‘bah, for every one wanted this honor 􀁄 The argument grew heated and they were about to come to blows—every clan standing against the others 􀁄 Then they summoned each other to agree upon leaving the resolution of the matter to someone who would apply wisdom and deliberation 􀁄 They decided to accept the decision of the first one who entered from the gate of al-sanadah al-shaybiyyah (the Shaybi Custodian: named after the custodians of the Ka‘bah who were from Shaybah ibn ‘Uthman al-Shaybi) 􀁄 The Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) was the first to enter, so they said: “This is the Honest One (al-Amīn). We all accept him and are pleased with him” 􀁄 Then they told him that they wanted him to make a ruling on the matter and carry it out 􀁄 So he (Allah bless him and grant him peace) put the stone on a cloak and then ordered the tribes to lift it together to its designated place 􀁄 They all lifted it to its place in the corner of that building (the Ka‘bah) 􀁄 Then, with his noble hands, he (Allah bless him and grant him peace) put it in its present place and fixed it there 􀁄

O Allah, scent his noble grave with an aromatic fragrance of blessings and peace 􀁄

O Allah, bless him, grant him peace and barakah According to the most trusted narrators of the (Islamic) world, when he (Allah bless him and grant him peace) completed forty years of age 􀁄 Allah sent him as a bringer of good news and a warner to the worlds, covering them with his mercy 􀁄 For six complete months he saw clear true dreams 􀁄 Each one coming like the dawning of the morning’s brilliant light 􀁄 He was started out with these dreams as a training to strengthen his human capacity 􀁄 So that the Angel wouldn’t surprise him with the manifestness of prophethood and then his powers would not be able to encompass it 􀁄 Isolation became pleasing to him so he would worship in the mountain of Ĥirā’ numerous nights (i.e., whole days) 􀁄 Until the pure truth (the angel Jibrīl with the revelation) came to him 􀁄 That was on a Monday, the seventeenth of the month of the Laylat al-Qadr (i.e., Ramađān) 􀁄 There are other traditions saying that it was the twenty-seventh or the twenty-fourth of that month, or eight days before the month of his birth 􀁄 He (Jibrīl) said to him: “Read.” He (Allah bless him and grant him peace) said: “I cannot read.” Then he covered him in a strong embrace 􀁄 He (Jibrīl) said: “Read.” He (Allah bless him and grant him peace) said: “I cannot read.” Then Jibrīl covered him in an embrace a second time until he (Allah bless him and grant him peace) became exhausted and overwhelmed from the exertion 􀁄 Then Jibrīl said: “Read.” And he said: “I cannot read.” A third time the Angel embraced him and pressed him hard so that he would turn himself with full attention to what would be given to him 􀁄 Receiving it with seriousness and effort 􀁄 Then the revelation stopped for three years or thirty months, making him look forward eagerly to those beautifully fragranced scents (i.e., the Revelation) 􀁄 Then yā ayyuh al-muddathir (O you who have wrapped up in your garments!) was sent to him by Jibrīl 􀁄 So his prophethood began with iqra bisma rabbika (Read! In the name of your Lord)— evidence that it has priority in importance 􀁄 Foremost in his message, giving the good news and the warning to whomever he called to Islam 􀁄

O Allah, scent his noble grave with an aromatic fragrance of blessings and peace 􀁄

O Allah, bless him, grant him peace and barakah The first to believe in him (Allah bless him and grant him peace) among men was Abu Bakr, the companion in the cave (Thawr, on the way to Madinah), the Şaddīq (meaning: who believes immediately without doubt) 􀁄 Among children, ‘Alī; and among women, Khadījah, through whom Allah strengthened and preserved his heart and protected him (Allah bless him and grant him peace) 􀁄 Among freed slaves, Zayd ibn Ĥārithah; and among slaves, Bilāl (the Ethiopian, the caller to prayer chosen by the Prophet) tortured by his master, Umayah, for his belief in Allah 􀁄 Later bought and freed from slavery by his new master, Abu Bakr, who provided for him 􀁄 Then submitted ‘Uthmān, Sa‘ad, Sa‘īd, Ţalĥah (cousin of Abu Bakr), Ibn al-‘Awf (‘Abdu ‘Amr: changed by the Prophet to ‘Abd al-Raĥmān), and Zubayr, the son of the Prophet’s aunt, Şaffiyah 􀁄 And others whom the Şaddīq gave to drink the nectar of belief 􀁄 Still he (Allah bless him and grant him peace) and his companions worshipped in secret 􀁄 Until Allah revealed faşda‘ bimā tu’mir (١٥:٩٤; Therefore, declare openly what you are bidden); thereupon, he openly called the people to Allah 􀁄 His people didn’t denounce him until he denounced their gods and ordered the rejection of all but the oneness 􀁄 Now they dared show him open enmity and the threat of harm 􀁄 Hardships increased for the Muslims, so in the fifth year they made hijrah (the Prophet ordered some of his followers to flee the persecution in Makkah) to the domain of the king of Habasha (al-Najāshī) 􀁄 Because his uncle, Abu Ţālib, was solicitous of him (Allah bless him and grant him peace), all the people were afraid to harm him, and so for a time he was protected 􀁄 First, he (Allah bless him and grant him peace) was required to stand some hours of the night 􀁄 Then the obligation was abrogated by Allah’s words faqra’u mā tayassara minhu wa’aqīmu al-şalāt (٧٣:٢٠; Read from it what is easy, and establish the prayer) 􀁄 And he was required to make two raka‘ in the morning and two in the evening 􀁄 Then, finally, in the night of the isrā’ (the night journey) his obligation was abrogated by the five required prayers 􀁄 Abu Talib died in mid-Shawwal in the tenth year of the message and with his death the hardships greatly intensified 􀁄 Following his death by three months came Khadīja’s and increased hardships and vulnerability 􀁄 The Quraysh let fall upon him every injury 􀁄 He went to Ţa’if, calling Thaqīf (the tribe of Ta’if) to Islam, where he wasn’t received well 􀁄 They encouraged the mockers and the slaves to insult him rudely 􀁄 They pelted him (Allah bless him and grant him peace) with stones until his shoes were dyed red from his blood 􀁄 In sadness he (Allah bless him and grant him peace) returned to Makkah; then the angel of the mountains (surrounding Ţā’if) asked him if he should destroy its people for their stubborn ignorance 􀁄 But instead he (Allah bless him and grant him peace) said: “I ask Allah to take care of (i.e., cause to flourish in Islam) those whom He brings out from their loins” 􀁄

O Allah, scent his noble grave with an aromatic fragrance of blessings and peace 􀁄

O Allah, bless him, grant him peace and barakah When, while awake, he (Allah bless him and grant him peace) was taken on a night journey, with his spirit (rūĥ) and body, from the Mosque of the Ĥarām (in Makkah) to the Mosque of al-Aqsā (in Jerusalem) and its sacred precinct 􀁄 He was taken up to the heavens, where in the first heaven he saw Ādam, dignity enveloping and exalting him 􀁄 In the second heaven, he saw ‘Isa ibn al-Batūl (Jesus son of the Virgin Mary, who isolated herself in devotion to Allah), the Good the Pure 􀁄 And his cousin, Yaĥya, who was given wisdom in application of the Torah (and prophethood) in his youth 􀁄 In the third heaven, he saw Yūsuf, the Şiddīq, with his beautiful form 􀁄 In the fourth heaven, Idrīs (named for his extensive study of Allah’s book), whom Allah raised to his high place 􀁄 In the fifth heaven, Hārūn, the beloved of the Israelite nation 􀁄 In the sixth heaven, Mūsā, to whom Allah talked intimately 􀁄 And in the seventh heaven, Ibrāhīm, who came to his Lord with a heart at peace and an inwardness of goodness 􀁄 Whom Allah protected from the fire of Nimrod 􀁄 Then he raised him to the sidrat al-muntahā until he heard the sound of the pens writing the decreed matters 􀁄 To the station (maqam) of the encounter without veil in which Allah allowed him to approach and draw near 􀁄 There Allah raised for him (Allah bless him and grant him peace) the veils of the glorious lights 􀁄 And let him see with his own eyes in the presence of Lordship what He let him see 􀁄 So He spread for him the carpet of care and affection in the divine presence 􀁄 He made obligatory upon him and his nation ٥٠ prayers 􀁄 Then the clouds of virtue and mercy poured forth and they were reduced to the performance of five prayers 􀁄 Having the reward of the ٥٠ that He had decreed and willed in pre-endless time 􀁄 Then he (Allah bless him and grant him peace) returned in the same night and the Şiddīq believed him (when he had told others) about his night journey 􀁄 As do all who possess intellect and the capacity to reflect 􀁄 While the Quraysh didn’t believe him and some apostated whom the Shayţān led astray and lured 􀁄

O Allah, scent his noble grave with an aromatic fragrance of blessings and peace 􀁄

O Allah, bless him, grant him peace and barakah During the hajj days (note: even before Islam, at a specific time of the year, people gathered to visit the Ka‘bah) he (Allah bless him and grant him peace) presented himself to the tribes as the Messenger of Allah 􀁄 Allah showed His pleasure with six of the anşār (six from Madinah) whom He distinguished by their belief in him (Allah bless him and grant him peace) 􀁄 Then twelve men from them (i.e., Madinah) performed the hajj (the next year) with the tribes and took a true bay‘ah (oath of allegiance) from him 􀁄 They returned and Islam appeared in Madīnah, eventually becoming his stronghold and residence 􀁄 The third time they came as ٧٥, or ٧٣ and two women, from the tribes of Aws and Khazraj 􀁄 They took bay‘ah from him (Allah bless him and grant him peace) and then he chose twelve of them who were nobles and masters to be their amīrs 􀁄 And then the Islamic millah (people practicing the way of Islam) of Makkah emigrated to them 􀁄 They separated themselves from their homelands desiring what had been prepared for the one who denounces kufr and flees 􀁄 The Quraysh, fearing that he (Allah bless him and grant him peace) would soon join his Companions 􀁄 Plotted to kill him, so Allah the Exalted protected and saved him from their deceit 􀁄

O Allah, scent his noble grave with an aromatic fragrance of blessings and peace 􀁄

O Allah, bless him, grant him peace and barakah While the unbelievers were watching him (Allah bless him and grant him peace) in order to carry out their plan to kill him, Allah gave him permission to emigrate 􀁄 He came out to them and threw upon their heads dust 􀁄 Then he headed straight for the cave of Thawr (ghār: small opening in a mountain, as opposed to kahf which is a large cave) wherein the Şiddīq won the opportunity of being in the company (of Allah and His Messenger; see Surat Tawbah, ayah ٤٠: “Grieve not, surely Allah is with us”) 􀁄 There they remained for three days in the protection of the pigeons and spiders 􀁄 They left it the night of Monday (meaning, between Sunday after maghrib and Monday morning before fajr) upon a good female camel 􀁄 (On the way) when Surāqah came upon him (on horseback with the intention of capturing him), he (Allah bless him and grant him peace) earnestly asked Allah’s protection from him 􀁄 Then the legs of Surāqah’s horse began to sink into the firm ground, whereupon he asked for the Prophet’s protection, and he was granted it 􀁄 He (Allah bless him and grant him peace) passed the tent of Umm Ma‘bad al-Khuzā‘iyah (kunya for ‘Ātikah bint Khālid) 􀁄 He wanted to buy milk or meat from her, but there was neither milk nor meat in her wool tent 􀁄 However, the Prophet saw a female sheep in the house that didn’t go with the other sheep because it was too exhausted 􀁄 He asked her permission to milk it 􀁄 She gave him permission and said if there were any milk in her they would have milked her 􀁄 But at his touch, it filled up with milk and he milked her and everyone present drank to their satisfaction 􀁄 Then he milked the sheep again, filling the container, and left it with her as a clear sign 􀁄 When Abu Ma‘bad came and saw the milk, he was struck by wonder 􀁄 He asked: “From whence came this milk? There is no milking sheep that can give even a single drop” 􀁄 She told him that a blessed man passed by, giving his physical description and his other qualities 􀁄 He declared: “That is the man from Quraysh,” and swore by all that is divine 􀁄 That if he saw him he would believe in him, follow him and be close to him 􀁄 He (Allah bless him and grant him peace) arrived in Madīnah on Monday the twelfth of Rabī‘ al-Awwal 􀁄 Its pure sites were illumined by him 􀁄 The anşār met and welcomed him and he dismounted at Kuba (about two miles from Madīnah) where he built a mosque upon his piety (taqwa) 􀁄

