Author Archives: shahishaharyar

About shahishaharyar

Chartered civil engineer,Fellow institution of engineers India, Member Indian road congress,Member American society of civil engineers, Presented over 70 papers in various seminars,published books over 36 on environment,history, sufi saints, genealogy,free lance writer, travelled in India and abroad.



Another mathematical miracle of the Qur’an is the manner in which the number 19 is numerologically encoded in verses. This number is stressed in the words of the Qur’an: “There are nineteen in charge of it.” (Qur’an, 74:30), and is encoded in various places in the Book. Some examples of this can be listed as follows:

The Formula consists of 19 letters.

1st letter 8th letter 15th letter
2nd letter 9th letter 16th letter
3rd letter 10th letter 17th letter
4th letter 11th letter 18th letter
5th letter 12th letter 19th letter
6th letter 13th letter    
7th letter 14th letter    

The Qur’an consists of 114 (19 x 6) Suras.

The first Sura to be revealed (Sura 96) is the 19th from the end.

The first verses of the Qur’an to be revealed are the first five verses of Sura 96 and the total number of words in these verses is 19.

5th word 4th word 3rd word 2nd word 1st word
  9th word 8th word 7th word 6th word
  12th word 11th word   10th word
. . 15th word 14th word 13th word
   19th word  18th word 17th word 16th word

As we have seen, the first five verses consist of 19 words. The ” ” is a letter, not a word. Likewise, letters ” ” are not included in the calculation either.

The first Sura to be revealed, Surat al-‘Alaq, consists of 19 verses and 285 (19 x 15) letters.

Surat an-Nasr, the final Sura to be revealed, consists of a total of 19 words.

5th word 4th word 3rd word 2nd word 1st word
10th word 9th word 8th word 7th word 6th word
      12th word 11th word
  16th word 15th word 14th word 13th word
     19th word  18th word 17th word

Furthermore, the first verse of Surat an-Nasr, which speaks of the help of Allah, contains 19 letters.

1st letter 8th letter 15th letter
2nd letter 9th letter 16th letter
3rd letter 10th letter 17th letter
4th letter 11th letter 18th letter
5th letter 12th letter 19th letter
6th letter 13th letter
7th letter 14th letter

There are 114 Formulas in the Qur’an or 19 x 6.

A total of 113 Suras in the Qur’an start with the formula. The only Sura not to start with one is the ninth, Surat at-Tawba. Surat an-Naml is the only Sura to have two formulas. One of these is at the beginning and the other in verse 30. Counting from Surat at-Tawba, which does not begin with the formula, Surat an-Naml follows 19 Suras on.

There is a formula at the beginning of the 27th Sura, Surat an-Naml, and in verse 30. There are thus two formulas in the 27th Sura. It is the formula in the 30th verse of the 27th Sura which completes the total of 114 formulas in the Qur’an. When we add together the number of the verse and the number of the Sura, 30 and 27, we find the number 57 (19 x 3).

The total number of Suras from Surat at-Tawba (9) to Surat an-Naml (27) is 342 (9 + 10 + 11 +12 +13 +14 +15 +16 + 17 + 18 + 19 + 20 + 21 + 22 + 23 + 24 + 25 + 26 + 27). That figure is 19 multiplied by 18.

The sum of all the occurrences of the name “Allah” in all the verses whose numbers are multiples of 19 (i.e., verses 19, 38, 57, 76, etc.) is 133, or 19 x 7.

The “abjad” value of the word “wahd” meaning “one” is 19. This word is used with various other words in the Qur’an, such as one door, one variety of food. It is used 19 times together with the name “Allah.”

(The Arabic letters are shown here without the accent marks) Letters of the word “wahd” Numerical Values of the Letters
Total abjad value of the word   19

The total of the Sura and verse numbers of the occasions when the word “wahd” appears 19 times is 361: (19 x 19).

The Arabic word “wahdahu,” meaning “worship only Allah,” appears in the verses 7:70, 39:45, 40:12, 40:84 and 60:4. When these figures are added up without numbers being repeated, the resulting total is 361 (19 x 19).

