Author Archives: shahishaharyar

About shahishaharyar

Chartered civil engineer,Fellow institution of engineers India, Member Indian road congress,Member American society of civil engineers, Presented over 70 papers in various seminars,published books over 36 on environment,history, sufi saints, genealogy,free lance writer, travelled in India and abroad.


Srinagar Samachar Weekly Newspaper                  February 01- February 07



تذکرہ سالکین کشمیر                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                کتاب کا نام :-                   تذکرہ سالکین کشمیر

مصنف :- پیرزادہ محمد اشرف شاہ سید فاضلی

صفحات :-             698

پبلشر :-   شیخ اعجاز احمد

٭ کتاب کی شروعات کشمیر میں اسلام کے ورود سےکی گئ ہے- جس میں کئ ایسے انکشافات بھی ہیں-کہ بلبل شاہ صاحب سے  سو سال قبل ہی بارہ سو سادات کے ساتھ سید باقر نے اسلام کی تبلیغ کا سلسلہ شروع کر دیا تھا-

٭ چودہ خانوادوں کا تفصیلی تعارف کہ کس طرح حضرت علی ؑ نے ستر صاحبوں کو مرید فرمایا جن میں چار خلفاء مشہور ہیں- حضرت حسن ؑ و حضرت حسینؑ و  خواجہ کمیل ؑ اور حضرت حسن بصری ؑ-                               ٭ کشمیر کے چند سرکردہ سلسلوں کا تعارف بھی تفصیلا دیا ہوا ہے – کشمیر میں روحانی سلسلے کیسے پروانے چڑھے- یہاں زیادہ مقبول    روحانی سلسلے کون سے  پروان چڑھے- یہاں زیادہ مقبول  روحانی  سلسلے کون سے رہے- امیر کبیر میر سید علی ہمدانی ؑ  کا جامع تعارف – بیہقی سادات کا تعارف – حضرت شیخ یعقوب صرفی ؑ کے علمی و عملی کارنامے بھی شامل ہیں- حضرت شیخ نورالدین ؑ کے ریشی طریقت  پر سیر حاصل تحقیقی بحث کی گئ ہے-

٭ مجموعہ مسموعہ کے مصنف کا ایمان افروز کلام سلیس ترجمہ کے ساتھ فارسی کلام  میں اچھوتے انداز میں اولیائے کشمیر کے واقعات منظوم انداز میں بیان کئے گئے ہیں-                                                                      ٭  محبوب سبحانی حضرت شیخ عبدالقادر جیلانی ؑ کی مبارک زندگی کا تفصیلی تذکرہ علاوہ ازیں حضرت شہاب الدین عمر ابو حفص سہروردی ؑ ‘ حضرت شیخ بہا ء الدین ذکریا ملتانیؑ ‘ حضرت میر سید جلال الدین مخدوم جہانیاں جہانگشت ‘ محبوب العالم حضرت شیخ حمزہ ؑ ‘ حضرت  بابا داؤدخاکی ؑ ‘ خواجہ اعظم دیدہ مری (مصنف واقعات کشمیر) کا تفصیلی تعارف ‘ معزز میر واعظ خاندان کا تاریخی تعارف وغیرہ بھی قارئین کے لئے بہترین انداز میں پیش کیا گیا ہے-

یہ کتاب

طلباء-  مدرسین – محقق حضرات کے لئے نادر تحفہ ہے – سلیس اردو دلکش انداز میں تاریخی و ایمان افروز واقعات کی لڑی میں آب دار موتیوں کو جوڈا ہے – تمام شعبہ ہائے زندگی سے تعلق رکھنے والے افراد کے لئے یکسان مفید کتاب حاسل کرنے کے لئے بلا تاخیر نادر مفید کتابوں کا ذخیرہ رکھنے والے تقسیم کار گلشن بکس ریذیڈنسی روڈ سرینگر کشمیر سے رابطہ قائم کیجئے –

The Wet-lands of Kashmir


The Wet-lands of Kashmir

Though world is celebrating wet-land day on 2nd February, 2016, we have little to celebrate as we have been witnessing the death of these wet lands due to our callousness and that of the authorities. Most of our wetlands have got converted into housing colonies, or got silted up over the years or have been filled up by land-fill with solid waste disposal and even disposal of untreated liquid wastes.

“In Kashmir, a swamp or wet-land is called ‘Nambal’, which is such a type of land, in which a portion of water mixes with a part of land and is always wet. At some places cattle sink and perish in it. At places it is hard; such type of land is cultivable as well as barren. In cultivable areas, the peasants use shovels to dig it for paddy plantation. At some places where land is not so hard, people plough it in water for sowing seeds. There is abundance of wild grass and reed in barren marshes”- records Tarikh-i-Hasan about a century back. During winter many of these wet-lands would attract migratory birds from as far as Siberia, Central Asia and other remote areas to escape harsh winters. Many of these water bodies which served as flood lungs have vanished due to the pressure of urbanization.

According to Tarikh-i-Hassan written a century back, these were as under:

Bemina Nambal : On the south of Srinagar adjacent to Batamaloo is a vast plain with some under cultivation of crops. There are springs and ponds of water in iy. Reed and other types of grass is produced here. During Kharif season, people plough land and uproot grass roots. After drying it they use it for cooking, replacing dry cow dung. Its scanty water-supply joins river Behat atop a bridge at Shalateng. (Presently it is a full-fledged housing colony, besides housing fruit mandi, Government offices, JVC hospital etc. after a land fill of 7 to 10 ft. depth, leaving no space for flood absorption.)

Brari Nambal:

It is in the middle of city towards north. In past, its water was clear and wavy. Now-a-days it is full of reed. In some places there are small pools of water. In summer, its waters joining Dal waters leaves through Nala Mar. It is dry in winter. (At present Nala Mar has been converted into a four lane road with shop-lines on either side. All the filthy drainage of about 4 lakh people has been flowing into this mini lake, with a reverse flow into Dal lake for over two decades. Now a gated connection has been given with river Jhelum near Biscoe bridge. Besides a garland sewer with a treatment plant has been constructed for treatment of the filthy drainage of the surrounding population.)

