Author Archives: shahishaharyar

About shahishaharyar

Chartered civil engineer,Fellow institution of engineers India, Member Indian road congress,Member American society of civil engineers, Presented over 70 papers in various seminars,published books over 36 on environment,history, sufi saints, genealogy,free lance writer, travelled in India and abroad.

The Karewas of Kashmir: (Ref. Tarikh-i-Hassan)


The Karewas of Kashmir: (Ref. Tarikh-i-Hassan)

Very plain and isolated table lands (Karewas) are available through out  the length and breadth of this country (Kashmir) and are above 100-200 feet from average surface level. Some of these are connected with mountains while others though disconnected are elevated.

  • Mattan Karewa: Located towards south of Srinagar in Pargana Martand. At its bottom flow innumerable springs, the most prominent being “Bawan” and “Anantnag”. The land surface is flat and level and ideal for cultivation and habitation, but due to scarcity of water resources, it is desolate these days.

‘Ratnapuran’ records that in the beginning of Kaljug, Raja Ram Dev had built the town of Babul on the Karewah and temple ‘Martandeshor’ adjacent to the palace, whose foundations exist till date. Digging a canal from Khowerpora mountain, he made it to flow through the town. When the canal was frozen, his son RajaVasuda dug  a deep broad well in the town. After a long period of time the said town was desolate and the well got afflicted. But people while visiting the well would listen the cries from the heavens and people had the belief that two heavenly angels Harut and Marut were in a state of commotion in the well. With this ides, people began to offer presents to achieve divine proximity and fulfillment of their desires. In the year 781 AH, Hazrat Amir-i-Kabir (RA) arrived here and stayed for few days. When it was revealed to him that it was the ‘abode of satan.’ In order to do away with the myth, the well was filled up with stones and clay of temple. Later on Mir Muhammad Hamadani (RA) paid visit to this place and built a mosque over the well. One of the companions was advised to stay there, who passed his whole life there and is buried there. Later on people believed the grave of the devotee to be the “Ziyarat of Harut and Marut” and the ‘Karewa’ is referred as the “desert of Babul.”