O Allah, scent his noble grave with an aromatic fragrance of blessings and peace 􀁄

O Allah, bless him, grant him peace and barakah He (Allah bless him and grant him peace) was the most perfect of people in physical and moral nature, possessing the highest being and qualities 􀁄 Of middle height; white in color mixed with red; his eyes were big with natural kohl, having long lashes, long eyebrows almost touching 􀁄 Between his two front teeth was a space; his mouth was full but handsome; his face was wide with a forehead like the new moon 􀁄 His cheekbones were not high; his nose was slightly curved, its bridge was good and a little high 􀁄 His shoulders were broad; his palms wide and generous; his bones big at the joints; his heels with little flesh; his beard thick; his head large; his hair reaching the earlobes 􀁄 Between his shoulders was the seal of prophethood, luminous 􀁄 His perspiration was like pearls, its scent sweeter than musk 􀁄 When walking, he would lean forward moving quickly as if he were coming down from a high place 􀁄 When he greeted someone he would shake hands with him and that person would spend the day smelling of jasmine and narcissus 􀁄 When he put his noble hand on a child’s head that child could easily be known from the rest by the scent left on his head from the Prophet’s touch 􀁄 His noble face shone like the light of the night of a full moon 􀁄 The one who describes him says: “I have never seen before or after him a human being like him” 􀁄 He (Allah bless him and grant him peace) was very shy and very modest—mending his own shoes, patching his own robe, milking his own sheep, and serving his family in a noble way 􀁄 He loved the poor—sitting among them, visiting their sick, and walking in their funerals; he never condescended to anyone, even to the most poor and wretched 􀁄 He accepted apologies; he never met someone mentioning what that person disliked; he walked with widows and slaves 􀁄 He didn’t fear kings; he got angry only for Allah’s sake; and was pleased with what pleased Allah 􀁄 He walked behind his companions saying: “Leave my back for the spiritual angels” 􀁄 He rode the camel, the horse, the mule, and the donkey given to him by a king 􀁄 Though he tied a stone on his stomach from hunger, all the keys of the earth’s treasuries were at his disposal 􀁄 Even mountains tried to persuade him to permit them to turn themselves into gold for him, but he refused 􀁄 He didn’t speak idly; whenever he met someone he was the first to offer greetings; he elongated the prayer and made short the jumu‘a khutbah 􀁄 He used persuasion on the nobles and honored the generous, sometimes joking but always speaking the truth pleasing to Allah 􀁄 Here, the description of his noble person comes to an end 􀁄 And the one who is dictating this has reached a stopping point like the traveler who has reached a clearing and a place of rest 􀁄

O Allah, scent his noble grave with an aromatic fragrance of blessings and peace 􀁄

O Allah, bless him, grant him peace and barakah O Allah, O Open-handed in giving 􀁄 O He Who when the palms of the servant are raised satisfies the suppliant 􀁄 O He Who declares the unity in His being and in His attributes 􀁄 To be only for Him without equal or similarity 􀁄 O He Who alone remains forever and Who existed in the most ancient time and Who existed in preendless time 􀁄 O He in Whom no one places his hopes except Him and upon Whom no one depends but Him 􀁄 O He in Whose everlasting power the people are confident 􀁄 Who guides with His overflowing generosity he who seeks His guidance 􀁄 We ask You by Your sacred lights 􀁄 Which removed the night from the darknesses of doubts 􀁄 We humbly beseech You through the exalted rank of the Muhammadan Being (aldhat al-muhammadiya) (i.e., tawassul: seeking Allah’s help through Sayyiduna Muhammad) 􀁄 Who was the last of the prophets in his physical appearance but the first of them in his meaning 􀁄 By his family, mankind’s secure planets 􀁄 Their ship of safety and refuge 􀁄 By his companions, the people of guidance and preference 􀁄 Who freely gave themselves to Allah only desiring Allah’s overflowing generosity 􀁄 And by the carriers of His Shari‘ah, the people of great deeds and virtues 􀁄 Who rejoice in each grace and favor (ni‘mah and fađl) from Allah 􀁄 That you grant us success in words and deeds in achieving sincerity of intention 􀁄 That You give to all who are present his request and wish 􀁄 That You save us from the shackles of lower desires and the sicknesses of the heart 􀁄 That You realize our hopes which we have placed in You (three times) 􀁄 That you save us from every great harm and calamity 􀁄 That You don’t place us among those whose self tends toward low desires 􀁄 That You cover the flaw, the inability, the limitation, and the powerlessness of each one of us 􀁄 That You make easy for us the good deeds which are difficult to accomplish 􀁄 That You bring close to us the goodness of certainty so that it may be easily picked like the fruit of jannah 􀁄 That You erase from us all our sins (three times) 􀁄 That You include this gathering of ours in Your exalted giving from Your treasuries 􀁄 By a mercy and a forgiveness and a perpetual freedom from needing anyone other than You 􀁄 O Allah, surely You have given to every petitioner a station and a merit 􀁄 And to every hopeful one whatever he hoped for 􀁄 We have asked You hoping for gifts from Your presence 􀁄 So realize for us what we hope to gain from You (three times) 􀁄 O Allah, secure us from fears, and correct the rulers and their citizens 􀁄 Increase the reward of whoever performs this goodness today 􀁄 O Allah, make this country and all Muslim countries secure and comfortable 􀁄 And provide our land with rain that will cover its low lands and its hills 􀁄 And forgive the copier of these decorated pages of the Mawlid 􀁄 Ja‘far, from the family al-Barzanji, and his lineage to whom he belongs 􀁄 Realize for him the triumph of Your closeness 􀁄 Make his rest and place of residence among the foremost brought near to You (muqarrabīn) 􀁄 Cover the flaw, the inability, the limitation, and the powerlessness of him 􀁄 And the writer of this Mawlid, its reader, and whoever listens carefully to it 􀁄 Bless, O Allah, the first divine manifested light from the absolute Reality 􀁄 His family, companions, and those who helped him and stood by him 􀁄 The ears that are pleased by the glittering description of him are thereby bedecked with jeweled earrings 􀁄 The foremost of the noble gatherings (i.e., those reciting the mawlid) are made beautiful with chests adorned with necklaces in which he is mentioned 􀁄 Allah bless our master Muhammad, bless him and grant him peace 􀁄 Glory be to your Lord, the Lord of Might and Honor, above what they describe; and peace be on the messengers; and all praise is due to Allah, the Lord of the worlds 􀁄 The Jannah and its tranquility, a joy, for whoever sends him blessings and peace and wishes him barakah 􀁄 Make a du‘ā

Arranged and transmitted by

Er. Mohammad Ashraf Fazili (6th Rabi-ul-Awal 1433 AH/ 30th January, 2012)