Tulla Mullah Nambal:

A vast swamp with agricultural fields on its sides, and rich growth of reed and grass. In its centre lies village Tulla Mulla, and famous spring of Khir Bhawani. In the past several canals were dug out of it for cultivation of crops. Now, with the passage of time, the canals have been replaced by reed plains. About the wonders of Kashmir, the historians have recorded that fishes are produced out of Tulla Mulla soils. In fact in the said swamp water level had raised at some spots. This deep water associated with other canals is home for fishes. For fishing people  made a hole on the floor of earth, fitted an instrument of wood, which is the specific instrument of fisherman and from that hole, they catch fish by an iron rod. There are various springs in this swamp and their waters after joining Sindlar river, flow into river Behat at Shardapur. (A Central University campus is reported to be coming up in the vicinity now.)

Magam Nambal:

To the north of Safapur, is a vast and spacious swamp, with some of its parts ideal for cultivation. In its middle, are reed and grasslands. Birds are in abundance for hunting. Its water passes through Ajas Nalah and then joins Ular lake.

Dur Nambal: It is spacious swamp to the south of Sopore, which is full of water in summer and is dry during winter. Water nuts grow here. Its water joins with river Behat.

Kanaspur Nambal:

It is situated near village Delina in Pargana Krohen, which is always covered under reed. Its banks are inhabited by people. Its water joins river Behat at Goras Boni.

Padgampore Nambal:

It is also called as Konahbal swamp. It is towards east from Pampore and is covered under grass. Its water flows down in river Behat.

Eth Khuro Nambal:

It is situated in Pargana Lar adjacent to village Chhandrah. Its water joins river Behat enroute Sind.

Marhama Nambal:

It is situated in Pargana Dachinapora, near Marhama village. Its water joins river Behat.

Most of these wetlands are either getting extinct or are on the verge of extinction. Our lakes like Wullar, Dal, Manasbal, Anchar, Khushhal Sar, Gil Sar etc. are also endangered. A serious effort is needed for saving the remaining water bodies and wet lands so vital for our survival.

Kashmir- its characteristics: (Ref- Tarikh-i-Hassan written a century back.)


Kashmir- its characteristics: (Ref- Tarikh-i-Hassan written a century back.)

The beautiful valley of Kashmir is a delightful garden par excellence which has been referred as the paradise on earth by the eminent scholars, travelers and rulers, due to its scenic charm. The fact is that no other country of world is gifted with such natural features.

  • The climate of this country is invigorating. There is no need of fan in summer, and fur in winter, as the climate is quite moderate. The air here is from paradise, which brings life to people and remains moderate round the year and serenity of the pleasant valley keeps sorrow and grief out of one’s mind.
  • The water of this land of flowers, which flowing from the snow-clad mountains, lakes and springs, is always in motion through canals and streams. It is the elixir of life for people and irrigates the fields. How pretty the waters of this pleasant valley are for life resembling the face of one’s darling.
  • On the land surface of Kashmir from every side, including the banks of rivers, streams and springs, everywhere there is a green cover of vegetation, which presents a delightful charm.
  • The gardens of the land, the magnificent structures of the early kings and the systematic arrangement of canals, cascades, fountains, flower beds and the plenty of flowers and green meadows is symbolic and magnetic for visitors. There are beautiful flowers in the beautiful gardens of Kashmir.
  • The beautiful land is encompassed by innumerable mountains, which are scenic and charming. And with the grace of God, these evergreen forests are the source of fresh air and cool breeze all over the year.
  • The green margs of the hills with their fresh air are the pleasure resorts for the rich and the wise.

If you stay in the green pastures, hundreds of flowers may kiss your soul.

  • In this paradise, many types of orchards on karewas, hills, plains and desserts are bestowed with fresh and juicy fruits.
  • The cereals of many types are available in plenty, especially rice, which is the staple food of common people.
  • The mountains and the forests of this country are gifted with wild animals for hunting and people from Europe spend fair amount of money for hunting here and return with gifts for their friends in Europe.
  • The dreadful beasts and poisonous creatures i.e. snake, crocodile and scorpion are not confined to this part of land. A paradise is a peaceful place, where people live with peace and harmony.
  • The people of the country are very wise and skillful, and are superior than the skilled workers of other countries especially in Pashmina industry, in which no one can compete them in drawing and design. It is the dress of the rich and the noble people. The rich earn a big fortune in its trade. The people are also famous for their wit as well.
  • The scenic beauty of this country has no parallel with its majestic charm. Famous poets like Nizami, Sadi, Jamee and Ghani Kashmiri have all praise for the beauties of Kashmir.
  • As per the old Puranas and testaments, Kashmir has been the visiting place for Godesses, who often lived here leaving distinctive marks here.
  • The Islamic scholars and preachers also visited Kashmir to preach Islamic way of life. The shrines and the holy places are found in every corner of the valley.
  • Various scholars, writers, poets and essayists have adorned the beauty of this land of flowers which is really a paradise on earth. There are stories about the beauty of Kashmir recorded in essays and poetic language.

There are famous “masnavis” about the scenic beauties of Kashmir by Saleem, Kaleem, Qudsee, Khasali, Zaffar Khan Ahsan, Mir Allahi, Tugra, Urfee and Faizee.

Shaikh Shahab-ud-Din Sindhi says:

Kashmir for its noble inhabitants resembles paradise and Allah has promised a safe life for its people

Qutab records:

“ Oh Kashmir! You are really a paradise. In autumn, you are adorned with saffron and presents a glimpse of spring season. Thousands of flowers bloom in autumn in Kashmir. Oh Kasul why are you so crazy.”

Shah Jehan says: “Adam tasted wheat and was out of Heaven. I tasted barley water, Oh! My God send me to Kashmir.”

Tugrah records:

“At the time of death it was the last wish of the Emperor Jehangir, to be in Kashmir.”

Zaffar Khan Ahsan mentions:

“Never say Kashmir resembles China, the land of fairies. In short it is a Paradise on the earth.”

Qudsi says:

Every part of Kashmir is splendid in beauty. The waters of Lar place are very sweet.”

Faizee says:

“———It is the garden of Soloman and that of the people.”

Kaleem says:

“Ye Sky why are  you depressed. See, this is Kashmir. See the plains, mountains and the forests bedecked with flowers. See thousands of gardens are accumulated in one garden.”

(P.S: It is engraved on the entrance gate of Khanqahi Mualla Srinagar:

کان الکشمیر ساکینھا—-جنات عدن ھی للمومنین

قد کتب اللہ علٰی بابھا—-داخلھا کان من الاٰمنین

“The inhabitants of Kashmir live in the paradise that is meant for the believers,

It is written on its entrance gate, ‘whoever enters in it, is among the peaceful men.”)