  • Navanagri Karewa: Situated in Pargana Chhrat and Shavra, in an isolated position.It is flat and broken and the land is mostly cultivated with paddy grown on onw side. It is devoid of trees and bushes. In the olden days Navnagri town on the karewa was built by Raja Gulkandar, hence it is called Navnagri karewa.
  • Zainapora Karewa: Located in Pargana Adwan. It has a level surface with some low lands in-between, where both wet and dry cultivation is practiced. Bushes and trees are in abundance, besides there are various villge settlements. Sultan Zain-ul-Abideen built Zainapora on this Karewa and with the construction of lofty buildings and strong majestic structures laid the foundation for his capital for supply of running water, he built a high and broad dam measuring 50-100 yards in length called “Zaina-Sathu” and by digging a canal called “Sona Kul”, making the Karewa ideal for habitation. It is said that inthose times a party of holy saints arrived in the palace. The spiritual guru (Murrabi) said to king that the saints are no less than the king in position and therefore two kings cannot share the same dwelling. Inorder to appease the saints, the king left the palace and established Nowshehra as his capital. Later on the place became desolate, the dam demolished and flow of water disappeared.
  • Bijbehara Karewa: It is pf low height and is delinked from all sides. In ancient times one of the Rajas had built his palce on its top.
  • Babapur Karewa: This Karewa is in Pargana Zainpora, adjacent to Adwan. With level land surface and invigorate climate; it is famous for its altitude. Its catchment area is gifted with wet and dry cultivation. Several villages are located on its top.
  • Khampur Karewa: Located in Nagam Pargana on way to Shopian, it is very wide and its land is ideal for wet and dry cultivation, especially for the cultivation of “moong’ having a special taste, size and energy.The Sarai of Ali Mardan Khan is located at its centre.
  • Nagam Karewa: On way to Chrar-i-Sharif, it is high, wide and cultivable Karewa, but due to non availability of water it is dry. In its centre was a an attractive spring, which is extinct now.
  • Damodar Wudar: Located on south of Srinagar in Ichh Pargana. It is about 17 miles long and 2 mile wide. It is detached from all sides and is flat. In between there are lowlands. There is no growth of bushes and trees and no flow of water. With irrigation facilities provides, the Rabi and Kharif crops are sound and energetic. It is said that Raja Damodhar, founded Damodhar city atop the Karewa.
  • Khoshipora Karewa: It is an isolated Karewa, one mile square, situated on the bank of Hokarsar on west of Srinagar. Sultan Zain-ul-Abideen built lofty mansions over its top.
  • Hanjak Karewa: Adjacent to Khoshipora Karewa, with an area of 3 square miles and cultivation of dry crops is common here.
  • Budgam Karewa: Situated in Pargana Densov and is isolated square inshape. Several villages are located on its top and people practice agriculture there.
  • Chandpura Karewa: It is a wide Karewa situated in Pargana Machan. Water is available and several villages are on its top.
  • Mukhhamah Karewa: It is 2-3 miles long Kareawa without water in an isolated position, in Manchmo Pargana adjacent to Dara mountains.
  • Chuvat wudar: Situated in Devsar Pargana this Karewa like mound is full of trees and bushes , with its back towards mountains.
  • Pattan Karewa: It is a wide mound, on which are habitations of Bangil villsage. At some places, paddy cultivation is common due to canal irrigation. The Kharif season is very productive. Dewan Nehal Chand had built the Nilhalpore village on its top.
  • Kriri Karewa: situated in Pargana Krohan it is connected with a mountain and extends to a long distance. It is fit for both dry and wet cropping. The shrine of Sayid Haji Murad Bukhari is located at its centre.
  • Ushkurah Karewa: Situated in Pargana Krohan. It is vast in length and breadth and ideal for cultivation and water is available in certain places. There are several villages. Thorns and bushes are in abundance. It is adjacent to a mountain.
  • Wagub Karewa: It is in Pargana Krohin in an isolated position with no source of water. Dry farming is common here. It is devoid of trees and is famous for its thorny plantation.
  • Bandipora Karewa: In Pargana Khuihama, there is availability of water resources. Its backside faces towards a mountain. Paddy and other crops are cultivated here. There are almond orchards on it. The building structures still existed there (till Hassan’s time.)
  • Safapore Karewa: It is in Telbal Srinagar on the bank of Mansar Spring with free flow of water. It is ideal for cultivation of Paddy and other crops. It is adjacent to a mountain.The village Safapore is in its centre.
  • Karehama Karewa: In Pargana Lal it is adjacent to Ahak mountain. It is very wide. There is plenty of water and the land is cultivable. There are some villages in it.
  • Waj Wudar: In Pargana Lal, it is adjacent to Feshal Teng mountains. It is mostly fit for dry cultivation and there is scarcity of water. Apricots grow here in plenty, which are very profitable to growers. At its foot flows the Royal canal, which meanders up to Srinagar.
  • Pandach Karewa: It is at at adistance of 3 Krohs from Baghi Mulla Shah uto Mohalla Soura. It is ideal for wet and dry cultivation. It is situated on the bank of Anchar lake. During the Mughal rule, it was rich in plantation.
  • Chendee Karewa: In Pargana Dachinpora, it is situated close to Kanalwan. It is 4 miles long in average and one mile wide. Water is available. Many villages also exist there.
  • Devapore Karewa: Situated in Sepra Simon Pargana, it is more than 4 miles wide. There are many rocky mountains.
  • Gos Wudar: Situated in Pargana Chhrat, there are many villages on it.
  • Dadi Wudar: In Pargana Dachinpora it in the vicinity of Marhama village. There are some villages on it.
  • Pampore Karewa: It is in Pargana Wehi, and is cut off from every side. On one of its sides flows the Vyeth and on the other side is a lake and in-between, there are many patches of lowlands and highlands. It has no water and is fit for cultivation of crops. About 1012 bighas of land is under saffron cultivation.


Srinagar Samachar Weekly Newspaper                  February 01- February 07



تذکرہ سالکین کشمیر                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                کتاب کا نام :-                   تذکرہ سالکین کشمیر

مصنف :- پیرزادہ محمد اشرف شاہ سید فاضلی

صفحات :-             698

پبلشر :-   شیخ اعجاز احمد

٭ کتاب کی شروعات کشمیر میں اسلام کے ورود سےکی گئ ہے- جس میں کئ ایسے انکشافات بھی ہیں-کہ بلبل شاہ صاحب سے  سو سال قبل ہی بارہ سو سادات کے ساتھ سید باقر نے اسلام کی تبلیغ کا سلسلہ شروع کر دیا تھا-