HAZRAT KHWAJA BAHA-ud-DIN NAQSHBAND (RA) Hazrat Khwaja Baha-ud-Din bin Muhammad bin Muhammad bin Muhammad Naqshband was born in 718 AH at Qasr-i-Arifan, a village in Bukhara. Later on he shifted to Revertun village of Bukhara and spent his life there. Certain sources mention him to be from the Husaini Sadat and his ancestor was named Muhammad, titled Jalal-ud-Din. His ancestors were the followers of the Murshid of the Sufis of Khwajgan-Khwaja Muhammad Babai Sammasi. The father of Khwja Baha-ud-Din Muhammad was known as Baba Sahib Sarmast and lies buried in Samarqand..Little is known about his details except some brief hints. He was having great regard for the saints of the time. Just after three days of his birth Hazrat Baha-ud-Din was taken by his ancestor to Khwaja Muhammad Babai Sammasi for receiving his blessings, who had come to Qasr-i-Arifan along with a group of his followers and he adopted Hazrat Khwaja Baha-ud-Din Muhammad as his son, and he said that ‘he is my son and I have accepted him’ and foretold his followers that ‘this son shall be the leader of the time.’ He was married at the age of 18 years and in those very days he was blessed with remaining in the service of Khwaja Baba Muhammad Sammasi, and on his passing away in 755 AH, his ancestor took him to Samarqand. There he obtained blessings from the dervishes in his favour. On reaching maturity, he reached in the service of Hazrat Amir Kalal, the successor of Babai Sammasi, who trained him in ‘zikr’ and thus he got busy in prayers and ‘mujahada’. Hazrat Sayid Amir Kalal left no stone unturned in his education, training and instructions as desired by his Murshid Khwaja Muhammad Sammasi. On completion of his course, Hazrat Khwaja Baha-ud-Din Muhammad desired to leave and on account of God- given capability, the Murshid allowed him to try for higher perfection of self. Thereafter he served Moulana Arif Deg-garai for seven years, besides spending several months with Shaikh Qasam of Turkistan, who was associated with Khwaja Ahmad Yaswi and thereafter he spent twelve years in the service of a Turkistani Murshid Khalil Aata. Some more period he spent with scholars, where he learnt the knowledge of Hadith , besides he aquainted himself with the biographies of Sahaba (Companions of the Prophet) Hazrat Khwaja Baha-ud-Din performed Hajj twice. In one of these travels the king of Herat Muiz-ud-Din Husain bin Gayas-ud-Din gave a grand reception in his honour, where he invited scholars of Herat and himself too enquired regarding issues about ‘Tariqat and Irfan’. In the second travel for Hajj, he went to see the famous saint Hazrat Zain-ud-Din Abu Bakr Taib-Abadi and remained in his company for three days. Hazrat Zain-ud-Din passed away in 791 AH. Besides these travels of Hajj, Hazrat Khwaja Baha-ud-Din Muhammad Naqshband went to meet great Mashaikh of Khurasan, Mavara-un-Nahar, Samarqand, Joi Mooliyan, Revartun, Bekand, Tasaf, Simnan, Marv, Tus, Mashhad, Teyibad, Azyut, Karminya, Qashlaq-i-Khwaja Mubarak, Qarshi, Kufeen, Qazeel Rabat, Kush,etc. Little is known about the family background of Hazrat Khwaja Naqshband, though much has been written on Naqshbandi order. At last Hazrat Khwaja Baha-ud-Din Muhammad Naqshband left this temporal world on Monday night of third Rabi-ul-Awal 791 AH. His age was 73 years. He lies buried in his home town Bukhara. This village is now known as Baha-ud-Din. Hazrat Khwaja Ala-ud-Din Attar states that “Hazrat Khwaja Naqshband was miskeen (faqir) and had given up the world, relationship and had adopted a lonely life of abistenance.His pious breaths were devoted to the grace of fuqur, darvishi and he would tell me with great love, that whatever he had found, was found by him with it’s original attributes.” “There would be dust in his house in winter, which would be falling from the mosque. In summer there would be an old mat. He would always be careful in self-introspection and would be cautious about his diet. He would often relate Hadith about pious (halal) diet. Inspite of being at the height of fuqr, he was full of the desire for sacrifice and servitude.Whatever gift was brought to him, he would return a similar or better gift, in keeping with the practice of the Prophet (PBH). He would entertain his guest with befitting diet and would see that there is no laxity in making him at ease. He would provide his own clothes/ coverings to cover the guest in his sleep to make him comfortable. Hazrat Khwaja would grow his paddy/wheat himself from his fields. He would be cautious in the selection of seeds and the selection of oxen with broad horns. Scholars coming in his service would eat from his kitchen, considering it to be a blessing from him. His personality is described to be so impressive that King and Amirs of Herat would remain dumbfounded on seeing him. He would be well dressed duly scented, social with friends and guests,attendind domestic work himself,and would help his family in other domestic works, would go to enquire about sick people, and would even provide advice regarding their treatment, he would treat the wounds of animals,and would pray for the welfare of faithful (moomin). He was a guide for the ettiquete, a Murshid to many hearts and would always preach for just (hahal) diet and clean and pious life. He himself had attained the fame of a Perfet friend of Allah (Wali), people like great scholars, Amirs, Wazirs,and even kings from far and wide would attend his gatherings to receive his blessings. He would pray for their welfare and also for the (taqwa)-abstinence of their hearts. Besides the hard prayers, he would follow in the footsteps of the Prophet in all (Ibadat) prayers- he would be always with ablution (Wazoo), punctual in (prayers (Salat) and recitation of Quran, repentance (Toba-Istigfar); Remembrance of Allah (Zikir); Awrad,-wazaif, nawafil, tarawih; Tasabih, Tahajjud and fasting; in short he spent whole life in engaging himself in these tasks, without wasting a moment. Khwaja Naqshband classified knowledge in three categories: one is bookish knowledge, which perishes with the death of the writer and eating of the book by moths; many such types of knowledge have come and are lost; the second form of knowledge is that of verification. Again this too is not reliable as a theory put forward today is disproved tomorrow. Yesterday we were told that sun is stationary, today we are told that it is moving. Hence not reliable. The third form of knowledge niether needs books nor verification. It is transfered from person to person and one must think that a person having this type of knowledge has reached it’s climax, when he says that he knows nothing, as this knowledge is so vast that it has no boundaries. Khwaja Naqshband says that being a student of this knowledge, time and distance is no bar to him, that means he could travel both time and distance without means and that is the lowest stage of this knowledge. The highest form of this knowledge is (The Miraj) the ascension performed by the Prophet (PBH). The purpose of knowledge should be to take you to the Source of knowledge, which is ALLAH. In India the Naqshbandi order was introduced by Hazrat Khwaja Razi-ud-Din Muhammad Baqi known as Khwaja Baqi Billah. It was with his efforts lasting three to four years that a strong foundation of the order was laid in India. Hazrat Baqi Billah was born in Kabul in 971 AH. He received initial education from his father Qazi Abdul Salam Khilji followed by Moulana Muhammad Siddiq Halwai, who took him to Mavra-un-Nahar and there he became fond of Sofi Tariqat in his company. Ignoring the traditional education, he began to attend the gatherings of the Mashaikh. Having developed interest, he made repentance (Tobah) in presence of Shaikh Khwja Ubaid (Khalifa of Moulana Lutfullah who was Khalifa of Makhdoom-i-Azam Dahbedi). Next he went to Shaikh Iftikhar from the order of Shaikh Ahmad Yasvi, who had come to Samarqand., on whose hands he made second repentance (Tobah). He had a vision of Khwaja Baha-ud-Din Naqshband and Khwaja Muhammad Parsa. At last he came to India in his full youth and fufilled his thirst wherever he found the springs bubbling with Muarifat. He came to Kashmir as well and spent two years in the service of Baba Ali Waali (RA) and after the death of Baba Ali Waali reached Sumbal to get benefitted from Shaikh Ilahi Bakhsh Sumbali. After completion of his travels, the soul of Khwaja Ubaidullah Ahrar got manifest to him, who educated him in the tariqa Naqshbandiya and after its completion he went back to Mavra-un-Nahar and reached in the service of Khwajagi Khwaja Muhammad Amkingi, who gave a special attention to him in seclusion for three days and three nights and sent him to India for propagating Naqsbandi order there. He reached Lahore and the scholars of that place were benefited during his one year stay there.Then he moved to Delhi and lived in the fort built by Feroz Shah Tagluk. There was a mosque inside the fort, besides a channel was running through it. He remained there till his last day. He was down to earth by nature, most lovable, very matured and tolerant. His lovable personality attracted the disciples and with his spiritual influence, a spiritual change would take place iin them, and whoever would come in his sight would enter the Naqshbandi order finding a transformation and in some cases ‘Alami- malakoot’ got manifest on them. Though the number of people entered in the order was considerable, but the most distinguished among all was Hazrat Shaikh Ahmad Sirhindi (RA). who was the founder of Tariqa Mujadadia in India and is known as Mujaddad Alf Sani (Reviver of Deen after thousand years). Hazrat Baqi Billah perfected spiritual education of Shaikh Ahmad in Naqshbandi order. In him Hazrat Baqi Billah found his dream getting fulfilled in which he was earlier shown a speaking parrot on the tree branch and he himself sitting under the shade of the tree. The parrot came flying and sat on his hand and Hazrat Baqi Billah dropped saliva from his mouth in the bird’s mouth and the parrot in turn dropped some sugar from his mouth in the mouth of Baqi Billah. When he related this dream to Khwaja Amkingi, he told him that I have already told you to go to India, where a vast population will get enlightened by you. The parrot is the bird of India and there a person will get benefitted, who will enlighten a great world and you will also be benefitted by it. Within two or three months Hazrat Mujaddid Alf Sani discovered the light of inner self and covered the stages of ‘salook’ and before leaving for Sirhind, Hazrat Baqi Billah told him this good news that you have qualified for Naqsshbandi order and will progress with each passing day. Thereafter Shaikh Ahmad revisited Delhi to see his Pir-o-Murshid and he was bestowed the honour of Khilafat and was permitted to give instructions in the tariqat, besides he entrusted his own disciples to him for further education and training. Again in a state of restlesness, Hazrat Mujaddid Alf Sani went to see his Murshid for the third time. This time Hazrat Baqi Billah himself came out to receive him and blessed him with many blessings. He directed all his disciples to follow him even in his presence and brought his two sons Khwaja Ubaidullah, and Khwaja Abdullah and their mother in his presence and asked him to take care of them, which was a hint of his nearing end of his life. He once pointed towards Hazrat Mujaddid Alf Sani stating that Shaikh Ahmad is the sun in whose light there are thousands of stars like us. Hazrat Baqi Billah reached India in Akbar’s reign and within four year’s stay, he brought a great populace under the influence of his order. Many Mashaikh became his disciples. Many disciples were released from the innovations and brought back on the track of Sunnah and straight path and a new blood was infused in people. He breathed his last in 1014 AH in Delhi, when he was only forty years and four months of age.He lies buried in Delhi near Qadm-i-Rasool (PBH). Though Kashmiris were longing for the visit of Hazrat Baqi billah, and when it was not possible, the Kashmiri Mashaikh would go to Delhi to get benefitted in the Naqshbandi order from Hazrat Baqi Billah. Though Hazrat Makhdum Shaikh Abdul Ahad Farooqi Sirhindi father of Shaikh Ahmad visited Kashmir , when Saif Khan was the Governor of this place and a huge gathering entered into his discipleship , to mention a few of them, Mohammad Amin Sufi, Noor Babai Pakhli, Hazrat Shaikh Mohammad Murad Tung (Murshid of the historian Khwaja Mohammad Azam Dedamari)- [ His hanwritten manuscript Shajra Mubarak in Kubravia, Qadiria, Suhrawardia, Naqshbandia and Chishtia orders is lying in my ancestoral library], Shaikh Abdul Rashid, Allama Moulana Qazi Mohammad Haidar (d. 1120 AH- b- Bachpora). But since Hazrat Makhdum Shaikh Abdul Ahad was the follower of Chisti and Qadiri orders, he enlisted his disciples in these two orders only. He however was often found praying for reaching of Naqshbandi order in India. Many names of Kashmiris are mentioned who got benefitted from this order by travelling to Delhi, to mention a few Akund Mulla Kamal,Hazrat Shah Qasim Haqqani, Shaikh Mahdi Ali Sopori, Mirza Hayat Beg, Khwaja Mohammad Sadiq (Sood), Shaikh Usman Jallundari, Shah Mohammad Sadiq Qalandar. Besides there are many persons who got initiated into Naqshbandi order from Hazrat Mujaddid Alf Sani. Hazrat Shaikh Yaqub Sarfi (RA) initiated Shaikh Ahmad in Kubravi order, who in turn initiated Shaikh Sarfi in Naqshbandi silsila. One of the decendants of Hazrat Shaikh Ahmad Sirhindi- Mir Ismail Ahmadi Bukhari (s/o Shaikh Mohammad Sibgatullah s/o Hazrat Khwaja Mohammad Masoom s/o Hazrat Shaikh Ahmad Sirhindi), migrated to Kashmir and lies buried in Dabtal Zaina Kadal. It is in his compound that Hazrat Habibullah Attar also lies buried. [Mir Ismail Bukhari happens to be my mother’s ancestor.] Allama Haidar bin Feroz Kashmiri was initiated in the orders of Qadirya, Shazilia, Madinia, Chishtia and Naqshbandia by Shaikh Abdul Haq Muhaddis Dehlavi.[The copy of the Shajra Mubarak- handwritten manuscript by Shaikh Muhaddis Dehlavi in these five orders lies in my ancestoral library.] In Kashmir the Naqshbandi order was initially intoduced by Sayid Hilal, who arrived in the reign of Sutan Sikandar (1389-1413 AD). Sayid Hilal is said to have been a direct disciple of Khwaja Baha-ud-Din Muhammad Naqshband. He lived a quiet life and died in 862 AH/1457 AD at the village of Asham North Kashmir, where he had settled down. Sayid Hilal left only one disciple named Sayid Amin known as Wusi Sahib in Kashmir. He hailed from the Baihaqi family and was the second son of Sayid Husain Baihaqi or Mantiqi. Sayid Amin was adopted as a son by Baihaqi Begum, the wife of Sultan Zain-ul-Abidin, but the life of affluence did not appeal to him. Like his spiritual master he led a life of retirement at Asham. When Sayid Hilal died, he moved to Srinagar, where he confined himself to a room near Koh-i-Maran. He became victim of a political intrigue, when fifteen members of his family were killed in 889 AH/1484 AD.He was buried at Alikadal on the right bank of river Jhelum in Srinagar, where his tomb exists to this day. Sayid Amin left no disciple. It was after over a century thereafter that Khwaja Khawand Mahmud arrived here at the end of 16th century AD. The Khwaja was the son of Khwaja Mir Sayid Sharif, who claimed descent from Khwja Ala-ud_din Attar, a distinguished disciple of Khwaja Baha-ud-Din Naqshband. Khawaja Khawand was initiated in the order by Khwaja Ishaq Safedki, but he claimed to have received inspiration direct from Khwja Baha-ud-Din Naqshband. Before entering Kashmir from Kabul, Khwaja Khawand had journeyed to many countries. The Khwaja did not stay there for long and soon left for Agra. However in the 17th century, when Khwaja Khawand made several further visits to Kashmir, the Naqshbandi order received a great impetus here.Later Khwaja Khawand preferd to settle at Lahore along with his other sons and deputed one of his sons Khwaja Moin-ud-Din to stay at Srinagar to look after the disciples and the affairs of Khanqah. The Khanqah which was earlier constructed by Budshah at Asham, was got shifted to Khwaja Bazar, where Khwaja Moin-ud-Din Naqshbandi was stationed later on. Khwaja Moin-ud-Din Naqshbandi lies buried in the masoleum near the Khanqah along with his wife (who was daughter of Aurangzeb) besides his two sons. The urs of Hazrat Khwaja Baha-ud-Din Muhammad Naqshband Bukhrai (RA) is celebrated on the 3rd Rabi-ul-Awal every year, besides the gatherings for special prayers (khatmat-muazzamat) are held for twelve days i.e. from 21st Safar to 3rd Rabi-ul Awal. These gatherings are held every day at 8 AM in the Khanqah-i-Naqshbandiya. On the urs day after the Asr prayers, special mass prayers are held called ‘Khoja Digar’. This practice continues as a tradition from the times of Hazrat Khwaja Khawand Mahmood i.e. from 1017 AH- 405 years. Today when I am writing these lines, it is 3rd Rabi-ul-Awal 1422 AH. Presented by, Er. Mohammad Ashraf Fazili (