The Kashmir Bridges:


The Kashmir Bridges:

According to Tarikh-i-Hassan, the Rajas in ancient times managed to develop thirty strong and smooth bridges on river Brht by adjusting the big boats fastened by ropes and chains, with a floor of big and wide planks over them, but all of them were destroyed during Zulchoo riots.

Afterwords during Salateen era, modern bridges were constructed in such a pattern that a wooden square box was prepared and the same made to drown in the river by dropping huge stones inside it and the foundation for a high bridge was laid. Next wooden boxes of rectangular shape laid over it and fastened with wooden nails. Over these wooden planks were laid and on the sides wooden frames as protection walls were laid, and in this way the first bridhe to be constructed was Ali Kadal. Then the Muslim Salateen laid 18 bridges over river Beht among which seven were in the city and the rest in the villages. At present (i.e. a century back when Hassan wrote it) there are only 13 bridges, while 5 are extinct.

During Salateen era, the above referred bridges would be destroyed by fire during riots and sometimes by floods. The rulers have made efforts to repair them every now and then.

These bridges are enlisted as under:

  • Khanabal Bridge——- near Islamabad–Span 66 yards, width 4 yards
  • Bijbehara Bridge-1041AH- Constructed by Darashikwa—span 100yards, width 6yards
  • Nainah Bridge ——-A Salateen structure, destroyed by fire during Chak riots.
  • Awantipur Bridge—-Sultan Haidar’s structure, destroyed during Chak riots.
  • Pampore Bridge-1045 AH- Shahejahan’s structure.
  • Panthachok Bridge-987 AH-Constructed by Queen Habba Khatoon, Jehangir reconstructed it, destroyed during Chak riots.
  • Amira Kadal-1188 AH-Constructed by Amir Khan Jawanshaer, span 134 yards, width 6 yards.
  • Habba Kadal-958 AH- Constructed by Habib Shah, span 97 yards, width one yard.
  • Fateh Kadal-906 AH- Constructed by Fateh Shah, span 88 yards, width 3 yards
  • Zaina Kadal-831 AH-Constructed by Sultan Zain-ul-Abideen, span 96 yards, width 8 yards.
  • Aali Kadal- 822 AH- Constructed by Ali Shah brother of Budshah, span 82yards, width 6 yards
  • Nov Kadal-1077 AH- Constructed by Noor-ud-Din Khan, span 75 yards, width 6 yards.
  • Safa Kadal- 1082 AH-Constructed by Said-ud-Din Khan, span 110yards, width 6yards.
  • Sumbal Bridge———Constructed by ancient Salateen, span 112 yards, width 5 yards.
  • Hanjin Bridge ———–Construction by ancient salateen in bad condition due to floods.
  • Sopore Bridge————Construction by Sultan Zain-ul-Abideen, span 214 yards, width 5 yards
  • Novrozpore Bridge-1222 AH-Constructed by Sultan Hassan, destroyed in war between Mukhtar-ud-Doula and Abdullah Khan.
  • Baramulla Bridge—– Its foundation is very old, Atta Mohammad Khan constructed afresh, span 146 yards, width 5 yards.
  • Gohalan Bridge——-It is an iron bridge constructed by Ranbir Singh at a cost of Rs. one lac, span 84 yards, width 7 yards.

At Khwaja Yarbal, Mar Canal takes off constructed by Sultan Zain-ul-Abideen, and there are following 14 bridges over it:

  • Naidyaar Bridge: Founded by Sultan Sikandar. Chowdry Mahesh repaired it for visiting backyard to Vetalenmarg.
  • Jogi Lankar Bridge- Constructed by Budshah.
  • Nowpora Bridge- Constructed by Iradat Khan.
  • Naid Kadal.
  • Bohri Kadal.
  • Saraf Kadal.
  • Qadri Kadal.
  • Rajwar Kadal.
  • Kawdara Kadal.
  • Gaw Kadal.
  • Dombah Kadal.
  • Sakedafar Kadal.
  • Ratapora Kadal.
  • Gandharpore Kadal.

Kawdara canal which branches off from Nala Maar, has three bridges over it.

  • Kohna Kadal
  • Buchh Kadal
  • Sohkoor Motah kadal

Tarabal Canal which after branching off from Nala Mar, joins Kawdara canal and falls into Khushalsar and Anchar. There are six bridges over it.

  • Ashraf Kadal
  • Tarabal Kadal
  • Merjanpore Kadal
  • Narora Kadal. It was constructed by Ali Shah.
  • Zoonimar Kadal. It was constructed by Noor Jehan. The water of the seven streams passes over the bridge.
  • Braiwaree Kadal. It was constructed by Zaffar Khan Ahsan

(All the bridges on Nala Mar and its branches are extinct with the filling of Nala Mar and its conversion into a motorable road.)

The bridges of Apple Canal:

  • Drugjan Bridge: It is the structure of Qazi Abul Qasim, who was famous as Qazizada. Below it is a strong gate, which closes and opens automatically during the rise and fall of water level. The people of northern side of city are safe from floods due to its construction.
  • Gowkadal: It is an ancient structure.

The Bridges of Katakul (which branches off from Beht at Shergarhi and again joins Beht)

  • Tankikadal
  • Kanikadal
  • Haji Rather Kadal
  • Bozaghir Kadal
  • Watal Kadal

The bridges of Doodganga stream:

  • Batamaleon Kadal
  • Pareet Kadal
  • Zanpah Kadal
  • Chattabal Kadal (All these bridges have only two pedestals)

Vetalanmarg bridges in Dal lake:

  • Chowdribagh Bridge
  • Doodphakree Bridge
  • Tulakhon Bridge
  • Ganee Kadal
  • Ontah Kadal (Nishat Bridge). It was constructed by Sultan and repaired by Chowdry Mahesh.

Khwaja Yarbal Embankment Bridges:

  • Saida Kadal
  • Nandpora Bridge
  • Aashabad Bridge-All these three bridges have been constructed by Abul Hassan Khan Bandey.

Dodarhama Bridge: It was constructed by Noor Jehan. It was destroyed by earthquake in 1243 AH.

Bridges of Shadipore Stream:

  • Naidkhai Bridge
  • Hartara Bridge

These were constructed by Sultan Budshah.