٭ چودہ خانوادوں کا تفصیلی تعارف کہ کس طرح حضرت علی ؑ نے ستر صاحبوں کو مرید فرمایا جن میں چار خلفاء مشہور ہیں- حضرت حسن ؑ و حضرت حسینؑ و  خواجہ کمیل ؑ اور حضرت حسن بصری ؑ-                               ٭ کشمیر کے چند سرکردہ سلسلوں کا تعارف بھی تفصیلا دیا ہوا ہے – کشمیر میں روحانی سلسلے کیسے پروانے چڑھے- یہاں زیادہ مقبول    روحانی سلسلے کون سے  پروان چڑھے- یہاں زیادہ مقبول  روحانی  سلسلے کون سے رہے- امیر کبیر میر سید علی ہمدانی ؑ  کا جامع تعارف – بیہقی سادات کا تعارف – حضرت شیخ یعقوب صرفی ؑ کے علمی و عملی کارنامے بھی شامل ہیں- حضرت شیخ نورالدین ؑ کے ریشی طریقت  پر سیر حاصل تحقیقی بحث کی گئ ہے-

٭ مجموعہ مسموعہ کے مصنف کا ایمان افروز کلام سلیس ترجمہ کے ساتھ فارسی کلام  میں اچھوتے انداز میں اولیائے کشمیر کے واقعات منظوم انداز میں بیان کئے گئے ہیں-                                                                      ٭  محبوب سبحانی حضرت شیخ عبدالقادر جیلانی ؑ کی مبارک زندگی کا تفصیلی تذکرہ علاوہ ازیں حضرت شہاب الدین عمر ابو حفص سہروردی ؑ ‘ حضرت شیخ بہا ء الدین ذکریا ملتانیؑ ‘ حضرت میر سید جلال الدین مخدوم جہانیاں جہانگشت ‘ محبوب العالم حضرت شیخ حمزہ ؑ ‘ حضرت  بابا داؤدخاکی ؑ ‘ خواجہ اعظم دیدہ مری (مصنف واقعات کشمیر) کا تفصیلی تعارف ‘ معزز میر واعظ خاندان کا تاریخی تعارف وغیرہ بھی قارئین کے لئے بہترین انداز میں پیش کیا گیا ہے-

یہ کتاب

طلباء-  مدرسین – محقق حضرات کے لئے نادر تحفہ ہے – سلیس اردو دلکش انداز میں تاریخی و ایمان افروز واقعات کی لڑی میں آب دار موتیوں کو جوڈا ہے – تمام شعبہ ہائے زندگی سے تعلق رکھنے والے افراد کے لئے یکسان مفید کتاب حاسل کرنے کے لئے بلا تاخیر نادر مفید کتابوں کا ذخیرہ رکھنے والے تقسیم کار گلشن بکس ریذیڈنسی روڈ سرینگر کشمیر سے رابطہ قائم کیجئے –

The Wet-lands of Kashmir


The Wet-lands of Kashmir

Though world is celebrating wet-land day on 2nd February, 2016, we have little to celebrate as we have been witnessing the death of these wet lands due to our callousness and that of the authorities. Most of our wetlands have got converted into housing colonies, or got silted up over the years or have been filled up by land-fill with solid waste disposal and even disposal of untreated liquid wastes.

“In Kashmir, a swamp or wet-land is called ‘Nambal’, which is such a type of land, in which a portion of water mixes with a part of land and is always wet. At some places cattle sink and perish in it. At places it is hard; such type of land is cultivable as well as barren. In cultivable areas, the peasants use shovels to dig it for paddy plantation. At some places where land is not so hard, people plough it in water for sowing seeds. There is abundance of wild grass and reed in barren marshes”- records Tarikh-i-Hasan about a century back. During winter many of these wet-lands would attract migratory birds from as far as Siberia, Central Asia and other remote areas to escape harsh winters. Many of these water bodies which served as flood lungs have vanished due to the pressure of urbanization.

According to Tarikh-i-Hassan written a century back, these were as under:

Bemina Nambal : On the south of Srinagar adjacent to Batamaloo is a vast plain with some under cultivation of crops. There are springs and ponds of water in iy. Reed and other types of grass is produced here. During Kharif season, people plough land and uproot grass roots. After drying it they use it for cooking, replacing dry cow dung. Its scanty water-supply joins river Behat atop a bridge at Shalateng. (Presently it is a full-fledged housing colony, besides housing fruit mandi, Government offices, JVC hospital etc. after a land fill of 7 to 10 ft. depth, leaving no space for flood absorption.)