Kashmir’s Glorious Past-Part II (continued from Part-i)


A host of Sayids arrived thereafter, prominent among these being : (1) Sayid Jalal-ud-Din of Bukhara known as Makhdum Jahanyan Jahangasht-the disciple of Sheikh Rukn-ud-Din Alam (son of Hazrat Baha-ud-Din zakarya Multani) who arrived in 748 AH and left Kashmir after a short stay. (2) Sayid Taj-ud-Din ( the cousin of Mir Sayid Ali Hamdani or Shah Hamadan ), who arrived in 760 AH, in the reign of Sutan Shihab-ud-Din and was accompanied by Sayid Masud and Sayid Yousuf, his disciples, who lie buried near his tomb in Mohalla Shihampur, a quarter of Srinagar. (3) Sayid Husain Simnani, who was the younger brother of Sayid Taj-ud-Din, a disciple of Sheikh Rukn-ud-Din Alam and came in 773 AH. Sayid Husain lies buried in a beautiful shrine in Kulgam. The other brother is buried at Shihampora (Nowhatta)

Mir Sayid Ali Hamadani

Born  in 714 AH/ 1314 AD at Hamadan Iran, with his genealogy traced to Hazrat Ali through Imam Husain, he being the 16th in direct decent from Ali b. Abi Talib. He studied Islamic theology, acquired knowledge and learnt tasawwuf under Sayid Alaud Din Simnani, his maternal uncle. He became the disciple of Sheikh Abul Barakat Taqi-ud-Din Ali Dosti, thereafter Sheikh Sharaf-ud-Din Mahmud Muzdaqani in Ray. Shah Hamadan visited several countries, journeyed for about 21 years and thus came in contact with several sufis (mystics)and ulama (divines) of the age and profited by association with them. Shah Hamadan travelled three times round the world and met 1400 saints. After  returning to his native place, Shah Hamadan left for Kashmir along with 700 Sayids in the reign of Sultan Shihab-ud-Din in 774 AH/ 1732 AD. Sultan Shihab-ud-Din had gone on an expedition against the ruler of Ohund. After 4 months stay, Shah Hamadan left for the scene of the battle and persuaded both sides to come to peace. Shah Hamadan then proceeded to Mecca and came back to the valley in 781 AH/ 1379 AD. in the time of Sultan Qutb-ud-Din. After a stay of two and a half years, he went to Ladakh in 783 AH en route for Turkistan. The third visit of Shah Hamadan took place in 785 AH/ 1383 AD. But he had to leave Kashmir on account of ill-health and stayed at Pakhli for ten days at the request of the ruler of that place whose name was Sultan Muhammad. From Pakhli Shah Hamadan reached in the vicinity of Kunar, where after a short stay, he had a relapse on 1st Zilhajja 786 AH/ 1384 AD and ate nothing for five days. On the 5th Zilhajja, he drank water several times, and on the same night, he breathed his last at the age of 72. On the death-bed Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir=Rahim was on his lips, and this, strangely enough , gives the date of his demise. He was buried at Khatlan two miles away from Kunar according to the wishes of his disciples. THE Moghul king Babar visited the shrine of Shah Hamadan in 920 AHl 1514 AD, after capturing the Chaghan-Sarai.

Shah Hamadan belonged to the Kubravi order of Sufis founded by Shaikh Najm-ud-Din Kubra of Khwarizm who died in 618 AH/ 1221 AD. The Kubravis are a branch of Suhrawardi Sufis. That the conversion of the valley to Islam was furthered by the presence of Shah Hamadan is beyond doubt. His prominent co-workers were : Mir Sayid Haidar, 2. Sayid Jamal-ud-Din, 3.Sayid Kamal-i-Sani, 4. Sayid Jamal-ud-Din Alai, 5. Sayid Rukn-ud-Din, 6. Sayid Muhammad, 7. Sayid Azizullah. They established hospices all over the country which served as centers for the propagation of their religion in every nook and corner of Kashmir and by their influence furthered the acceptance of the faith of the Prophet of Arabia. The  newly converted people of their own accord, converted temples into mosques on change of their faith. The Sultan Qutb-ud-Din acknowledged the greatness of the Sayid and adopted the directions as prescribed in Shariah.

Shah Hamdan besides being a saint was an author of 170 works, to name a few: Zakhiratul Maluk, Risala Noorya, Risala Maktoobat, Marifat-i-Soorat wa Seerat-i-Insan, Dar Haqaiq-i-Tawbah, Hal-i-Nasoos alal Fasoos, Sharhi Qasida Khmrya Farizya, Fasoos-ul-Hikam, Risala Al-Istilahat, Ilm-ul-Qyafah, Dah Qaidah, Kitab-ul Muwadata fil Quraba, Kitab-us-Sabein fi fazayili Amir-ul-Moominin, Arbayeen-i-Amiryah, Rawzatul Firdous, Firdaus-ul-Akhbar, Manazil-us-salikin, Awarad-i-Fathiyah, Khulasat-ul-Manaqib. Shah Hamdan was also a poet. His ghazals or odes are naturally Sufistic. The Chihil Asrar is a small collection of religious and mystical poems. Among the 700 Sayids who accompanied Shah Hamadan, the names of only a few are mentioned in the history, the mention of some shall follow in later pages. Besides bringing the guidance of Islam, they had brought with them skills of handicrafts from Iran and Central Asia, which were taught to the locals and a new order of craftsmanship and trade got developed here.

Mir Muhammad Hamadani.

Shah Hamdan was suceeded by his son Mir Muhammad Hamadani in enforcing of Islamic Shariah or law in Kashmir. Mir Muhammad Hamadani was born in 774 AH/ 1372 AD and was 12 years old when his father died. It is said that before his death in 1384, Shah Hamadan had handed over to Maulana Sarai for transmission to two of his prominent Khalifas- Khwaja Ishaq of Khatlan and Maulana Nur-ud-Din Jafar of Badakhshan-certain documents which contained his Wasiyat-Nama(Parting advice or bequest) and Khilafat-nama(or document conveying succession). Khwaja Ishaq and Maulana Nur-ud-Din in turn delivered the documents to Mir Muhammad with the exception of Khilafat-nama, the document conveying succession, which the former retained himself, saying that it could only be made over to one who proved worthy of it. This was apparently a hint for Mir Muhammad that he should exert himself to follow in the footsteps of his great father. Mir Muhammad accordingly studied under these prominent admirers of his father, and in course of time acquired succession to his father’s position of spiritual pre-eminence. He was the author of a treatise on Sufi-ism and wrote a commentary on the Shamsiyah, a well- known book in Arabic on logic.

On arrival in Kashmir in 796 AH/ 1393 AD, Mir Muhammad was received with great honor by Sultan Sikandar. Malik Suhabhatta- a brahman who was the Prime Minister and Commander of the army was so impressed with the personality and the simplicity of his faith, life and teachings that he embraced Islam along with his whole family. Suhabhatta adopted the new name of Malik Saif-uf-Din and offered his daughter-renamed Bibi Baria, in marriage to Mir Muhammad Hamadani.

Un-Islamic practices like distillation and sale and use of wine were prohibited. Sati (self-immolation by a widow on the funeral pyre of her husband) was forbidden. Gambling and nach (dancing by girls) were prohibited. Mir Muhammad stayed for about 22 years in Kashmir and left for Hajj in 817 AH. On his return from Mecca, he went back to Khatlan, where he died in 854 AH/ 1450 AD and was buried near his father. Mir Muhammad on entering the valley, was accompanied by 300 Sayids; Shah Hamadan, his father having as already noted, brought 700 of them. Kashmir had therefore a total influx of one thousand Sayids from Turkistan. Shah Hamadan, it is said converted 37,000 to Islam, Bulbul Shah having already made 10,000 converts. Mostly these were mass conversions. Sayid Baqir of Thune Wusan,and his 1200 Sayids must have canvassed about Islam about 100 years earlier.

Historians say that the magnitude of the change brought about by the advent of such a large number of Sayids into the Valley stimulated the tendency to mysticism for which Vedantism and Buddhism had already paved the way. It has been remarked that Islam does not countenance the enervating type of ’Tasawwuf’.

Naturally this type of Sayids influenced the more pronounced Muslim mystics of Kashmir. These Muslim mystics, well-known as Rishis or Babas or hermits, furthered the spread of Islam by their extreme piety and utter self-abnegation which influenced the people to a change of creed.

Saints and Rishis like Shaikh Nur-ud-Din, Baba Nasr-ud-Din, Baba Bam-ud-Din, Shaikh Hamza Makhdum, Sayid Ahmad Kirmani, Sayid Muhammad Hisari, Baba Zain-ud-Din, Baba Latif-ud-Din, Shukr-ud-Din, Hanif-ud-Din, Shah Vali Bukhari, Said Baba, khwaja Hasan Qari, by their example and percept, smoothed the path of Islam in its slow, steady and systematic conversion of practically the whole valley. Shaikh Nur-ud-Din- The Light of Faith- is the great national saint of Kashmir. The detail account of his life is available from history books. He was venerated by both Hindus and Muslims. Hindus call the saint Nunda Rishi or Sahajananda. His sayings are preserved in Nur-Nama written by Baba Nasib-ud-Din Ghazi in Persian about two centuries after the death of Shaikh Nur-ud-Din. He had four disciples namely Nasr-ud-din, Zain-ud-Din and Latif-ud-Din. Baba Nasr came of a rich family, who on coming in contact with Shaikh Nur-ud-Din gave up a life of ease and became a faithful disciple. Baba Bam-ud-Din was originally a Hindu by the name of Bhima Sadhi and got converted to Islam after seeing miracles performed by the Shaikh. Baba Laif-ud-Din, it is said, was a Hindu and accepted Islam after a long discussion with the Shaikh. Baba Zain-ud-Din was known as Zia Singh and hailed from Kishtwar. His father was killed by his enemies and Zia Singh became an orphan. Later on he came under the influence of Shaikh Nur-ud-Din and became a Muslim.

Sultan Sikandar:

The propagation of Islam in Kashmir received a strong impetus in the time of Sultan Sikandar, who has been blamed for his ‘bigotry in the persecution of Hindus of the Valley’ and is called by them ‘But-shiken’ or the iconoclast. Malik Suhabhatta, Sikandar,s minister, appears to be responsible for the destruction of a few temples that took place in Sikandar’s reign as Sikandar himself was an infant at his accession. According to Sir T.W.Arnold, Suhabhatta set on foot a fierce persecution of the adherents of his old faith: this, he did, probably, in order to show his zeal for his new religion. Ranjit Sitaram Pandit has also said the same thing. “Sikandar,” writes Ranjit,”had married a Hindu lady named Srisobha and was at first tolerant in religion like his predecessors but his powerful Hindu minister, Suhabhatta who became an apostate hated his former co-religionists with the hatred of a new convert. Perhaps these temples may also have been used as places of conspiracies against the State as pointed out by a local historian. But this sort of religious zeal is deplored, even prohibited in Islam. It is on record that Mir Muhammad Hamadani warned Suhabhatta against such action. Though Sikandar can be exonorated from his share of responsibility that rightly falls on Suhabhatta, but it is untrue that it was Sikandar who was to blame for the relentless persecution of every Hindu and the destruction of every temple.