Kashmir Earthquakes:


Kashmir Earthquakes:

A century back the historian Hassan Khuihami records in his book,”Tarikh-i-Hassan” about the chronology of earthquakes in Kashmir as under:

  • During the time when Sandimatnagar city was settled on a lake, the people of that area faced hardships due to their immoral activities and during Sundersain’s rule an earthquake of great dimension occurred which destroyed whole surface, a spring sprouted, which flooded the whole city. Now this spring is known as Wular nag.
  • During Raja Awantivarman’s rule an earthquake hit during the night of 940 Bikrami. Near Baramulla, a part of Khadanyar mountain slided down and blocked flow of water of river Vyeth and the land surface up to Bijbehara came under floods and all villages and agriculture fields were destroyed. Later on, acting on the plan advocated by Dansoo, the stones of mountains were removed from great depths, thereby regulating flow of water.
  • During Fateh Shah’s rule in 907 AH, an earthquake hit during the night which caused death and destruction of many people and property. The earth was shaking continuously for three months and became static with the passage of time.
  • A severe earthquake hit in 960 AH, during the time of Ismail Shah. Buildings along with inmates collapsed and houses were razed to ground. The land surface cracked and some old springs disappeared. New springs were born. The earthquake continued for a week and the land regained its original position after two months. Strange happenings were observed. It is said that at Adwin pargana adjacent to Nandi Marg on the bank of river Vishaw, the location of two villages Hassanpore and Hussainpore got exchanged at midnight, though they were a mile apart. Hence the agriculture land of one village is now located in the other village. The river Vishav flows through the middle of these two villages. Also in Mawar district of Kamraj pargana, a part of mountain slided down, causing death of 600 people.
  • During Saif Khan’s rule in 1080 AH, an earthquake hit, shaking all buildings from evening to morning. However there was little damage to human life.
  • During Ibrahim Khan’s Subedari, the floods were followed by a severe earthquake, which destroyed and damaged both life and property. The state of affairs of people was unstable due to regular vibrations of quakes for a long period of time. The earthquake sufferers built separate houses and it was a great destruction.
  • During Dil Dileer Khan’s rule a severe earthquake hit in 1148 AH and within one shock houses in city and villages were razed to the ground, as if the total population had perished. This earthquake shook earth for three months but with less intensity. The shaking occurred during the days as well as in nights and people were sad enough to face the odds.
  • During Karim Khan’s governance in 1193 AH, the land surface shook in such a manner that dwellings of people in urban and rural areas collapsed and most of the people died. It continued for one and a half month and the survived people fled to plains.
  • An earthquake hit during the rule of Asad Khan in 1199 AH and it was confined to the interior of the city. The earth was shaking continuously for three months, several houses were damaged and many people had to face death.
  • A terrible earthquake occurred during the rule of Sardar Abdullah Khan in 1218 AH. At some places land cracked and houses collapsed. Some women aborted and some people got buried under the debris of walls.
  • During Kripa Ram’s rule an earthquake hit at midnight in 1243 AH, which shook earth and created havoc. Several people died. The land got submerged and houses were razed to ground. Severe shocks were felt for three months and frequented up to nine months.
  • During Ranbir Singh’s government, the land began to shake at midnight in 1280 AH. At Krohen and Bangil, the land cracked at some places, but life and property was not hit badly. It continued for three months and was of less intensity on eastern side.
  • During the last days of Ranbir Singh’s rule in 1302 AH, earthquake hit during Shab-e-Barat and there was total chaos and confusion. At the very first jerk, all the houses in Sopore, Baramullah, Bangil and Krohan collapsed. Besides land in these areas cracked due to severe floods. At several places green sand and green water appeared. The sulphur smell was observed for one month. Land cracked at Ladoora village of Krohan pargana and lava flowed out at certain places and next a strange white mud appeared. Due to flow of lava, a piece of land measuring 700ft by 300 ft with a depth of 70 ft. subsided down and a few houses of peasants disappeared. In this depth, certain parts of earth remained standing as pillars in their original form and shape.

At some places there was change of landscape. Though the earthquake was not severe in the city, yet 300 houses were completely destroyed and the rest were damaged. The royal palace was also hit and many barracks collapsed. There was more damage and destruction at Shergudh and less damage in other parganas and surrounding areas. At some villages the shakings of earthquake were not observed. The duration of earthquake continued for three months as it would hit several times, during the day and the night. Afterwards there was a threat once or twice a week, and it continued for fourteen months. People made temporary shelters in plains and were very frightened.

Thousand of lives were lost in this episode, including 20,000 horses, 20,000 cows and oxen besides 1,500 people. In the wazarat of Kamraj, 1200 people; in city 250 people and in other parganas 50 people lost their lives. According to historians there are more sulphur mines in the mountains of Kamraj, that is why it is prone to more earthquakes every year. Ranbir Singh paid an amount of Rs. 20,000 for rehabilitation and welfare of earthquake sufferers (both in cash and kind). Rs. 2,00,000 were exempted as tax from farmers of wazarat Kamraj. In Baramulla and Sopore, the tax on timber was also exempted.

During the last century, minor earthquakes have been frequent visitors in this area, however Budgam area has witnessed a severe shaking causing damage to buildings, besides a vast destruction of life and property took place in Azad Kashmir area in 2005. In 2015 also a number of tremors have been felt. There is a prediction of a severe earthquake in Hindu Kush Mountains by the American geologists, confirmed by local experts due to pushing of Indian plate with Asian plate. It has been recommended to keep handy an earthquake kit containing first aid box, some clothing and nourishment for emergency purposes. Besides public buildings have been recommended to be retrofitted and future constructions need to be got designed as earthquake proof from the structural engineers.