Brari Nambal:

It is in the middle of city towards north. In past, its water was clear and wavy. Now-a-days it is full of reed. In some places there are small pools of water. In summer, its waters joining Dal waters leaves through Nala Mar. It is dry in winter. (At present Nala Mar has been converted into a four lane road with shop-lines on either side. All the filthy drainage of about 4 lakh people has been flowing into this mini lake, with a reverse flow into Dal lake for over two decades. Now a gated connection has been given with river Jhelum near Biscoe bridge. Besides a garland sewer with a treatment plant has been constructed for treatment of the filthy drainage of the surrounding population.)

Tulla Mullah Nambal:

A vast swamp with agricultural fields on its sides, and rich growth of reed and grass. In its centre lies village Tulla Mulla, and famous spring of Khir Bhawani. In the past several canals were dug out of it for cultivation of crops. Now, with the passage of time, the canals have been replaced by reed plains. About the wonders of Kashmir, the historians have recorded that fishes are produced out of Tulla Mulla soils. In fact in the said swamp water level had raised at some spots. This deep water associated with other canals is home for fishes. For fishing people  made a hole on the floor of earth, fitted an instrument of wood, which is the specific instrument of fisherman and from that hole, they catch fish by an iron rod. There are various springs in this swamp and their waters after joining Sindlar river, flow into river Behat at Shardapur. (A Central University campus is reported to be coming up in the vicinity now.)

Magam Nambal:

To the north of Safapur, is a vast and spacious swamp, with some of its parts ideal for cultivation. In its middle, are reed and grasslands. Birds are in abundance for hunting. Its water passes through Ajas Nalah and then joins Ular lake.

Dur Nambal: It is spacious swamp to the south of Sopore, which is full of water in summer and is dry during winter. Water nuts grow here. Its water joins with river Behat.

Kanaspur Nambal:

It is situated near village Delina in Pargana Krohen, which is always covered under reed. Its banks are inhabited by people. Its water joins river Behat at Goras Boni.

Padgampore Nambal:

It is also called as Konahbal swamp. It is towards east from Pampore and is covered under grass. Its water flows down in river Behat.

Eth Khuro Nambal:

It is situated in Pargana Lar adjacent to village Chhandrah. Its water joins river Behat enroute Sind.

Marhama Nambal:

It is situated in Pargana Dachinapora, near Marhama village. Its water joins river Behat.

Most of these wetlands are either getting extinct or are on the verge of extinction. Our lakes like Wullar, Dal, Manasbal, Anchar, Khushhal Sar, Gil Sar etc. are also endangered. A serious effort is needed for saving the remaining water bodies and wet lands so vital for our survival.

Kashmir- its characteristics: (Ref- Tarikh-i-Hassan written a century back.)


Kashmir- its characteristics: (Ref- Tarikh-i-Hassan written a century back.)

The beautiful valley of Kashmir is a delightful garden par excellence which has been referred as the paradise on earth by the eminent scholars, travelers and rulers, due to its scenic charm. The fact is that no other country of world is gifted with such natural features.

  • The climate of this country is invigorating. There is no need of fan in summer, and fur in winter, as the climate is quite moderate. The air here is from paradise, which brings life to people and remains moderate round the year and serenity of the pleasant valley keeps sorrow and grief out of one’s mind.
  • The water of this land of flowers, which flowing from the snow-clad mountains, lakes and springs, is always in motion through canals and streams. It is the elixir of life for people and irrigates the fields. How pretty the waters of this pleasant valley are for life resembling the face of one’s darling.
  • On the land surface of Kashmir from every side, including the banks of rivers, streams and springs, everywhere there is a green cover of vegetation, which presents a delightful charm.
  • The gardens of the land, the magnificent structures of the early kings and the systematic arrangement of canals, cascades, fountains, flower beds and the plenty of flowers and green meadows is symbolic and magnetic for visitors. There are beautiful flowers in the beautiful gardens of Kashmir.
  • The beautiful land is encompassed by innumerable mountains, which are scenic and charming. And with the grace of God, these evergreen forests are the source of fresh air and cool breeze all over the year.
  • The green margs of the hills with their fresh air are the pleasure resorts for the rich and the wise.

If you stay in the green pastures, hundreds of flowers may kiss your soul.