The number of verses between the first initial letters (Alif, Lam, Mim; Surat al-Baqara 1) and the final initial letters (Nun; Surat al-Qalam 1) is 5,263 (19 x 277).

There are 38 (19 x 2) Suras without initial letters between the first Sura which has initial letters and the last to have them.

The word “Rahman” (All-Merciful) appears 57 (19 x 3) times in the Qur’an.

Thirty different numbers are mentioned in the Qur’an.

1 7 19 70 1.000
2 8 20 80 2.000
3 9 30 99 3.000
4 10 40 100 5.000
5 11 50 200 50.000
6 12 60 300 100.000

The total of these numbers (again without taking repetitions into account) is 162,146. This is 19 x 8,534:

1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + 6 + 7 + 8 + 9 + 10 + 11 + 12 + 19 +20 + 30 + 40 + 50 + 60 + 70 + 80 + 99 + 100 + 200 + 300 + 1,000 + 2,000 + 3,000 + 5,000 + 50,000 + 100,000 = 162,146 (19 x 8,534).

In addition to these thirty numbers, the Qur’an also refers to eight fractions: 1/10, 1/8, 1/6, 1/5, 1/4, 1/3, 1/2 and 2/3. The Qur’an thus contains a total of 38 (19 x 2) different numbers.

The Sura from the beginning to possess 19 verses is Surat al-Infitar. Another feature of this Sura is that its final word is “Allah.” At the same time, this is the 19th appearance of the name “Allah” from the end.

The 50th Sura, which begins with the letter Qaf, contains a total of 57 (19 x 3) letters Qaf. There are also 57 letters Qaf in the 42nd Sura with a letter Qaf at the beginning. The 50th Sura contains 45 verses. Added together, these total 95 (19 x 5). There are 53 verses in the 42nd Sura. These again total 95 (42 + 53).

50th Sura 57 (19×3) Letter Qaf
42nd Sura 57 (19×3) Letter Qaf
50th Sura 45th verse 50+45=95 (19×5)
42nd Sura 53rd verse 42+53=95 (19×5)

The abjad value of the word “Majeed,” used for the Qur’an, in the first verse of Surah Qaf is 57 (19 x 3). As we have stated above, the total number of letters Qaf is also 57.

When we add together the number of times that the letter Qaf appears in the Qur’an, we reach a total of 798 (19 x 42). Forty-two is the number of another Sura with Qaf among its initial letters.

The letter Nun appears at the beginning of only the 68th Sura. The total number of times it appears in that Sura is 133 (19 x 7).

When we add together the number of verses (including the formulas) in Suras the number of which are multiples of 19, the following is noteworthy:

19×1 19th Sura 99
19×2 38th Sura 89
19×3 57th Sura 30
19×4 76th Sura 32
19×5 95th Sura 9
19×6 114th Sura 7
TOTAL =266 (19×4)

The letters Ya and Sin appear at the beginning of Surah Ya Sin. The letter Sin appears 48 times in Surah Ya Sin and the letter Ya 237 times. The total of these letters is 285 (19 x 15).

Only one Sura, the seventh, begins with the initial letters “Alif, Lam, Mim, Sad.” The letter Alif appears in this Sura 2,529 times, the letter Lam 1,530 times, the letter Mim 1,164 times and the letter Sad 97 times. These four letters thus appear a total of 2,529 + 1,530 + 1,164 + 97 times, or 5,320 (19 x 280) times.

The letters Alif, Lam and Mim are the most frequently used letters in Arabic. They appear together at the beginning of six Suras: numbers 2, 3, 29, 30, 31 and 32. The number of times these three letters appear in each of these six Suras is a multiple of 19. In order: 9,899 (19 x 521), 5,662 (19 x 298), 1,672 (19 x 88), 1,254 (19 x 66) and 817 (19 x 43). The total number of times all these three letters appear in the six Suras is 19,874 (19 x 1,046).

The initial letters Alif, Lam and Ra appear in Suras 10, 11, 12, 14 and 15. The total number of times these letters appear in these Suras is 2,489 (19 x 131), 2,489 (19 x 131), 2,375 (19 x 125), 1,197 (19 x 63) and 912 (19 x 48).