Ruler /historian like Mirza Haidar Dughlat who invaded Kashmir in 1531 AD long after the death of Sikandar in 1414 AD, has written about temples in Kashmir in his ‘Tarikh-i-Rashidi’. He records, “First and foremost among the wonders of Kashmir stand her idol temples. In and around Kashmir, there are more than 150 temples which are built of blocks of hewn stone, fitted so accurately one upon the other, that there is no cement used. These stones have been so accurately placed in position, without plaster or mortar, that a sheet of paper could not be passed between the joints. The blocks are from three to twenty yards in length, one yard in in depth and one to five yards in breadth. The marvel is how these stones were transported and erected. The temples are all built on the same plan. There is a square enclosure which in some places reaches the height of thirty gaz, while each side is about 300 gaz long. Inside the enclosure there are pillars and on the top of pillars there are square capitals; on the top of these, separate parts are made out of one block of stone. On the pillars are fixed supports of the arches, and each arch is three or four gaz in width. Under the arch are a hall and a doorway. On the outside and inside of the arch are pillars of forty or fifty gaz in height having bases and capitals of stone. On the top of this are placed four pillars of one or two pieces of stone.

“The inside and the outside of the halls have the appearance of two porticos, and these are covered with one or two stones. The capitals, the ornamentation in relief, the cornices, the ‘dog-tooth’ work. The inside covering and the outside, are all crowded with pictures and paintings which I am incapable of describing. Some represent laughing and weeping figures, which astound the beholder. In the middle is a lofty throne of hewn stone, over that a dome made entirely of stone, which I cannot describe. In the rest of the world, there is not to be seen, or heard of, one building like this. How wonderful that there should here be a hundred and fifty of them.” Mirza Haidar may have made mistakes in the course of the narrative of his version of the history of Kashmir, but what he saw with his own eyes cannot be imaginary.

Jahangir (1605-1627 AD) speaks, “The lofty idol temples, which were built before the manifestation of Islam are still in existence, and are all built of stones which form foundation to roof are large and weigh 30 and 40 maunds one on the other.” As Jonaraja says, Sikandar urged by Suhabhatta “broke the images of Martanda, Vishaya, Isana, Charabhrit, Trpuresavara, Sesha, Suresavari, Varaha and others.”

For the destruction of temples we have, therefore, to attach the blame not to Sikandar but to the real destroyers – time and the elements, and defects of construction, which quakes and the imperfect fitting of the stones, observable in all Kashmirian temples,” remarks Stein, “are sufficient to explain the complete ruin notwithstanding the massive character of the materials” “Sikandar was brave and cultured,” says Lawrence, “and attracted learned Musalmans to his court.” In face of all this evidence, it is surprising that a number of writers should revel in holding up Sikandar to ignominy. Facts belie the charge.

The conversion to Islam of Khakha and Hatmal tribes of Rajputs inhabiting the area to the left bank of the Jhelum between Baramulla and Kohala is said to have taken place in the reign of Sultan Zain-ul-Abidin. Khakhu Khan and Hatu, their leaders, were named Khakhu Khan and Hatim Khan. They took service at the court of the Sultan who granted them jagirs. The country between Muzaffarabad and Baramulla was “in the possession of the Rajas of Kuhkuh and Bubnah” before the visit of Mir ‘Izzatullah’ in 1812-13 AD. The area was known as Kuhistan or the Highlands of Kashmir,” he adds.

Shaikh Shams-ud-Din Iraqi.

The historians say that the conversion got fresh impetus by the arrival of Shaikh Shams-ud-Din Iraqi in 1487 AD, who was a preacher from Talish on the shores of CaspianSea. His father was Ibrahim and his mother came from a Musavi Sayid family of Qazvin. With the aid of his disciples, Mir Shams-ud-Din won over a large number of converts. According to Mirza Haidar Dughlat, Shams-ud-Din arrived from Iraq in the first reign of Sutan Fath Shah and converted many thousands of people. After this he was crowned in the name of the twelve Imams. The Shias of Kashmir contend that he was a true Shia, and that the Ahwat or ‘Most Comprehensive,’ a book in Arabic, containing the tenets of the Nur Bakhshi sect—prevalent in Baltistan—is not his composition. Firishta says that Mir Shams-ud-Din was a disciple of Sayid Muin-ud-Din Ali known as Shah Qasim Zar-bakhsh, the son of Sayid Muhammad Nur Bakhsh of Khurasan. Sayid Muhammad being a disciple of Khwaja Ishaq Khatlani.

Sultan Fath Shah made over to Mir Shams-ud-Din all the confiscated lands which had fallen to the crown, and in a short time, Chaks were converted by him. The Shia doctrine, however, did not gain much support from the people of the valley. Mir Shams-ud-Din Iraqi was buried at Jadi-bal, a quarter in Srinagar, near which Kaji Chak built a large Imambara in the reign of Sultan Muhammad Shah. The grave of Shaikh Iraqi is held in great veneration by the pro-Iraqi party of Shias of Kashmir as the pro-Iraqi party of Shias do not believe in his being a Sayid. Malik Haidar Chadur, himself a noted Shia, also calls him Shaikh Shams-ud-Din Iraqi in his Tarikh. There is a report that the dead body of Mir Shams-ud-Din Iraqi was removed to Chadur to avoid desecration by non-Shias.

Shaikh Hamza Makhdum

The spread of Shi’ism by Mir Shams-ud-Din Iraqi alarmed the Sunnis. Shaikh Hamza Makhbum by his influence and teaching exercised a considerable check on Shi’ism. Shaikh Hamza Makhdum was the son of Baba Usman and was born in 900 AH (1394 AD). The family was originally Chandravansi Rajput. The names of Shaikh Hamza’s Khalifa’s are Baba Ali Raina, Baba Daud Khaki, Baba Haidar Tulmuli, Khwaja Hasan Qari, Khwaja Ishaq Qari.

After elementary study of the Quran in Tujjar, his village, Shaikh Hamza was sent to Baba Ismail Kubravi, a well-known scholar of his time, who enrolled him in the college known as Dar-ush Shifa at the foot of the Kohi-Maran. Besides the Quran, in its exegesis, Traditions and the Fiqh, Shaikh Hamza studied Sufi-ism and allied sciences. One of his noted teachers was Akhund Mulla Lutfullah. Another was Mulla Fathulla Haqqani, the son of Baba Ismail Kubravi.

When Shaikh Hamza was a force in the land, he was deported by Ghazi Shah Chak, the Shia ruler of the time, from the city of Srinagar to a village called Biru (about 20 miles from Srinagar, via Magam in Tahsil Badgam) The Shaikh returned to the valley only after Ghazi Shah’s death.

A contemporary co-worker of Shaikh Hamza was Khwaja Tahir Rafiq Ashai Suhrawardi of Srinagar. Khwaja Tahir in his earlier days was a trader in cloth. He gave up trade after a period of twelve years and betook himself to the service of his religion. Pir Hasan Shah says that Yaqub Shah Chak wanted to get rid of him but felt afraid to carry out his intention. Like Shaikh Hamza, Khwaja Tahir Rafiq left Srinagar and passed nine years of his life in the hills of Maraj. Subsequently he stayed with Adar Shah, a leading Brahman of the Pargana Verinag. Adar Shah embraced Islam. It was here in consultation with Khwaja Tahir Rafiq that Shaikh Yaqub Sarfi, Baba Daud Khaki and others left for India to invite Akbar to invade Kashmir to relieve its people from the oppressive Shi’ism of the Chaks.

Shaikh Hamza was instrumental in setting up a large number of masjids in the Valley. He had also acquired control over his breath which he could hold pretty long. This particularly enabled him to enjoy cold baths during snows, which relieved his headaches due to long hours of devotional meditation.

Shaikh Hamza died at the age of 84 in 984 AH (1576 AD) during the reign of Ali Shah Chak. The Shaikh was buried in his favorite resort for meditation on a slope of the Kuh-i-Maran. Nawwab Inayatullah Khan Subadar during Mughal rule built the mausoleum in 1125 AH (1713 AD). It became dilapidated. Shaikh Ghulam Muhi-ud-Din, Governor during Sikh rule, rebuilt it, and is himself buried in the eastern side of the enclosure. People throng to the shrine every Thursday, Monday and on Urs days starting from 11th Safar to 24th Safar of Hijri Calendar.

The journeys of Mughal Emperors to Kashmir also appear to have effected peaceful conversions along the route, as we find Rajas, the descendants of Rajputs, who adopted Islam.

Shah Farid-ud-Din Qadiri, the son of Sayid Mustafa, a descendant of Shaikh Abdul Qadir Jilani of Baghdad, was born in 1000 AH (1551 AD). After his education, his extensive travels, his Hajj, his contact with Shaikh Jalal-ud-Din Al-Maghribi in Mecca, and with Shaikh Muhyi-ud-Din Qadiri in Egypt, he left Baghdad to reach Sind. From Sind he went to Agra and then to Delhi towards the end of Shah Jahan’s reign. When Raja Jaya Singh, who was ascended the gaddi of Kishtwar in 1674 AD, was the ruler, Farid-ud-Din with his four companions Darwish Mohammad, Shah Abdal, Sayid Baha-ud-Din Samnani and Yar Muhammad arrived in 1075 AH at the age of 75 to preach and propagate Islam in the Valley of Kishtwar. Jaya Singh’s successor in 1681, Kirat Singh also became Muslim and was given the name of Saadat Yar Khan by Aurangzeb in 1687. Hafiz Abul Qasim Qureshi Akbarabadi, son of Ghiyas-ud-Din, was appointed Shaikh-ul-Islam and Chief Justice of Kishtwar. Kirat Singh’s example was a further stimulus of his subjects. In 1717, Bhup Dei, Kirat’s sister was married to Farrukh Siyar, Emperor of Delhi. Kirat’s younger brother was Miyan Muhammad Khan.

The chief temple of Kishtwar in the centre of the town was converted into a mosque, and now has the tomb of Shah Farid-ud-Din along with his youngest child Anwar-ud-Din, who died in infancy. In the second chamber, lies Akhyar-ud-Din. The tomb of Asrar-ud-Din, stands at the other end of the town towards the Chaugan, the extensive open heath of Kishtwar. Asrar-ud-Din died at the early age of 18 in 1097 AH (1085 AD). Akhyar-ud-Din, the second son, survived his father. Akhyar had his early education at Bhatan, in Gurdaspur, Punjab under Sayid Badr-ud-Din, Diwan of Masaniyan, the well known saintly scholar of that place and later benefited by contact with several teachers at Lahore, Sialkote, Delhi etc. On his return to Kishtwar, he helped in the spread of Islam. Akhyar died on the 7th Zulhajj, 1138 AH (1725 AD)

Afghan rule also tended to increase the number of converts to Islam. A Brahman originally of Rajwar and laterly of Soura near Srinagar, accepted Islam at the hands of Mir Abdur Rashid Baihaqi (d.1180 AH=1766 AD), and was named Shaikh Abdullah who was the great great-grand father of Shaikh Mohammad Abdullah the famous leader of Kashmir. Even during Dogra rule, there is a notable instance of conversion, Sardar Waryam Singh, a tahsildar of Kashmir, became a Muslim under the influence of Shah Abdur Rahim Safapuri.