  • In this paradise, many types of orchards on karewas, hills, plains and desserts are bestowed with fresh and juicy fruits.
  • The cereals of many types are available in plenty, especially rice, which is the staple food of common people.
  • The mountains and the forests of this country are gifted with wild animals for hunting and people from Europe spend fair amount of money for hunting here and return with gifts for their friends in Europe.
  • The dreadful beasts and poisonous creatures i.e. snake, crocodile and scorpion are not confined to this part of land. A paradise is a peaceful place, where people live with peace and harmony.
  • The people of the country are very wise and skillful, and are superior than the skilled workers of other countries especially in Pashmina industry, in which no one can compete them in drawing and design. It is the dress of the rich and the noble people. The rich earn a big fortune in its trade. The people are also famous for their wit as well.
  • The scenic beauty of this country has no parallel with its majestic charm. Famous poets like Nizami, Sadi, Jamee and Ghani Kashmiri have all praise for the beauties of Kashmir.
  • As per the old Puranas and testaments, Kashmir has been the visiting place for Godesses, who often lived here leaving distinctive marks here.
  • The Islamic scholars and preachers also visited Kashmir to preach Islamic way of life. The shrines and the holy places are found in every corner of the valley.
  • Various scholars, writers, poets and essayists have adorned the beauty of this land of flowers which is really a paradise on earth. There are stories about the beauty of Kashmir recorded in essays and poetic language.

There are famous “masnavis” about the scenic beauties of Kashmir by Saleem, Kaleem, Qudsee, Khasali, Zaffar Khan Ahsan, Mir Allahi, Tugra, Urfee and Faizee.

Shaikh Shahab-ud-Din Sindhi says:

Kashmir for its noble inhabitants resembles paradise and Allah has promised a safe life for its people

Qutab records:

“ Oh Kashmir! You are really a paradise. In autumn, you are adorned with saffron and presents a glimpse of spring season. Thousands of flowers bloom in autumn in Kashmir. Oh Kasul why are you so crazy.”

Shah Jehan says: “Adam tasted wheat and was out of Heaven. I tasted barley water, Oh! My God send me to Kashmir.”

Tugrah records:

“At the time of death it was the last wish of the Emperor Jehangir, to be in Kashmir.”

Zaffar Khan Ahsan mentions:

“Never say Kashmir resembles China, the land of fairies. In short it is a Paradise on the earth.”

Qudsi says:

Every part of Kashmir is splendid in beauty. The waters of Lar place are very sweet.”

Faizee says:

“———It is the garden of Soloman and that of the people.”

Kaleem says:

“Ye Sky why are  you depressed. See, this is Kashmir. See the plains, mountains and the forests bedecked with flowers. See thousands of gardens are accumulated in one garden.”

(P.S: It is engraved on the entrance gate of Khanqahi Mualla Srinagar:

کان الکشمیر ساکینھا—-جنات عدن ھی للمومنین

قد کتب اللہ علٰی بابھا—-داخلھا کان من الاٰمنین

“The inhabitants of Kashmir live in the paradise that is meant for the believers,

It is written on its entrance gate, ‘whoever enters in it, is among the peaceful men.”)


The Kashmir Bridges:


The Kashmir Bridges:

According to Tarikh-i-Hassan, the Rajas in ancient times managed to develop thirty strong and smooth bridges on river Brht by adjusting the big boats fastened by ropes and chains, with a floor of big and wide planks over them, but all of them were destroyed during Zulchoo riots.

Afterwords during Salateen era, modern bridges were constructed in such a pattern that a wooden square box was prepared and the same made to drown in the river by dropping huge stones inside it and the foundation for a high bridge was laid. Next wooden boxes of rectangular shape laid over it and fastened with wooden nails. Over these wooden planks were laid and on the sides wooden frames as protection walls were laid, and in this way the first bridhe to be constructed was Ali Kadal. Then the Muslim Salateen laid 18 bridges over river Beht among which seven were in the city and the rest in the villages. At present (i.e. a century back when Hassan wrote it) there are only 13 bridges, while 5 are extinct.

During Salateen era, the above referred bridges would be destroyed by fire during riots and sometimes by floods. The rulers have made efforts to repair them every now and then.