The frequency with which the initial letters Alif, Lam, Mim and Ra appear is 1,482 (19 x 78) in total. The letter Alif appears 605 times, Lam 480 times, Mim 260 times and Ra 137 times.

The initial letters Qaf, Ha, Ya, ‘Ayn and Sad appear in only one Sura, the 19th. The letter Qaf appears 137 times in this Sura, Ha 175 times, Ya 343 times, ‘Ayn 117 times and Sad 26 times. The total number of appearances of these five letters is 137 + 175 + 343 + 117 + 26 = 798 (19 x 42).

Other findings on this subject include:

In the whole of the Qur’an,

– the word “atee” (obey!) appears 19 times,

– the words “Abd” (servant), “abid” (a person who serves) and “abudu” (worship) appear a total of 152 (19 x 8) times,

The numerical abjad values of some of the names of Allah given below are also multiples of 19:

– Al-Wahid (The One) 19 (19 x 1)

 Aj-Jami (The Gatherer) 114 (19 x 6)


The number 19 is the total of the numbers 9 and 10 to the power of 1. The difference between the numbers 9 and 10 to the power of 2 is again 19.

100 – 81

The Sun, Moon and Earth line up in the same relative positions once every 19 years.241

Halley’s Comet passes through the Solar System once every 76 years (19 x 4).242

There are 209 (19 x 11) bones in the human body.243 The number of bones in the human hand is 19.244

The place of the number 19 in the Pascal triangle

The total of the first 19 figures in the Pascal triangle is 38 (19 x 2).

Pascal’s triangle is an arithmetical one used in algebra and probability calculations.

The total of the first 19 numbers in the Pascal triangle is 57 (19 x 3).

Figure 2: The first 19 figures


The total of the first 19 figures is a multiple of 19.

The total of the first 19 numbers is a multiple of 19.

The connection between the number 19 and the Pascal triangle with regard to the revelation sequence of the Qur’anic verses

The 96th Sura, the first revealed, comes 19 before the end. It consists of 19 verses and contains a total of 285 letters (19 x 15). The first five verses of the revelation contain 76 (19 x 4) letters.

The first verses of the 68th Sura, the second to be revealed, consist of 38 (19 x 2) words.

The third revelation, the 73rd Sura, contains 57 (19 x 3) words.

It [the Qur’an] is simply a reminder to all the worlds. You will certainly know the truth of it after a while. 
(Qur’an, 38:87-88)




Despite the blanket ban imposed in August this year by Srinagar Municipal Corporation (SMC) against the use of Polystyrene (thermocol)-{Formula: (C8H8)n} products (like plates etc.) used in serving food items in hotels, restaurants and marriage functions, because of their carcinogenic (cancer-causing) and non-biodegradable nature; their widespread use has gone unchecked. Even the Regional Director of Pollution Control Board too has reportedly been informed by SMC and the Cancer Society of Kashmir about the alarming situation caused by the use of such toxic materials. However all such actions have proved to be ineffective and the sporadic use of these harmful products continues unabated. In this connection one activist Mr. Sathya Prabhu has put in his all efforts to meet SMC officials, other bureaucrats and ministers, who have assured him to impose effective ban on the use of such hazardous materials.

“ The fact that styrene can adversely affect humans in a number of ways raises serious public health and safety questions regarding its build-up in human tissue and the root cause  of this build-up. According to ‘The Foundation for Achievements in Science and Education fact sheet’, long term exposure to small quantities of styrene can cause neurotoxin fatigue, nervousness, difficulty in sleeping, hematological (low platelet and hemoglobin values, cytogenetic (chromosomal and lymphatic abnormalities) and carcinogenic effects,” writes Dr Pragya Khanna, a Cytogenetic specialist and professor from Jammu. Besides the studies suggest that styrene mimics estrogen in females and can therefore disrupt normal hormone functions, possibly contributing to thyroid problems, menstrual irregularities, and other hormone-related problems, as well as breast cancer and prostate cancer.