Kashmir Floods


Kashmir Floods

According to Tarikh-i-Hassan written about a century back, the chronology of floods in Kashmir is recorded as under:

  • It is said that in past Khadanyar mountain slided down due to earthquake and the spring at Wullar surfaced, which flooded and drowned the city of Sandimatnagar and flood waters hit upto Bijbehara.
  • During Raja Durlab Wardhan’s rule, the city of Srinagar was under water due to heavy rainfall in the year 14 Hijri. The dam of Vatalan Marg constructed by Raja Parvarsain cracked and Vatalan Marg was flooded which resulted in the birth of Dal lake.
  • In 776 Bikrami era during Raja Laltaditya, the city buildings crumbled due to floods and the capital was shifted to Letapora. The floods destroyed and damaged several buildings of the city.
  • During Awantivarman’s rule, an earthquake in 936 Bikrami resulted in sliding down of a part of Khadanyar mountain which obstructed water of river Beht causing floods.
  • During floods in 1015 Bikrami, in Raja Parth’s rule the whole city got drowned under water and the houses were seen floating like bubbles in water.
  • During the rule of Sultan Shahab-ud-Din in 1436 Bikrami, 20,000 houses were destroyed due to severe floods.
  • In 982 AH during Ali Khan Chak’s rule floods during rainy season damaged houses and crops altogether.
  • Houses were floating like boats during floods in 1089 AH and inmates were crying and wailing it. It was a historical flood. An earthquake also hit in those days.
  • Under the governance of Navazish Khan in 1143 AH, heavy rains caused severe floods, which damaged both houses as well as crops.
  • In 1148 AH, during Dil Dilar Khan’s period, floods damaged thousands of houses. In compounds of houses and the plains water remained static for long time.
  • 10,000 houses damaged during the governance of Afrasayab Khan in 1160 AH. The bridges of river Beht crumbled and buildings collapsed.
  • The bridges of river Behat collapsed due to floods under the rule of Aamir Khan Jawan Shair in 1184 AH.The buildings were helter and skelter.
  • During Jumma Khan’s period in 1202 AH, floods in river Beht cracked Qazizada dam. The Northern part of city came under water and houses and property of people were destroyed by floods.
  • In 1214 AH during Abdullah Khan’s rule, severe floods touching skies in river Beht damaged crops.
  • The bridges of Khanabal, Bijbehara and Amira Kadal, collapsed due to floods during Colonel Main Singh’s rule in 1252 AH.
  • Due to severe floods, the Qazizada Dam cracked during the governance of Shaikh Ghulam Mohi-ud-Din causing damages in Khanyar and Rainawari. Six bridges collapsed from Fateh Kadal to Sumbal. Rains continued for seven days.
  • Next Walter Lawrence records occurrence of major floods in 1902 AD. This was followed by the major floods of 1959 AD. We have been witness to the century’s worst floods in September 2014 causing heavy damages of life and property. Due to non serious attitude of the authorities, the recommendations made by experts to check future catastrophe are being ignored and we may have to repeat the earlier process of digging the well, when the fire is on.

The Gardens of Kashmir:


The Gardens of Kashmir:

“The Kashmir Rajas laid beautiful gardens and planted shady trees in ancient times, this would add to the charm and beauty of the surroundings, but all seems deteriorated due to passage of time and unconcerned authorities besides callousness of the common man,” writes Hassan Khuihami a century back.

“During Muslim rule, the Sultans were very fond of laying gardens and to build structures, which have become a part of history now. Among them, Sultan Zain-ul-Abideen was the pioneer in laying gardens and to build buildings, especially he had laid a beautiful garden on four square miles land at Zainagir; on one side of it he built tall and towering buildings and on the other side , he planted rows of trees and flower beds, criss-crossed by canals and waterfalls. Often he used to enjoy scenic beauty of this garden. The environs of this garden had magnetized nobles and close aides of king and hence Zainagir had become a beautiful rose garden. During this period, Pandov Chaks, set ablaze buildings and the garden of Zainagir during night time.”

“The king laid a vast garden, with wonderful arrangements at Nalabal adjacent to Nowshehra, where he built a tall building having 12 compartments. Each compartment of this building had 50 rooms and every room could accommodate 500 men. This royal palace named “Zainadab,”was built for his personal use and people used to call it “Razdan.” A royal canal was dug out from Sindlar, which flowed through middle of this garden and it was in a stable condition upto Sikh rule.”

“Similarly he had laid a delightful garden at Zainapora with tall building structures and was one of the wonders of those times. Likewise, tall structures were raised at Zainakote hillock, which remained as memorial till Mughal era.”

“Hussain Shah Chak, laid a garden at Mohalla Nowhatta near the shrine of Hazrat Khwaja Moin-ud-Din Naqshbandi. Lachma kul flowed through it with a waterfall. During Mughal period, it was under the possession of Hazrat Khwaja Mahmood Naqshbandi, who built Khanqahi Naqshbandi here.”

“Yousuf Shah Chak laid a vast garden of flowers from Fateh Kadal to Dal Hassan Yar Ghat or river Vyth, upto Kuta-Kul bank and this garden was divided into 13 stages. Its traces were found upto Afghan period, now it has fallen prey to urbanization. Yousuf Shah Chak had built a wonderful building at Gulmarg, whose vestiges exist still there.”

The Moghul kings during their rule, laid gardens throughout the length and breadth of Kashmir, especially around Dal lake, the banks of river Vyth, the banks of springs and canals, the foot-hills of mountains, and awarded it the title of “Paradise on Earth”

The poets of this era namely Qudsee, Kareem, Saleem, Zaffar Khan, Khasalee, Mir Allahi and Bihishtee recorded ‘masnavis’, in praise of the gardens, buildings, trees, flowers and fruits of Kashmir. Some of the gardens are described as under:-

Jarogh Shahi: In 996 Hijri, the Moghul King Akbar identified a charming place at the base of Koh-i-Maran, towards east, where at the behest of Khwaja Hussain Kablee, the foundation stone was laid for the Royal Palace with marble and other precious stones. The pillars of Royal Palace were adorned with diamonds and pearls, and with beautiful architectural designs of roofs. A wonderful garden, “Darshini Bagh” was laid in front of Dal lake, and was planted with various varieties of trees, flowers, besides marble verandahs, tanks and waterfalls. Its three sides were planted with rows of popular trees.”

“Besides, around Kohi-Maran, are the residential quarters for princes, and stay-in arrangements for nobles, wazirs and army officers. Charming markets for traders, stony shops and painted houses of a new city called “Nagar Nagar” became famous. A wall around the fort of this city was raised which exists till now. In year 1187 Hijri, Amir Khan Jawan Sher, demolished Royal Palace and took the valuables. Ha carried stones to the centre of Dal lake and used them for construction at Amirabad Sonalank. The Royal Palace was in existence till Sikh rule.”

“In 1227 Hijri, Atta Mohammad Khan, built a fort on the peak of Koh-i-Maran. The inmates of fort were officers of government and women, who left fort due to suppression by the oppressors and the buildings of city were destroyed.”