These bridges are enlisted as under:

  • Khanabal Bridge——- near Islamabad–Span 66 yards, width 4 yards
  • Bijbehara Bridge-1041AH- Constructed by Darashikwa—span 100yards, width 6yards
  • Nainah Bridge ——-A Salateen structure, destroyed by fire during Chak riots.
  • Awantipur Bridge—-Sultan Haidar’s structure, destroyed during Chak riots.
  • Pampore Bridge-1045 AH- Shahejahan’s structure.
  • Panthachok Bridge-987 AH-Constructed by Queen Habba Khatoon, Jehangir reconstructed it, destroyed during Chak riots.
  • Amira Kadal-1188 AH-Constructed by Amir Khan Jawanshaer, span 134 yards, width 6 yards.
  • Habba Kadal-958 AH- Constructed by Habib Shah, span 97 yards, width one yard.
  • Fateh Kadal-906 AH- Constructed by Fateh Shah, span 88 yards, width 3 yards
  • Zaina Kadal-831 AH-Constructed by Sultan Zain-ul-Abideen, span 96 yards, width 8 yards.
  • Aali Kadal- 822 AH- Constructed by Ali Shah brother of Budshah, span 82yards, width 6 yards
  • Nov Kadal-1077 AH- Constructed by Noor-ud-Din Khan, span 75 yards, width 6 yards.
  • Safa Kadal- 1082 AH-Constructed by Said-ud-Din Khan, span 110yards, width 6yards.
  • Sumbal Bridge———Constructed by ancient Salateen, span 112 yards, width 5 yards.
  • Hanjin Bridge ———–Construction by ancient salateen in bad condition due to floods.
  • Sopore Bridge————Construction by Sultan Zain-ul-Abideen, span 214 yards, width 5 yards
  • Novrozpore Bridge-1222 AH-Constructed by Sultan Hassan, destroyed in war between Mukhtar-ud-Doula and Abdullah Khan.
  • Baramulla Bridge—– Its foundation is very old, Atta Mohammad Khan constructed afresh, span 146 yards, width 5 yards.
  • Gohalan Bridge——-It is an iron bridge constructed by Ranbir Singh at a cost of Rs. one lac, span 84 yards, width 7 yards.

At Khwaja Yarbal, Mar Canal takes off constructed by Sultan Zain-ul-Abideen, and there are following 14 bridges over it:

  • Naidyaar Bridge: Founded by Sultan Sikandar. Chowdry Mahesh repaired it for visiting backyard to Vetalenmarg.
  • Jogi Lankar Bridge- Constructed by Budshah.
  • Nowpora Bridge- Constructed by Iradat Khan.
  • Naid Kadal.
  • Bohri Kadal.
  • Saraf Kadal.
  • Qadri Kadal.
  • Rajwar Kadal.
  • Kawdara Kadal.
  • Gaw Kadal.
  • Dombah Kadal.
  • Sakedafar Kadal.
  • Ratapora Kadal.
  • Gandharpore Kadal.

Kawdara canal which branches off from Nala Maar, has three bridges over it.

  • Kohna Kadal
  • Buchh Kadal
  • Sohkoor Motah kadal

Tarabal Canal which after branching off from Nala Mar, joins Kawdara canal and falls into Khushalsar and Anchar. There are six bridges over it.

  • Ashraf Kadal
  • Tarabal Kadal
  • Merjanpore Kadal
  • Narora Kadal. It was constructed by Ali Shah.
  • Zoonimar Kadal. It was constructed by Noor Jehan. The water of the seven streams passes over the bridge.
  • Braiwaree Kadal. It was constructed by Zaffar Khan Ahsan

(All the bridges on Nala Mar and its branches are extinct with the filling of Nala Mar and its conversion into a motorable road.)

The bridges of Apple Canal:

  • Drugjan Bridge: It is the structure of Qazi Abul Qasim, who was famous as Qazizada. Below it is a strong gate, which closes and opens automatically during the rise and fall of water level. The people of northern side of city are safe from floods due to its construction.
  • Gowkadal: It is an ancient structure.

The Bridges of Katakul (which branches off from Beht at Shergarhi and again joins Beht)

  • Tankikadal
  • Kanikadal
  • Haji Rather Kadal
  • Bozaghir Kadal
  • Watal Kadal

The bridges of Doodganga stream:

  • Batamaleon Kadal
  • Pareet Kadal
  • Zanpah Kadal
  • Chattabal Kadal (All these bridges have only two pedestals)

Vetalanmarg bridges in Dal lake:

  • Chowdribagh Bridge
  • Doodphakree Bridge
  • Tulakhon Bridge
  • Ganee Kadal
  • Ontah Kadal (Nishat Bridge). It was constructed by Sultan and repaired by Chowdry Mahesh.

Khwaja Yarbal Embankment Bridges:

  • Saida Kadal
  • Nandpora Bridge
  • Aashabad Bridge-All these three bridges have been constructed by Abul Hassan Khan Bandey.

Dodarhama Bridge: It was constructed by Noor Jehan. It was destroyed by earthquake in 1243 AH.