Thus the spread of Islam in the Valley of Kashmir has been generally peaceful. Islam was introduced by a simple faqir or friar, named Bulbul Shah, whose simplicity and piety impressed the reigning sovereign of the time, Rinchan. The work was taken up and continued by faqirs and though occasionally stimulated by the zeal of a convert like Maslik Saif-ud-Din under a Sultan like Sikandar, its widespread peaceful penetration was due to the piety, purity and simplicity of the Muslim rishis and saints who denied pleasures to themselves and worked for others. Thus the great Prophet who took pride in faqr or poverty,  found fuqara (faqirs or friars) to propagate his faith in the Valley of Kashmir.

Among the saints/scholars who arrived in Kashmir, we find only a few to mention. During the early period of Sultans the two noteworthy saints who reached here were Sayid Taj-ud-Din and Hazrat Mir Husain Simnani. Simnan is a city of Iran. They were sent by Mir Sayid Ali Hamadani to assess the religious atmosphere here. Sayid Husain and Sayid Taj-ud-Din were the cousins of Mir Sayid Ali Hamadani being the sons of Mir Mohammad. They reached Kashmir in the reign of Sultan Shahab-ud-Din. Hazrat Mir Sayid Husain settled in Kulgam Kashmir and benefited lot many people with outer and inner knowledge. Many miracles could be performed by him. He had control over water fire and wild animals. Salar Sanz (Salar-i-Din), the father of Shaikh Noor-ud-Din got converted to Islam on the hands of Sayid Husain. The great Saint of Kashmir Shaikh Noor-ud-Din would attend on Sayid, travelling all the way from Kaimoh village and get benefited in Sufi salook. Sayid Husain passed away in 792 AH and is buried in Aaminoo Kulgam along with his nephew Mir Sayid Haidar who too possessed miraculous powers. A magnificient shrine stands as a memorial to the reverence with which the people held him. Sayid Taj-ud-Din reached Kashmir in 762 AH and lies buried in Mohalla Shahab-ud-Dinpora ( Nowhatta) Srinagar. The Sultan built a Khanqah for him and granted the revenue of the village Nagam for its maintenance. It is said that Sultan used to consult Taj-ud-Din both on religious and administrative matters. In fact it was due to Sultan’s patronage that Taj-ud-Din invited his brother Sayid Husain to join him. The Sultan received the latter well and helped him to settle at the village of Kulgam. A state grant was ordered for the maintenance of his kitchen, which was open to all sections of people and his interest in their welfare helped him to a great deal in converting them to Islam.

The name of other Sayids who was among early-age disciples of Mir Sayid Ali Hamadani, was Sayid Kabir Baihaqi. It is said that when Sayid Ali converted the chief Brahman of Kali-Mandir at Srinagar to Islam and turned the temple into a mosque, he ordered Sayid Kabir to settle there and preach the truth of Islam to the people. However after the departure of Sayid Ali, Sayid Kabir shifted to nearby Mohalla Daribal in Srinagar and lived for the rest of his life there.

One of the very few followers of Sayid Ali, who brought their families with them to Kashmir was Mir Sayid Jamal-ud-Din Atai. However, unlike his spiritual master, he was not a teacher or a preacher, but lived an ascetic life in retirement at the village Chitar in the pargana Khovurpura. (To be continued in Part III)

‘Hamare Aslaf aur Mashaikh-i-Kashmir’– A Book Review.



The gist from the age-old manuscripts presented in the three volumes of the book ‘HAMARE ASLAAF AUR MASHAIKH-I-KASHMIR’ composed by Er. Mohammad Ashraf Fazili and published by IQRA PUBLICATIONS Yemberzal Complex Court Road Srinagar provides insight into many aspects of our rich cultural heritage that has shaped our thoughts and beliefs over the centuries.

The first volume of 136 pages covers a revelation on ‘first introduction of Islam in Kashmir in the very time of the Prophet Mohammad (PBH), when two of his companions (Sahabis) visited Kashmir and King Vana Dutta adopted simplicity and fixed one tenth of his revenue (ushur) for the poor. It carries an introduction by late Mubarak Shah Fitrat – a versatile scholar. The subjects like Introduction of Islam in Kashmir andthe details of the fourteen orders (silsilas) that sprang from the Prophet (PBH) and the orders that became popular in Kashmir like Suhrawardya, Qadirya,Kubravya,Chishtya and Naqshbandya are covered in the book. A brief life sketch of Mir Syed Ali Hamdani (RA), Baihaqi Sayeds, details of Naqshbandi, Qadiri and Rishi orders have been included.

The second volume of 530 pages covers 113 topics with introduction from the composer. The book is based on the translation in Urdu of the Persian poetry book: MAJMOOA MASMOOA-the related stories- written by Pirzada Ghulam Rasool Shiva Zoonimari ( migrated later to Gamroo Bandipora)-father of the historian Pir Hasan Shah Fazili Khoihami. The translation has been done by late Kh. Nazir Ahmad Kashtwari (Retd. Under Secretary General Department J&K Govt.). The subjects cover praises of Allah, Prophet Mohammad (PBH),the four Khalifas (RA),Hazrat Sulta-ul Arifeen Sheikh Hamza Makhdoom Kashmiri (RA),conversion of Ganesh Koul the Qanoongo to Islam at the hands of Sheikh Hamza (RA) and miracles of the disciples and their decendents and an advice by the author to his sons. The Persian poetry of the manuscript has been ranked parallel to the Masnavi of Maulana Rumi (RA)

The third Volume of the book of 269 pages contains 90 topics with introduction by Dr. A.R.War. It covers brief biographies of the Sufi Saints referred in the second volume, besides that of their descendants. It also contains the spiritual lineage (Shajras) of Suhrawardya, Qadirya, Shazilya, Madinya, Chishtya, Naqshbandya orders – copied from the original handwritten manuscripts of Sheikh Abdul Haq Muhaddith Dehlavi (RA), Sheikh Murad Naqshbandi(RA)-the preceptor of the historian Kh. Azam Dedamari, Sheikh Baba Daud Khaki, etc. The lineage of Sheikh Ahmad Sirhindi from Hazrat Umar(RA) to his descendants migrated and settled in Kashmir with a life sketch of Sheikh Ahmad Sirhindi Mujaddid Alf Sani (RA) is alo covered in the book.

The compiling of the material for the three volumes has called for a sustained effort on the part of the compiler for decades together and is an effort to bring to limelight the prevalent Sufi culture in Kashmir, which has shaped the humble, tolerant, hospitable and peace-loving nature of its inhabitants over the past few centuries.