Besides being a potent health hazard, these disposable products are also non-biodegradable and pose a huge environmental challenge as they pile on without decomposing making the earth infertile. The microorganisms meant for composting do not consume these substances; instead these very materials become a cause for the death of these micro-organisms. Mostly these materials find their way in to fresh water/ drainage channels creating obstruction in their free flow / choking, thus leading to flooding and polluting the surrounding areas. In addition to this the huge piles of these materials are being burnt at high temperatures of the melting point of 240 degrees, for warming / heating / cooking, on glacier tops causing their melting, besides global warming. On burning, these materials emanate toxic fumes with obnoxious smell besides exuding flying ash which gets inhaled by people causing respiratory problems like bronchial asthma and other respiratory diseases and other adverse consequences on health of children and pregnant females / her fetus, and may even be a cause of cancer.

An alternative to this product has been reportedly developed by processing freely available tree-leaves, which is biodegradable and eco-friendly. The product is known as IUPAC, ID: (I-phenylethene -1, 2-diyl). In Kashmir we have plenty of Chinar leaves, which could be processed to develop such a new product.

To combat this burning issue more and more people like Sathya Prabhu need to rise to the occasion for betterment of the environment and thus be beneficent to the society.

Predictions of Shah Nimatullah Farsi (RA)


I just came to know about this sufi saint who lived in the Indian subcontinent (Kashmir Valley) around 900 years ago. He has made a lot of predictions about the indian subcontinent and the world in general leading up to the final armageddon in the form of Persian verses and, surprisingly, those predictions are coming true with the passage of time. The most surprising thing is that he has actually mentioned the names of personalities and places several times. I would list some of his predictions over here that I found online. Keep in mind that it does not reflect my personal beliefs or religion.


The first prediction is about Nadir Shah’s attack of Delhi. He said: Nadir Shah would emerge from Iran and would snatch the Indian empire. He would callously use his sword to assassinate the people of Delhi.About the Mughals he said: You (who are reading my prophecies) will not find Mughals anywhere after 300 years.

About the arrival of East India Company in the Subcontinent, he said:Rajas and Maharajas would turn careless. For most of the time they would remain drunk and addicted to opium. At that time the British/Christians would land in India disguised as traders and businessmen. About the British rule in India he predicted:My dears! Understand it very clearly that they would rule India for 100 years at least.(Please note that the Britishers stay in India was for 200 years, however, they ruled only for 100 years. When Lord Curzon, the then Viceroy of India came to know about Hazrat Shah Naimat’s prophecies, he put a ban on their publishing and making them public).

He predicts a war between Russian and Japan. Japan will prevail.

Two persons, both named “Ahmed” will do corrupted tasfeer of Quran, and deviate peole. [could be referring to Mirza Ghulam Ahmed Qadyani and Pervez Ahmed]

While talking about the First World War, Shah Naimat predicts:For four years a great war would be fought in the West in which E(England) would score an unfair victory over G(Germany).I would like to clarify that Shah Naimat used the Persian alphabets Alif for Inglistan (England) and Jeem for Germany. The interesting point to note is that this war was fought in the West (Europe) for four years (1914-1918).

While predicting more about First World War, he even gave the death figures. Shah Naimat said:It would be a great world war. There would be a great bloodshed and about 13.1 million people would be killed.

Earthquake in Japan, 1/4 of Japan destroyed. [Happened in 1923]

He prophesised about the Second World War also and said:The Second World War would start 21 years after the First World War and it would be more violent, lethal, destructive and ruinous then the first one. People who are interested in military history knows it very well that the Second World War (1939-1945) started exactly 21 years after the First World War.

While mentioning the weapons he said:The scientists of that era would make very deadly and fatal weapons which could measure energy and power and would bring mass destruction to the fighting forces (atomic bomb).

Prediciton of T.V and Telephones.

Then Wali says that British will leave the subcontinent and there will be a lot of bloodshed.

Wali said,It would be evident to the whole world that India would be clearly divided into two parts.Sikhs will slaughter the Muslims. [happened during the partition]. Due to hypocrisy and cheating there would be a lot of tragedies, massacres and carnage, Shah Sahib while referring to undemocratic governments in this region said,India would be ruled by rulers who would not be legitimate to do so. They would change the official rules and set of laws just like that. Law and order would scarcely prevail.