Bridges of Shadipore Stream:

  • Naidkhai Bridge
  • Hartara Bridge

These were constructed by Sultan Budshah.


Kashmir Earthquakes:


Kashmir Earthquakes:

A century back the historian Hassan Khuihami records in his book,”Tarikh-i-Hassan” about the chronology of earthquakes in Kashmir as under:

  • During the time when Sandimatnagar city was settled on a lake, the people of that area faced hardships due to their immoral activities and during Sundersain’s rule an earthquake of great dimension occurred which destroyed whole surface, a spring sprouted, which flooded the whole city. Now this spring is known as Wular nag.
  • During Raja Awantivarman’s rule an earthquake hit during the night of 940 Bikrami. Near Baramulla, a part of Khadanyar mountain slided down and blocked flow of water of river Vyeth and the land surface up to Bijbehara came under floods and all villages and agriculture fields were destroyed. Later on, acting on the plan advocated by Dansoo, the stones of mountains were removed from great depths, thereby regulating flow of water.
  • During Fateh Shah’s rule in 907 AH, an earthquake hit during the night which caused death and destruction of many people and property. The earth was shaking continuously for three months and became static with the passage of time.
  • A severe earthquake hit in 960 AH, during the time of Ismail Shah. Buildings along with inmates collapsed and houses were razed to ground. The land surface cracked and some old springs disappeared. New springs were born. The earthquake continued for a week and the land regained its original position after two months. Strange happenings were observed. It is said that at Adwin pargana adjacent to Nandi Marg on the bank of river Vishaw, the location of two villages Hassanpore and Hussainpore got exchanged at midnight, though they were a mile apart. Hence the agriculture land of one village is now located in the other village. The river Vishav flows through the middle of these two villages. Also in Mawar district of Kamraj pargana, a part of mountain slided down, causing death of 600 people.
  • During Saif Khan’s rule in 1080 AH, an earthquake hit, shaking all buildings from evening to morning. However there was little damage to human life.
  • During Ibrahim Khan’s Subedari, the floods were followed by a severe earthquake, which destroyed and damaged both life and property. The state of affairs of people was unstable due to regular vibrations of quakes for a long period of time. The earthquake sufferers built separate houses and it was a great destruction.
  • During Dil Dileer Khan’s rule a severe earthquake hit in 1148 AH and within one shock houses in city and villages were razed to the ground, as if the total population had perished. This earthquake shook earth for three months but with less intensity. The shaking occurred during the days as well as in nights and people were sad enough to face the odds.
  • During Karim Khan’s governance in 1193 AH, the land surface shook in such a manner that dwellings of people in urban and rural areas collapsed and most of the people died. It continued for one and a half month and the survived people fled to plains.
  • An earthquake hit during the rule of Asad Khan in 1199 AH and it was confined to the interior of the city. The earth was shaking continuously for three months, several houses were damaged and many people had to face death.
  • A terrible earthquake occurred during the rule of Sardar Abdullah Khan in 1218 AH. At some places land cracked and houses collapsed. Some women aborted and some people got buried under the debris of walls.
  • During Kripa Ram’s rule an earthquake hit at midnight in 1243 AH, which shook earth and created havoc. Several people died. The land got submerged and houses were razed to ground. Severe shocks were felt for three months and frequented up to nine months.
  • During Ranbir Singh’s government, the land began to shake at midnight in 1280 AH. At Krohen and Bangil, the land cracked at some places, but life and property was not hit badly. It continued for three months and was of less intensity on eastern side.
  • During the last days of Ranbir Singh’s rule in 1302 AH, earthquake hit during Shab-e-Barat and there was total chaos and confusion. At the very first jerk, all the houses in Sopore, Baramullah, Bangil and Krohan collapsed. Besides land in these areas cracked due to severe floods. At several places green sand and green water appeared. The sulphur smell was observed for one month. Land cracked at Ladoora village of Krohan pargana and lava flowed out at certain places and next a strange white mud appeared. Due to flow of lava, a piece of land measuring 700ft by 300 ft with a depth of 70 ft. subsided down and a few houses of peasants disappeared. In this depth, certain parts of earth remained standing as pillars in their original form and shape.

At some places there was change of landscape. Though the earthquake was not severe in the city, yet 300 houses were completely destroyed and the rest were damaged. The royal palace was also hit and many barracks collapsed. There was more damage and destruction at Shergudh and less damage in other parganas and surrounding areas. At some villages the shakings of earthquake were not observed. The duration of earthquake continued for three months as it would hit several times, during the day and the night. Afterwards there was a threat once or twice a week, and it continued for fourteen months. People made temporary shelters in plains and were very frightened.