Prof. Dr. A.R. War

A.S College Srinagar



The Great Sufi Saint Founder of Qaderia Sufi Order “Sheikh Sayid Abdul Qadir Jilani (RA)”
He is Hasani and Husaini
The most universally acclaimed saint of all times and the most celebrated, in all the aalameen (worlds), among jinnn and men as well as among the arwaah (souls) and the malaika (angels), the beloved of AllahTa’ala who throughout history has been showered the titles of muhyudeen (reviver of faith), qutbRabbani and ghauth-al-a’zam (the greatest helper), Sayyidi wa Imami Shaykh-ul-AkbarAbu Muhammad Abdul Qadir Jilani, Radhu Allahu Anh was born in Ramadan 470 A.H/1077 CE in Jilan, Persia. His father’s name was Abu Salih, a man of taqwa (piety) and a direct descendant of Hadrat Imam Hasan ibn Ali Rady Allahu Anh. His mother Ummul-Khair Fatima was a saintly daughter of a saintly father Shaykh Abdullah Sawma’ee who was a direct descendant of Hadrat Imam Husain ibn Ali Rady Allahu Anh.
Thus Muhyudeen Shaykh Abdul Qadir Jilani was both Hasani and Husaini, a descendant of the Holy Prophet, Sallallahu alaihi wa Sallam. For this reason, the Sindhis for example, lovingly call him “putarmithe mahboob jo” (the blessed son of the sweet beloved Holy Prophet), Sallallahu alaihi wa Sallam.
He Reached The State of Siddiqeen
The Holy Prophet MuhammadMustafaSallallahu alaihi wa Sallam is the last Prophet, there is no prophet after him. But people can still aspire to spiritual progress, acquire taqwa (piety) and saintliness and become Awliya Allah (friends of Allah). And the highest spiritual state after anbiya (prophets), belongs to the Siddiqeen (the truthful) that is why the Holy Prophet taught us to make the dua:Allahummaj ‘alna min-as-Siddiqeen (O Allah make us among the truthful). Well, Shaykh Abdul Qadir Jilani Rady Allahu Anh manifested to the world that he ranked among the siddiqeen at the ripe age of 18. At that age, his thirst for knowledge and eagerness for the company of the Awliya Allah took him to the city of Baghdad.
It is related that as he was about to leave home on this momentous journey, his widowed mother sewed forty gold coins inside his coat as part of his inheritance, and as parting advice told him to be forever truthful. The caravan with which he was travelling had gone as far as Hamadan when it was attacked by a gang of robbers. In the course of their loot, one of the robbers asked him whether he had anything with him and he truthfully replied that he had forty gold coins sewn in his coat. The robber obviously thought he was joking and narrated this incident to his chief who decided to come and see this young man. When his coat was torn open, sure enough there were forty gold coins. The gang leader was astounded. He asked Shaykh Abdul Qadir Jilani as to why he revealed this when he could have very well kept it secret. Shaykh Abdul Qadir Jilani told him that his mother had advised him not to lie and he was duty bound to obey his mother, Hearing this, the gang leader was overpowered with remorse, repented, accepted Shaykh Abdul Qadir Jilani as his Shaykh and so did all his followers and they went on to acquire wilayah (sainthood) themselves. This is how Shaykh Abdul Qadir Jilani came to be ranked among the Siddiqeen. Allahummaj ‘alna min-as-Siddiqeen, Aameen Yaa Rabbal ‘Aalameen.
Sayyid Hajji Abdul Raheem Bin Sayyid Muhammad Ismail Shirazi has captured the essence of this incident most beautifully in the following verses of his Urdu poem on the Gauth-al-A’zam:
Choron pay tum nay kar kay tawajjoh Abdaal banaaya ‘aali shaan Yaa Gauth-al-A’zam ajab tumhaaree shaan
Focussing your spiritual glance at the thieves You turned them into great saints O, the great helper, your stature is truly astounding (Gulzare Tayyiba, vol 3, p 18)
Sharia, Tariqa and Haqeeqi Ma’rifa
In matters of Shariah (sacred Muslim law), Shaykh Abdul Qadir Jilani Rady Allahu Anh followed the Hanbal Madh-hab (school of sacred Muslim law) but was an authority on the Shafi-i-Madh-hab as well, and a chief exponent of the Ahl us-Sunnah wal Jama’ah (the people who follow the Sunnah of the Holy Prophet and the Jama’ah of his blessed companions). The way to draw nearer to Allah Ta’ala is through additional voluntary prayers day and night, through constant remembrance (Zikr), unceasing salawaat (Durood) on the Holy Prophet Sallallahu alaihi wa Sallam, Sunnah fasting, charity, zuhd (abstinence) and juhd (exertion in the way of Allah Ta’ala) as exemplified by the Holy Prophet himself. This then is the tariqa (spiritual path leading to Allah Ta’ala) which is rooted in sharia (sacred Muslim Law).
A Shaykh, musk-scented in shariah, tariqa and haqeeqi-ma’rifa (knowledge of Allah Ta’ala) is able to ascertain the spiritual level of a mureed (disciple) and can assign additional awraad and azkaar (voluntary prayers) to be performed to attain spiritual progress. Shaykh Abdul Qadir Jilani learned tariqa at the hands of Shaykh Hammad Bin Muslim al-Dabbas, Rahmatullahi alaih. Traditionally when someone is appointed a khalifa of a Shaykh in tariqa, he is given a khirqa. Shaykh Abdul Qadir Jilani was bestowed the khirqa by ShaykhQadi Abi Said al-Mukhrami, Rahmatullahi alaih.
The tariqa followed by Shaykh Abdul Qadir Jilani Rady Allahu Anh came to be called after him the Qadiriyya tariqa and it came to be universally accepted as a divinely-guided path to spiritual progress through zikr of Allah to polish one’s heart of all evil, to lead a virtuous life, to attain the love of the Holy Prophet, Sallallahu alaihi wa Sallam, the love of the sahaba (companions) and the Ahle Bayt (the Prophet’s blessed household), the love of the awliya (saints), and to follow the sharia (sacred Muslim law) according to the teachings of any one of the four Imams of madh-hab, that is Imam Abu Hanifa, Imam Shafi-i, Imam Malik and Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal, may Allah Ta’ala be pleased with them all.
Any tariqa has a silsila or spiritual chain linking the teachings of the Shaykh to the teachings of Rasulullah Sallallahu aliahi wa Sallam. The spiritual geneology of Shaykh Abdul Qadir Jilani RadyAllahu Anh is traced back to the Holy Prophet as follows:
Shaykh Abdul Qadir Jilani, disciple of
Shaykh Qadi Abi Said Ali Mubarak al-Mukhrami, disciple of
Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Ahmad Qareshi al-Hankari, disciple of
Shaykh Abu Farah Muhammad Yusuf Tartusi, disciple of
Shaykh Raziuddin Abul Fazl Abdul Wahid Abdul Aziz, disciple of
Shaykh Abu Bakr Abdullah Shibli, disciple of
Shaykh Abul Qasim Junaid of Bagdad, disciple of
Shaykh Abul Hasan Siri Saqti, disciple of
Shaykh Maroof Al-Karkhi, disciple of
Shaykh Sulaiman Dawood Tai, disciple of
Shaykh Habib ul Ajami, disciple of
Shaykh Hasan al-Basri, disciple of
Sayyidina Ali ibn Abi Talib, Khalifaof
Sayyidina Muhammad ibn Abdillah, Nurin-min-Nurillah,
Allahumma Salli wa Sallim wa baarik alaih.
The names in this silsila (spiritual chain) are given in the Tawassul of Qadiriyya in the kitab Abdul Qadir Fee Eedahittasawwuf compiled by Nuriddeen ibn Shaykh Husain Mahmud al-Ghasani as well as in the biography of the Shaykh by Dr. Zahurul Hasan Sharib.
Shaykh Abdul Qadir Jilani Rady Allahu Anh taught Muslims and preached to non-Muslims in Baghdad. His Khutbas (sermons) and Nasiha (advice) have been compiled and handed down through centuries as classics of Muslim spirituality.
His major spiritual works in the field are:
1. Sirr al-asrar (The secret of secrets)
2. Futuh al-ghayb (Revelations of the Unseen)
3. Ghunyat al-talibeen (Wealth for Seekers)
4. Al-Fat’hu Rabbani (The Endowment of Divine Grace)
Besides the Qur’an Kareem and Hadith Shareef, these are required minimum reading for someone who aspires to be an aalim (learned). As we read his masterpieces, we are struck by the fact that his style of expression is different from that of any other Shaykh, aalim or wali. He is so much saturated with the spiritual power of Tawheed that his exposition and its flow has a spiritually confident personality all its own so that anyone who reads his khutbas spontaneously admits that he is the qutb-al-aqtaab, the Shaykh-ul-Mashaaikh, the Gauth-al-A’zam and much more…. a Shaykh who epitomised mujaddidiyya (faith revival) and wilayah (sainthood).
Azkaar, Salawaat and Qasida
The Qadiriyya tariqa is a tariqa of Zikrullah, remembrance of Allah. The plural of Zikr is azkaar. The azkaar and awraad (daily voluntary prayers) of Shaykh Abdul Qadir JilaniRady Allahu Anh have been compiled in many kitaabs (religious books), one of which is Fuyudhaatur-Rabbaniyya, compiled by al-Hajj Ismail Ibn Sayyid Muhammad Sa’eed Al-Qadiri. It gives the awraad and azkaar of Shaykh Abdul Qadir Jilani for each day of the week as well as for various special occasions.
Then we have the salawaat (durood) on the Holy Prophet Sallallahu alaihi wa Sallam recited by the Gauth-al-A’zam and we have to read Fuyudhaatur-Rabbaniyya as well as his major classics to appreciate how profuse Shaykh Abdul Qadir Jilani was in sending salawaat and salaam on the Holy Prophet, Allahumma salli wa sallim alaih. His most famous salaat is called As-Salatu Gauthiya after him while he also recited As-Salatul Kubra (The big salaat) and kibritil ahmar (the philosopher’s stone). Kibritil ahmar is given in both Fuyudhaatur-Rabbaniyya as well as in Miskaatus-Salawaat of Mawlana Muhammad Elias Burney. “The pholosopher’s stone” means something very rare to find.
His emphasis in immersing yourself in the Asma Allah-ul-Husna (the most Beautiful Names of Allah Ta’ala) until they run through your veins is breathtaking. He has woven a qasida (hymn) of 63 verses around these Asma-ul-Husna whose opening verses are:
Shara’tu Bi Tawheedil Ilahi Mubasmilaa
Sa Akhtimu Bi-dh-dhikril Hameedi Mujammila
Wa Ash-Hadu Annallah Laa Rabba Ghairuhu
Tanazzaha ‘an Hasril Uquli Takammulaa
(transliteration from Fuyudhaatur-Rabbaniyya, p 52)
I start the Tawheed of Allah with Bismillah.
I will finish with the Zikr of Allah, the Most Beautiful.
And I bear witness that there is no Lord other than Allah.
Glorified is He, beyond human understanding, Most Perfect.
And his qasida Gauthiya is universally popular. It is chanted from Rabat to Lahor and from Mombasa to Toronto. Shaykh Abdul Qadir Jilani Rady Allahu Anh passed away on 11 Rabi-ul-Akhir 561 A.H/1166 C.E, at the age of 91. Those in the Qadiriyya tariqa recite Qur’an Kareem and do Zikr on that night. In the Indian sub-continent, it is called Gyaarween shareef, or the blessed eleventh night of the month. Qasida Gauthiya is also recited. In it, ShaykhAbdul Qadir Jilani gives us some of the secrets of his own spiritual stature. Consider the spiritual force with which the opening lines burst upon you:
Saqaanil hubbu kaasaatil wisaalee
Faqultu likhamratee nahwee ta’aalee
When we read the classics of Shaykh Abdul Qadir Jilani Rady Allahu Anh like Sirr al-asrar, Futuh al-ghayb, Ghunyat al-talibin, Al-Fat’hu Rabbani, and qasida Gauthiya and recite the awraad and salawaat that he recited, we begin to understand why he is considered to be the Gauthul A’zam (greatest saint). But the initiate sometimes wonders why he revealed so many spiritual secrets when most other Shaykhs are reticent. To answer that question, we will need to turn to Sayyidi wa Imami Mawlana Abdullah ibn Alawi al-Haddad, Rady Allahu Anh. In Gifts for the Seeker, he explains that Shaykh Abdul Qadir Jilani, Rady Allahu Anh had received permission to divulge these spiritual secrets-“for the man who receives such permission is under an order which he can but obey-and the secret of the permission granted in such matters is itself one that cannot be divulged.” (Gifts for the Seeker, translation by Dr. Mostafa al-Badawi, p.11).
Spread of Islam Through Sufi Saints
Shaykh Abdul Qadir Jilani, Rady Allahu Anh as the model of a Sufi saint, through his nasiha, azkaar and salawaat, through giving a living reality to Islam, in his complete surrender to the Will of Allah and in his showing of tawakkul (trust in Allah) and through his teachings and preachings converted more than five thousand Jews and Christians to Islam while more than a hundred thousand ruffians, outlaws, murderers, thieves and bandits repented and became devout Muslims and gentle dervishes, explains Shaykh Tosun Bayrak al-Jerrahi al-Halveti in his Introduction to Sirr al-asrar, p xxxi. And the halaqa of Zikr (Zikr congregations) which he instituted have continued to attract millions of people to Islam through centuries and will continue to do so, Insha-Allah, till the Day of Judgement, Aameen.
A few examples suffice to illustrate this. The first example is that of Mawlana Mu’eenuddin ChishtiRahmatullahi alaih who acknowledged Shaykh Abdul Qadir Jilani as his Shaykh and spread Islam in India among the Hindus. He achieved such a high spiritual stature that he is called Sultanul Hind (the sultan of saints in the Indian sub-continent) and all the saints in that region are under his banner while he is under the banner of the Gauth-al-A’zam. In the same way Shaykh Uways ibn Muhammad Rahmatullahi alaih of Somalia became a khalifa in Tariqatul Qadiriyya at the shrine of Shaykh Abdul Qadir Jilani in Baghdad and spread Islam in the whole of Eastern Africa through congregations of Zikr. And Shaykh Hamzah Fansuri, considered to be the greatest saint in Indonesia and Malaysia proudly proclaimed that he learned Islam from Shaykh Abdul Qadir Jilani.
It can truly be said that the mureedeen and muhibbeen (loving disciples) of Shaykh barakaat Abdul Qadir Jilani Rady Allahu Anh have spread Islam throughout the world through Zikr. The (blessings) of zikr are truly unending. May Allah Ta’ala make us among the Zaakireen, Aameen.