“Dara Palace: Dara Shikwah, built strong structures, wonderful isolated residential houses, and painted halls at the foot of southern side of Koh-i-Maran. There are wonderful chambers, which still exist. A beautiful garden was laid in its compound where flowers and trees were planted. A water tank was arranged wherefrom water was carried through canals and waterfalls to the whole garden. Besides there is a mosque in its west, which the prince built for his teacher, Mulla Shah, and in east, is a “Hamam” built out of lime.”

“The garden of Farah Baksh: It is famous as Shalimar. During the period of Raja Parvarsain, a hermit, Sogram Swami by name was meditating in the vicinity of Harwan. The Raja would often visit him there. The saint built a royal palace there and hung pictures of various goddesses, past kings and Rajas and named it “Shalmarr.” Shal in Sanskrit means ‘House’ i.e. Dharamshal and ‘mar’stands for love i.e. beautiful. Shalimar means a beautiful house or the abode of God of love. With the passage of time, the royal palace dissipated and a village came up, commonly called Shalimar. Azeem Khan, during the days of governance, repaired the inside and the outside roof and walls, but Raja Ranbir Singh expanded it to keep it neat and clean. But Wazir Panu, removed copper outlets and replaced them with mud outlets and took cornelian, worth one kharwar by weight.”

Bagh-i-Faiz Baksh: It is a second stage of Shalimar. In the year 1040 AH, Zaffar Khan Ahsan, by orders of Shah-e-Jahan laid one beautiful garden ans a mausoleum to add to the beauty and charm of Bagi Farah Baksh. In the middle a strong tank filled with 132 fountains, was arranged and a splendid scenic spectacle was constructed out of Sang-e-musa and it was developed to be a very wonderful site. Both the stages were 590 yards in length and 307 yards in width with three yards high surrounding wall. Below it is a long canal which is 10-12 yards wide which leads upto Dal lake and its floor is filled with pebbles and stones. A tall building has been built on the bank of Dal lake with a delightful garden.

Bagh-i-Aishabad: At the edge of Sudra Khun towards east enroute Hazratbal, Jehangir laid this garden and with waters of Zukra Canal, which branches out from Sindlar, fountains and water falls were arranged to add to its beauty. Now only a few chinar trees are found there.

Bag-i-Bahar Ara: A vast wonderful garden with all facilities was laid at the instance of Noor Jehan, at the edge of Sudrakhun towards west opposite Aishabad at Bagwanpora. A canal flows from royal canal of Illahi Bagh through the garden. It is said that Emperor Jehangir would sit in a small boat and maids drev the boat in moonlight upto Illahi Bagh. At the highest level of the garden, a tall building of seven compartments, was built with the object of enjoying the scenery and serene beauty of Dal lake, during moonlight. Therefore this royal palace was given the name of “Bahree Ara”. Now the structures of this garden have been raised to ground. (However later on a leper home has come up in this spot.)

Noor Bagh: This garden was laid by Noor Jehan towards west of Idgah. A canal flows through it after branching out from royal canal, enroute Zoonimar and crossing through stony bridge.

Bagh-e-Safa: At Safapora towards northern edge of Mansar lake, a garden was laid alongwith tall buildings by Noor Jehan. Its foundations exist still.

Begumabad: It is famous by the name of Shahabad. It was laid at Achabal spring by orders of Noor Jehan in Pargana Kothar. There is a hamam made of granite. Now the buildings are no more there. Raja Ranbir Singh ordered for ordinary repairs.

Daulatabad: A wonderful flower garden was laid on the bank of Dal lake towards south of Hazratbal, at the instance of Jehangir. Nowadays it is used as a cropland. (This too has fallen prey to urbanization.)

Allahi Bagh: Adjacent to Buchpora village in Arwee area, is one of the famous structures of Shah Jehan. It was divided into four steps and the royal canal flowed through its middle. People used to go there from Buta Kadal Nala upto Allahi Bagh in boats. In ancient past there was a chinar with a girth of 16 yards. (This area too has got converted into a residential area during past about 4 decades.)

Bagh-i-Chinar: It was laid out on the eastern bank of river Vyeth at Shadipore village, as proposed by Shah Jehan. About 500 chinar trees were planted there.

Bagh-i-Pampore: At the bank of river Vyeth, towards east is one of the memorial structures of  Shah Jehan. (not visible now)

Bagh-i-Wantipora: At the eastern bank of river Vyeth, Shah Jehan laid this verdant garden.

Bagh-i-Bijbhera: By the orders of Shah Jehan, Dara Shikwah laid this garden with tall buildings on the eastern bank of river Vyeth.

Asifabad: At the instance of Shah Jehan, Asif Khan, laid this garden, near the spring of Machbhavan in Mattan Pargana.

Shahabad: Hyder Malik, by orders of Shah Jehan laid a wonderful garden with building structures outside Verinagh spring. It is a wonderful garden adorned by fountains and waterfalls. It is said that it has four steps. With the passage of time, this garden has lost its bliss and glory. Raja Ranbir Singh repaired it changing its original design. (At present the department of Parks and Gardens has undertaken maintenance of most of such gardens)

Bagh-i-Naseem: Adjacent to Hazratbal towards north on the bank of Dal lake, a garden was laid by Shah Jehan. It is said that 112 saplings of chinar trees were planted at a time, during wee hours of morning, which were nourished by milk instead of water. None of the saplings got dried up. The green grass carpet surface is the gift of Bagh-i-Naseem. (Later the area served as a temporary campus for Regional Engineering College and forms a part of the University of Kashmir.)

Bagh-i-Nishat: Towards south of Shalimar at the foot of eastern mountain, Asaf Jha Khan, laid a garden on the bank of Dal lake, with buildings, fountains and waterfalls. In the year 1044 Hijri, when Shah Jehan visited the garden, he liked it very much as compared to Shalimar and with the idea that he will call this garden by his name, he repeatedly praised the beauty of the garden. Asaf Khan did not utter a word. Shah Jehan was sad, and closed the canal that was supplying water. One day Asaf Jha was sad and distressed and felt asleep. The gardener sensing the mood of his master, allowed the water of Shalimar stream to flow through Nishat Bagh with the sound of fountains and waterfalls. Asaf Khan awakened and enquired about the flow of water. The gardener said that in order to make the master happy, he regulated the flow of water from royal canal so that you are consoled. Now I am ready to face the consequences. And Jha was very happy and offered him gold equal to his body weight.