Thousand of lives were lost in this episode, including 20,000 horses, 20,000 cows and oxen besides 1,500 people. In the wazarat of Kamraj, 1200 people; in city 250 people and in other parganas 50 people lost their lives. According to historians there are more sulphur mines in the mountains of Kamraj, that is why it is prone to more earthquakes every year. Ranbir Singh paid an amount of Rs. 20,000 for rehabilitation and welfare of earthquake sufferers (both in cash and kind). Rs. 2,00,000 were exempted as tax from farmers of wazarat Kamraj. In Baramulla and Sopore, the tax on timber was also exempted.

During the last century, minor earthquakes have been frequent visitors in this area, however Budgam area has witnessed a severe shaking causing damage to buildings, besides a vast destruction of life and property took place in Azad Kashmir area in 2005. In 2015 also a number of tremors have been felt. There is a prediction of a severe earthquake in Hindu Kush Mountains by the American geologists, confirmed by local experts due to pushing of Indian plate with Asian plate. It has been recommended to keep handy an earthquake kit containing first aid box, some clothing and nourishment for emergency purposes. Besides public buildings have been recommended to be retrofitted and future constructions need to be got designed as earthquake proof from the structural engineers.

Kashmir Floods


Kashmir Floods

According to Tarikh-i-Hassan written about a century back, the chronology of floods in Kashmir is recorded as under:

  • It is said that in past Khadanyar mountain slided down due to earthquake and the spring at Wullar surfaced, which flooded and drowned the city of Sandimatnagar and flood waters hit upto Bijbehara.
  • During Raja Durlab Wardhan’s rule, the city of Srinagar was under water due to heavy rainfall in the year 14 Hijri. The dam of Vatalan Marg constructed by Raja Parvarsain cracked and Vatalan Marg was flooded which resulted in the birth of Dal lake.
  • In 776 Bikrami era during Raja Laltaditya, the city buildings crumbled due to floods and the capital was shifted to Letapora. The floods destroyed and damaged several buildings of the city.
  • During Awantivarman’s rule, an earthquake in 936 Bikrami resulted in sliding down of a part of Khadanyar mountain which obstructed water of river Beht causing floods.
  • During floods in 1015 Bikrami, in Raja Parth’s rule the whole city got drowned under water and the houses were seen floating like bubbles in water.
  • During the rule of Sultan Shahab-ud-Din in 1436 Bikrami, 20,000 houses were destroyed due to severe floods.
  • In 982 AH during Ali Khan Chak’s rule floods during rainy season damaged houses and crops altogether.
  • Houses were floating like boats during floods in 1089 AH and inmates were crying and wailing it. It was a historical flood. An earthquake also hit in those days.
  • Under the governance of Navazish Khan in 1143 AH, heavy rains caused severe floods, which damaged both houses as well as crops.
  • In 1148 AH, during Dil Dilar Khan’s period, floods damaged thousands of houses. In compounds of houses and the plains water remained static for long time.
  • 10,000 houses damaged during the governance of Afrasayab Khan in 1160 AH. The bridges of river Beht crumbled and buildings collapsed.
  • The bridges of river Behat collapsed due to floods under the rule of Aamir Khan Jawan Shair in 1184 AH.The buildings were helter and skelter.
  • During Jumma Khan’s period in 1202 AH, floods in river Beht cracked Qazizada dam. The Northern part of city came under water and houses and property of people were destroyed by floods.
  • In 1214 AH during Abdullah Khan’s rule, severe floods touching skies in river Beht damaged crops.
  • The bridges of Khanabal, Bijbehara and Amira Kadal, collapsed due to floods during Colonel Main Singh’s rule in 1252 AH.
  • Due to severe floods, the Qazizada Dam cracked during the governance of Shaikh Ghulam Mohi-ud-Din causing damages in Khanyar and Rainawari. Six bridges collapsed from Fateh Kadal to Sumbal. Rains continued for seven days.
  • Next Walter Lawrence records occurrence of major floods in 1902 AD. This was followed by the major floods of 1959 AD. We have been witness to the century’s worst floods in September 2014 causing heavy damages of life and property. Due to non serious attitude of the authorities, the recommendations made by experts to check future catastrophe are being ignored and we may have to repeat the earlier process of digging the well, when the fire is on.