And the granting of wilayah (the stature of a saint) by Allah Ta’ala to the Zaakireen (those who remember Him), aabideen (those who worship Him) and muhibbeen (those who love the Holy Prophet) is in all instances mediated by the Holy Prophet Sallallahu alaihi wa Sallam, Shaykh Abdul Qadir Jilani and one’s own Shaykh. After all the awliya and the ulama (learned) are the Khalifatullah, vicegerants of Allah. And one must always aspire to wilayah so that one becomes ‘Aarif Billah (knower of Allah). Allahummaj ‘alna minal ‘aarifeen, Aameen Yaa Rabbal Aalameen.
His Aqeeda
His aqeeda (beliefs) was that of the Ahl us-Sunnah wal Jam’ah based on the Qur’an, and the Sunnah of the Holy Prophet Sallallahu alaihi wa Sallam. All the Sufi Saints through centuries have expounded on and lived by this aqeeda. Its cornerstone is Tawheed (Unity of Allah), its nurturing is with Asma ul Husna and Ishq (love) of the Holy Prophet; its daily life is governed by shariah (sacred Muslim law); its growth and spread is through nasiha (good advice), zikr of Allah Ta’ala and salawaat and salaam on the Holy Prophet, Sallallahu alaihi wa Sallam, its peak is jihad and its ultimate is Fana Fillah (annihilation of oneself in the Love of Allah Ta’ala) after which Allah Ta’ala showers you with Baqa Billah (spiritual life everlasting) in His Ridha (pleasure).
So you start with Ridhal Waalidain (in the pleasure of your parents) and end with Ridhallah (pleasure of Allah Subhanahu wa Ta’ala). And the sahaba (companions) of the Holy Prophet are referred to as Rady Allahu Anhum wa Radhu Anh (Allah is well pleased with them and they are pleased with Him). And according to Shaykh Abdul Qadir Jilani, his own position is equal to the dust under the feet of the sahaba. If that is the case, what of the stature of the blessed sahaba of the Holy Prophet, Sallallahu alaihi wa Sallam? Their spiritual stature derives from the fact that they were blessed with the opportunity of beholding the Holy Prophet with the eyes of imaan (faith). That being the case how can anyone be capable enough to explain in full the sifat (attributes) of Muhammad-e-Arabi, Rasule-Rabbil Aalameen, Rahmatullil Aalameen. Only Allah Rabbul Izzat is well aware of what he bestowed on His beloved Prophet, Allahumma Salli wa sallim alaih.
His Daily Life and Teachings
Imam Shihabuddeen Umar Bin Muhammad Suhrawardi Rahmatullahi alaih in his universally acclaimed classic Awariful Ma’arif refers to Shaykh Abdul Qadir Jilani as “Our Shaykh”. He writes that according to Shaykh Abdul Qadir Jilani, the Shaykh has to cultivate these qualities:
Of Allah Rabbul Izzat (to cover up and forgive)
Of SayyidinaMuhammad Mustafa Sallallahu alaihi wa Sallam (to intercede and to accompany)
Of SayyidinaAbu Bakr Siddiq Rady Allahu Anh (truthfulness and benevolence)
Of SayydinaUmar Rady Allahu Anh (to command and to forbid)
Of Sayydina Uthman Rady Allahu Anh (to feed the poor and to pray when others sleep)
Of Sayydina AliRady Allahu Anh (to be knowing and brave).
(Awariful Ma’arif, translated by Wilberforce Clarke, p 162)
Imam Ibn Kathir Rahmatullahi alaih described the admonitions of Shaykh Abdul Qadir Jilani saying: “He enjoined the people to do what is good and abstain from what is evil. His admonitions addressed caliphs, ministers, people in authority, judges, companions and the masses. Standing on the pulpits of the mosques, he reprimanded them in the presence of witnesses as well as during his public addresses. He disavowed the civil appointment of any unjust person, chose Allah’s blessings over anyone else’s wrath, and was not affected by any reproach.”
In his book Zail Tabaqat Al-Hanabila, Ibn Rajab quoted Shaykh Muwaffaq Al-Deen, author of the book Al-Maghni, saying: “I have never heard of anyone having as many noble deeds and miraculous blessings (Karamat) as those attributed to Shaykh Abdul Qadir Jilani”.
Dr. Muhammad Haroon of the Raza Academy has described these in detail in “The World Importance ofGhaus al Azam Hadrat Sheikh Muhyiddin Abdul Qadir Jilani”. To gain baraka (blessings), let us at this juncture recall one of these miracles. It is related that as it was cloudy, the new moon of Ramadan had not been sighted and people were confused whether or not to fast the next day. They came to Ummal-Khayr and asked if the child had taken food that day. As he had not, they surmised that the fast had begun. His mother relates; “My son ‘Abdul Qadir was born in the month of Ramadan. No matter how hard I tried he refused to suckle in the daytime. Throughout his infancy he would never take food during the month of fasting.” (Sirr al-asrar, Introduction by Shaykh Tosun al-Jerrahi al-Halveti, p xiii)
Shaykh Abdul Qadir Jilani,Rady Allahu Anh had four wives, each a model of virtue and devoted to him. He had forty-nine children, twenty-seven sons and twenty-two daughters. Four of his sons, Shaykh Abdul Wahhab, Shaykh Isa, Shaykh Abdul Razzaq and Shaykh Musa became famous for their education and learning. This is how Sheikh Tosun al-Halveti explains about the daily life of Shaykh Abdul Qadir Jilani,Rady Allahu Anh: “He himself had given all of himself to Allah. His nights passed with little or no sleep in secluded prayer and meditation. He spent his days like a true follower of the Prophet in the service of humanity. Three times a week he would deliver public sermons to thousands of people. Every day in the morning and the afternoon he gave lessons in Quranic commentary, Prophetic traditions, theology, religious law and sufism. He spent the time after the midday prayer giving advice and consultation to people, whether beggars or kings, who would come from all parts of the world. Before sunset prayers, rain or shine, he took to the streets to distribute bread among the poor. As he spent all his days in fasting he would eat only once a day, after sunset prayer, and never alone. His servants would stand at his door asking passers-by if they were hungry, so that they could share his table.” (Sirr al-Asrar, p XLIV)
Qasaid on the Shaykh
Given these realities of history, is it any wonder then to find that more qasaid (poems) have been written in praise of Shaykh Abdul Qadir Jilani Rady Allahu Anh than on any other saint? Gulzare Tayyiba in Urdu for example contains 17 poems in his honour while the Diwan (in Arabic) in Taraqatul Qadiriyya has 27. In a short article like this, it is not possible to do full justice to all the poetry in honour of the Shaykh. It suffices to give a sprinkling from Champay Dhee Bootee of Sultan Arifeen ShaykhSultan Bahu in Punjabi, from the poetry of Shaykh Hamzah Fanzuri of Indonesia in Malay, from the salaam of Iman Ahmed Raza Khan in Urdu and from the Diwan in Tariqatul Qadiriyya in Arabic, in that order.
We begin with the translations of the abyaat (couplets) of Sultan Bahu in Champay Dhee Bootee, a classic in Kalaame Ma’rifat:
Talib Gauthul A’zam waalay
Shale kadhe na howan pandhe hoo
Jendhe andhar ishq dhee ratte
Rayn sadha kur landhe hoo
Jenun shawq dha howay
Lay khushyan nit andhe hoo
Dhono jahan naseeb tunhande Bahu
Jere zati alam kamadhe hoo
Followers of the Gauthul A’zam:
Would God, they are never ill!
Those who have one grain of loving,
Ever are in pang and chill.
Lured by chances of a meeting
Hopeful in their joyous drill
Lucky in both worlds are Bahu!
Lovers who gain Allah’s Will.
(Sultan Bahu, Champay Dhee Bootee, (The Jasmine Plant), p 33) (Translation by Maqbool Elahi, The Abyat of Sultan Bahu, p 103)
Next, let us savour the following four lines in Malay form Shaykh Hamzah Fansuri as given in Syed Naguib al-Attas’ Some Aspects of Sufism as Understood and Practiced Among the Malays, p 22
Hamzah nin asalnya Fansuri
Mendapat wujud ditanah Shahar Nawi
Beroleh Khilafat ilmu yang ali
Daripada Abdul Qadir Sayyid Jilani
I Hamzah who am of Fansur a son
At Shahar Nawi my being have won
The knowledge sublime I acquired from one
Called Abdul Qadir Sayyid of Jilan.
A’la Hadrat Imam Ahmed Raza Khan wrote Salaams on the Holy Prophet Sallallahu alaihi wa Sallam in which after profuse salutations on the Holy Prophet, he also sent salaams on the Ahle-Bayt and the sahabaRady Allahu Anhum, as well as on the Imams of madh-hab, the awliya and the saleheen, Rahmatullahi alaihim ajma’een.
Consider just two verses from A’la Hadrat on the Gauth-ul-A’zam to appreciate his love for the Shaykh.
Gauthul A’zam Imam-ut-tuqaa wan-nuqaa
Jalwae Shaane Qudrat pe lakhon salaam
Jis ke mimbar bane gardane awliya
Us qadam ki karamat pe lakhon salaam
(Hadaiq-i-Bakhsheesh, p 149)
Gauthul A’zam Imam of saints and the pious
A million salutations on him who was pure by nature
The one for whom the necks of saints became a pulpit
A million salutations on the miracle of his feet
It is fitting to the end with the chorus of the Qasida in Arabic in the Diwan of Qadiriyya.
Bi Rasulillahi wal Jilan
Wa Rijaalin Min Bani Adnaan
Salaku Fee Manhajjir-Rahmaan
Bi Rasulillahi Wal Jilan.
For the sake of the Holy Prophet and Shaykh Jilani
And those in the tribe of Adnaan
They have treaded the Path of the Merciful Lord
For the sake of the Holy Prophet and Shaykh Jilani.
(O Allah hear our prayers)
Tazkiratul Awliya (the Zikr of the friends of Allah) is truly unending. May Allah Subhanahu wa Ta’ala forgive us and give us the hidaya (guidance) to live Islam according to the Qur’an and the Sunnah of Rasulullah, Sallallahu alaihi wa Sallam as explained and exemplified by Gauth-ul-A’zamShaykhAbdul Qadir Jilani, Rady Allahu Anh, Aameen Yaa Rabbal Aalameen.
In spite of all his involvement in spiritual field, he did justice to his worldly life as well. He married four wives, who all excelled in the spiritual attachments. The first seventeen years of his life, he spent in his native town, thereafter he stayed in Baghdad for nine years to complete his outer and inner form of learning. He spent 25 years in the forests of Iraq in prayers to cover the stages of ‘salook’. Then for 40 years he remained busy in teaching, ‘irshad’,Preaching of Truth, and in reforming common people and turned thousands of people from darkness to the light of wisdom and straight path. At last this Sun of ‘Gawsyiat’ set at the age of 91 years on 11th Rabi-us-Sani 561 AH and his mausoleum is a place of public reverence in Baghdad.
His son Hazrat Shaikh Abdul Razzaq states that his father had 49 children, 20 male and rest females. The eldest son was named Shaikh Abdul Wahab, who along with his father taught in the same school as of his father and after his death continued to deliver sermons there, which brought him the name of ‘Shirin Kalaam’ –‘Sweet speaker’. He passed away in 593 AH. The other son who attained a great stage in spiritual field and scholarship was Shaikh Hafiz Abd-ur-Razzaq. He had his education in Fqah from his father. He was hafiz of Hadith and was Faqih in Hanbali school of thought.. He kept himself busy in teaching and discussions. He passed away in 603 AH and is also buried in Baghdad.
Most of the disciples of Sayid Abdul Qadir Jeelani had attained perfection in his very life time, who spread his teachings to Syria, Egypt, and Yemen and the later people spread his teachings in the whole of Muslim world. This sisila reached Kashmir in the second half of the 16th Century AD through Sayid Shah Nimatullah Qadiri, who claimed to be the direct decendent of Shaikh Sayid Abdul Qadir Jeelani. Earlier to visit to this place, he had stayed in India, probably in Punjab, where he remained the disciple of Shaikh Mohammad Darvesh Qadiri.Shortly he returned back to India and in Kashmir, his disciple was Sayid Mirak Mir son of Sayid Shams-ud-Din Andrabi. His ancestors had arrived in Kashmir from Andrab in Iran durin Sultan Sikandar’s reign. Sayid Mirak is buried in Mir Mohalla Malaratta Srinagar.
The second renowned Sufi of Qadiri silsila, who visited Kashmir was Sayid Ismail Shami, who also considered himself to be among the progeny of Shaikh Abdul Qadir Jeelani. He had received his initial education from his father Sayid Sulaiman and had received education from Sayid Mohammad Qasim. Sayid Ismail was received by great Sufis of the time among whom was Baba Daud Khaki, who become close friend. Sayid Ismail also did not stay in Kashmir for long, but in a short duration, he laid the foundation of Qadiri silsila through his disciple Mir Nazuk Niyazi, who himself was earlier a disciple of Baba Daud in Suhrawardy silsila. When Sayid Ismail reached Kashmir. Baba Daud introduced Mir Nazuk to Him. Sayid Ismail registered him in Qadiri silsila and gave him khirqa and Ijazat nama for registration of disciples. Mir Nazuk died on 9rth Zilhajja 1022 AH and is buried at Qadi Kadal Srinagar. The Qadiri silsila was propagated by his son Mir Mohammad Ali.
In 1092 AH Hazrat Shah Mohammad Fazil Qadiri 19th decendent of Sayid Abdul Qadir Jeelani entered Kashmir. He was accompanied by about 100 persons including his family. He was at the height of spiritual attainment and passed away in 1117 AH and was laid to rest at Mohalla Khanyar, where a mausoleum stands erected in 1137-1140 AH by Sayid Buzarg Shah his decendent, from the income of his jagir and donations from his mureeds.
Every 11th of the Hijri month, people throng in the mausoleum to recite Kibrat-i-Ahmar and other ‘khatmat’. Beside every year 11th Rabi-us-Sani is celebrated as Urs day, when people in thousands collect here to pray and have a glimpse of the holy relic of Hazrat Sheikh Sayid Abdul Qadir Jeelani (RA).
Er. Mohammad Ashraf Fazili

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