When the king came to know about it, he called the gardener and reprimanded him. He replied that since he saw his master in a state of grief and sorrow and sensing his restlessness, he without caring for his life, regulated flow of water from royal canal. I deserve punishment for this action. Instead the king presented him with gifts for this offence and ordered Asaf Jha Khan to regulate the flow of royal canal.

Bagh-i-Jehan Ara: It was Prince Dara Shikwa, who laid a garden in the island of Dal lake, towards south of Hazratbal adjacent to Bhat graveyard. With the passage of time it got demolished. During Durrani’s rule a fakir Lal Shah by name used to live there and it was thus called as Takia Lal Shah. This garden too has fallen prey to urbanization.

Bagh-i-Shahabad: Adjacent to Bagh-i-Jehan Ara, on the bank of Dal lake, Dara Shikwa laid a vast garden “Munna Phul” by name towards south near Hazratbal.

Bagh-i-Paree Mahal: It is famous as “Katlana”. It was Dara Shikwa, who laid this garden at the desire of his spiritual mentor, Mulla Shah, nearTheed village, on the slope of the mountain. There is a spring nearby, which provides water to the garden through water channels. Nowadays it is the abode of snakes and poisonous pythons are common here. The steps of the garden present a wonderful sight. ( Lately the garden and its structures have been restored by the concerned department)

Bagh-i-Char Chinar: It was laid by Prince Murad Baksh in Dal lake at the base of Koh-i-Sulaiman. Four chinars are present till now. The Governors and Sultans used to sit and enjoy here.

Bagh-i-Mulla Shah: It was laid by Dara Shikwah nar Darind village of Phak Pargana at the desire of his teacher, Mulla Shah. A royal canal traverses through it. A concrete building and a strong hamam still exist there.

Aurangabad: A beautiful garden was laid above Luka Bhavan spring by orders of Alamgir, but remained incomplete.

Zaffarabad: In 1042 Hijri, this garden was laid by Zaffar Khan Ahsan, the Governor during Shah Jehan’s period at Zoonimar mohalla on the bank of Anchar lake near Braiwar.

Bagh-i-Gulshan: It was laid by Zaffar Khan in 1044 Hijri, on the southern edge of Dal lake from Bota kadal to Amda kadal, (It is all urbanized now.)

Bagh-i-Ahsanabad: It is known as Hassanabad. Zaffar Khan laid it towards north of Naidyar. There were concrete buildings, one Imam Bara and a strong concrete structure. The garden does not exist now there.

Bagh-i-Anayat: It was adjacent towards north of “Sayid Mohammad Madni’s shrine”. Lachma kul was flowing through the middle. All these four gardens mentione above were laid by zaffar Khan.

Hyderabad: Adjacent to Nalla near Nowshehra, Ali Mardan Khan, laid a garden with concrete buildings, fountains and waterfalls, for his residence. Earlier the garden was laid by Sultan Zain-ul-Abideen.

Bagh-i-Aliabad:  During the rule of Shah Jehan in 1064 AH, Ali Mardan Khan laid the garden above Telbal village, with tall buildings, concrete walls, a big canal, a vast tank, fountains and waterfalls etc. Its foundations are still in existence.

Bagh-i-Aradat Khan: Towards east of Nowpora, Aradat Khan in 1o3o AH, during reign of Jehangir laid this garden at Sonti Buton Har. In its east, buildings and steps were made with such artistic pattern and design that is not found anywhere.

Bagh-i-Dilawar Khan: On the northern bank of Brari Nambal, adjacent to Kalashpora, Dilawar Singh during the reign of Jehangir laid the garden in 1027 AH. It is still in stable condition dur to repairs by thr Government. (Later on the garden was used to house the Multipurpose Higher SecondarySchool, and now a college has come up there.)

Bagh-i-Lashkar Khan: It was laid by Saif Khan, the Governor of Kashmir in Alamghir’s period, on the bank of Dal lake, on northern side, at Batapora village of Phak pargana, in 1068 AH. To irrigate it he dug out a special canal from Sindlar, but due to his transfer, the project remained incomplete. During 1293 AH, Raja Ranbir Singh, established a silk factory here and laid a garden at its peak, by the name of Ranbir Singh Bagh.

Bagh-i-Aqwam-ud-Din Khan: In 1080 AH, during Alamghir’s time, Qamar-ud-Din Khan laid a garden towards west of Idgah at Rathpora village adjacent to Noorbagh. It is now extinct.

Bagh-i-Sadarat Khan: Sadarat Khan, one of the wazirs of Shah Jehan, laid this garden at Pandach village of Phak pargana.

Bagh-i-Sadiqabad: It is famous as Hazratbal. Sadiq Khan, one of the nobles of Shah Jehan, laid this garden, with a beautiful building on the western bank of Dal lake.

In 1044 AH Shah Jehan, after ablution offered 2 rakats of namaz at this spot. He said to Sadiq Khan, that the building is not for recreation, but for prayers. After 69 years in 1111 AH, the sacred relic of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) was brought by Khwaja Nur-ud-Din Ishbari from Bijapora. Fazil Khan, who was the Subedhar of Kashmir in those days, after consulting responsible citizens decided to put the holy relic in the said building, and it was named as Hazratbal. Now it is not a garden. The well wishers of Dargah, making amendments, constructed a mosque towards western side and a Khanqah towards east in 1285 AH. (Later a marble structure on the pattern of Madina Sharif was constructed after dismantling the old structure, besides a new mosque came up after the western wing housing Dar-ul-Aloom got consumed in fire.)

Bagh-i-Afzalabad: Afzal Khan, one of the nobles of Shah Jehan laid this garden in the vicinity of Hazratbal.

Bagh-i-Jaffar Khan: Three number gardens were laid during Alamgir’s rule. One is an island, named Batamazar and is adjacent to Bagh-i-Jehan Ara. Other two gardens do not exist.

Qazi Bagh: Abul Wasim famous as Qazizada, laid this garden on the banks of Mansar spring towards east. He also constructed the embankment of Drugjan.

Chowdry Bagh: Chowdry Mahas, who was one of the richest man during Shah Jehan’s time, laid this garden near Ishabari. It is said that there were eighty beds and he repaired the embankment of Vatalnimarg, the memorial of Sultan Sikandar.The Governor of Kashmir Saif Khan, after visiting the garden remarked, Chowdry did not lay a garden, but he deceived Saif Khan.

Bagh-i-Afra Sayab Khan: During Muhammad Shah’s rule, Afra Sayab Khan, laid this garden towards north of Hazratbal.

Bagh-i- Kifayat Khan: Kifayat Khan, who was the Deputy Governor of Afghans laid this garden with buildings, trres and flower beds in 1208 AH. At present it is under paddy cultivation and is under the possession of Pandit Mahanand Joodhar.

Bagh-i-Amrood: It has been laid between the era of Jehangir and Shah Jehan from Tankipora bridge upto Natipora. There were different varieties of Guava, in abundance and the sunrays do not fall on it. During its flowering season, the people of the city visit there for enjoyment and entertainment. It was in existence till Amir Khan’s time. (The whole area has got urbanized now.)

Bagh-i-Angoor: From Diyara Laree mountain adjacent to Safapora, upto the Shrine of Shah Muhammad Sadiq Qalandhar, the grape cuttings were planted at the base of the mountain during the time of ancient Sultans. The Mughal kings, developed it and the varieties of grapes became famous throughout world, and these grapes were presented to the kings of other countries as gifts. As Durrani kings did not poay any attention foe its maintenance, it lost its glory. Only Raipur conserved cultivation of grapes. It was Raja Gulab Singh who maintained it and is remembered as Maharaj Bagh. In 1294 AH, Maharaja Ranbir Singh, laid a big orchard of grapes near Wandhama village and named it as Ranbir Bagh.

The Raipur grapes are famous throughout India. The Europeans also like it.

In “Masnavi Haft Manzil” Zaffar Khan Ahsan writes that Mougal kings planted grapes on left and right side of the road from Islamabad to Verinagh.

Bagh-i-toot: Maya Swami was a saintly man, who was living at the base of Takht-i-Sulaiman in isolation. He laid a wonderful garden on tha bank of Apple canal, which is known as Takya Maya Swami. The people of city visit this place for recreation. Hazrat Mir Muhammad Hamadani purchased the said Takya and attached the area from the bank of river Vyeth and from Amira Kadal to Kohi Sulaiman. He planted the grafted mulberry trees from one edge to another and endowed it as pasture land for city animals. Some trees were standing here up to Durrani era.

Haji Karim Dad Khan felled the left out trees and developed it a race course for horses. He planted popular trees, which exist even today. He bifurcated it and planted fruit trees and raised chinar trees on the north on the bank of Apple canal.

It is said that mosquitoes are lesser in number here. Later on Shaikh Mohi-ud-Din arranged a waterfall on its southern corner. During Ranbir Singh’s period, various bungalows were constructed on the bank of river as residential houses for English tourists. Tall buildings and vast gardens were laid for the department of “Residency.”

Daulatabad: Abdul Raina son of Rawan Raina laid a spacious garden from Jogi Lankar bridge to Surateng limits, known as Rainawari. His grandson Jehangir Raina endowed this garden to the disciples of Baba Ismail, and they possessed it for some time. It is said that thousands of grape trees were planted here. Hazrat Shaikh Hamza during his tender age used to guard it, as ordained by hia patron. Hazrat Baba at the time of his death endowed the said garden to people of the city for graveyard, and attached it with Malakha. Some area of this garden is under buildings.

Amirabad: When Amir Khan Jawan Sheer during his governance married the daughter of a boatman of Nasndapora, he built a royal palace at Nandapora and also laid a spacious garden there. From Darshini Bagh, which lies before Jerokha Shahi, the stones used for tanks, fountains and waterfalls were carried from there and fitted in Amirakadal.

Bagh-i-Aaqa Hussain: Aaqa Hussain was one of the rich men from Afghans. It is located on south of Nishat Bagh.

Bagh-i-Sukhram: Sukhram was one of the magnates of Kashmir during Sikh rule. The garden exists still at the base of Koh-i-Sulaiman.

Bagh-i-Ban Singh: It was laid by Behman Singh during his rule in 1245 AH, from Shergadi bala to Natipora.

Rambagh: It is among the constructions of Dewan Kripa Ram, on the bank of Dudgangha adjacent to Natipora. In the year 1274 AH, Gulab Singh was laid to rest here. Maharaja Ranbir Singh, built temples and other structures in 1275 AH here on the cremation ground.

Shaikh Bagh: It was laid by Shaikh Mohi-ud-Din in 1250 AH, towards east of Amira Kadal. At present there is graveyard of European people.

Bagh-i-Hari Singh: It was laid by Sardar Hari Singh during his rule and is adjacent to Shaikh Bagh.

Basant Bagh: It is opposite to Shergadh, on the bank of river in east and was laid by Colonel Mian Singh during his rule and the stones from the compound and tank of new mosque were uprooted and fitted in the garden.

Munshi Bagh: It was Munshi Talwak Singh, one of the nobles during Sikh rule, who laid this garden, above Bagh-i-Hari Singh.

Gulab Bagh: It was laid by Maharaja Gulab Singh near Tankipora bridge towards west of Shergadh.

Hazuree Bagh: Maharaja Ranbir Singh laid this garden with buildings, trees and flowers in 1288 AH, from Behman Singh Bagh to Shargadh bala.

Samandhar Bagh: It was laid by Maharaja Ranbir Singh at Maisuma.

Raghunagh Bagh: The garden was laid by Ranbir Singh near Saif Khan bagh in Habak village of pargana Phak.

Kothi Bagh: Above Amirakadal on the bank of river towards the south, the garden was laid by Maharaja Ranbir Singh in 1292 AH. On the bank of river, magnificent buildings with spacious halls, galleries, visiting rooms and recreational halls were constructed with paintings, photographs and different types of colourful drawings. It was the residential palace of the Maharaja and it served as a guest house for the Europeans. In the year 1203, it suffered damage due to earthquake. (Later it housed Government Arts Emporium and was consumed in fire. It has been rebuilt on the same design as before.)

Khwaja Bagh: In Khanyar at Thengha mohalla, Khwaja Sanaullah after purchasing a good area of land, attached with his residence laid a wonderful garden, with flower beds, tanks, fountains, waterfalls, conference halls and buildings in the year 1295 AH. More than one lakh rupees were soent on this construction. (The garden does not exist now.)

Most of the above cited gardens mentioned in Tarikh-i-Hassan about a century back are extinct due to onslaught of time and pressure of urbanization. Thus the land of Kashmir once bedecked with gardens, water channels, fountains, trees and flowers has turned to be full of masonry structures and is now getting converted to concrete jungles.