The followers of Hazrat Muhammad (Peace be upon him) would indulge in disgraceful criminal acts and immoral and indecent conduct.His views about religious leaders are not very encouraging. He saidThe muftis of that era would behave irresponsibly. They would issue fatwas (religious decrees) without any reason. (doesn’t it sound like Fatwas of Mulana Sufi Mohammed in Swat) but when it would come to speak the truth about the religion, they would start making despicable and lame excuses. He further said,The Islamic teachings would be like a blown out candle. No one would care about them. Scholars would be forcefully relegated to the lowest pedestals and the uneducated and amateurish would turn up as intellectuals and scholars.

His following few predictions about wars in the region are quite obvious. Naimat Shah said,Suddenly, the Muslims would face a quite jolting restlessness. They would fight a daring war with kafirs (non-Muslims) of the region. After a 17-day war the Almighty would bless the Muslims with a victory. They would earn this triumph after fighting a bloody war, daringly laying down their lives and rendering a lot of sacrifices. A Hindu leader would represent his country in another atheist country, where he would die while in his sleep.

(This refers to 1965 War. Lal Bahadur Shastri died of a heart attack in Tashkent, an atheist city of athiest Soviet Union.)

The people of the Muslim part of the Subcontinent would dethrone their ameer (President) and from then onwards they would earn a great humiliation. ( Khwaja Nazimuddin’s removal). After that there would be a great rage, calamity and chastisement. The punisher (Allah) would sentence those who would deserve it. Allah would issue a mass killing command. The eastern part of the country would tragically fall due to the deceitfulness of pretenders. The people of the western part would mourn over it. A big city of the eastern part would become a place of butchery and bloodshed. A mass killing would take place there and people would be slaughtered freely without any fear. A Muslim leader, in fact, would be an abettor of the kafirs and would lend them full support through his treachery. (The accursed Mujiburahman who chose his place in Hell among the Kuffars).

The person whose name would start with Gaaf (Persian alphabet having G as an alternative in English) and would contain six letters (maybe Gandhi) would remain victorious in this war due to his impiety and wickedness (Indira Gandhi).

Shah Sahib said:The Muslims of the western portion (West Pakistan) would have the blessings of Allah. The most responsible leaders, skilled scientists and highly professional and dedicated military experts would be available to them. All the Muslim countries would be looking towards them. Muslims from Turkey, Arabia, Iran and the Middle East would turn up with remarkable Ummah spirit to support them and the area of Chitral, Nanga Parbat, Gilgit, China and Tibet would become the main battlefield.

Hazrat Naimat Shah further said:The people of Kabul would also come out to kill kafirs (non-Muslims) who would run around from pillar to post and would make petty and paltry excuses to save their lives. They would literally beg the Muslims for their lives. The frontier would quiver and quake with the foot-beats of ghazis and mujahids of the frontier who would suddenly emerge out of nowhere. This event would take place after Eid-ul-Azha and the next Eid ul Fitr.

Wali said:�River Attock (Kabul) would be filled thrice, with the blood of kafirs, during that period. The Muslims would capture the whole Punjab (including Lahore city), Kashmir, the land situated between River Ganges and Yamuna (Uttar Pradesh province) and the city of Bijnaur. This war would remain among the human beings for good about six months and ultimately, God willing, the Muslims would be victorious. All the enemies and the ill-wishers of Islam would be killed and the whole India would be clean of Hinduism and Hindu traditions. Shah Naimat said:Suddenly there would be a great roar. It would be a catastrophic earthquake like the doomsday. It would cause great devastation and disruption in Sindh and Hind (India).

While predicting another bloody war he said:One of the two alifs (America and England (Inglistan) I have mentioned earlier, would be totally destroyed. Russia would attack the western alif (maybe England). Russia would also kneel down to China’s wrath, rage and fury and would be destroyed. However, to live in the world would beg China for immunity. Later on, one of the jeems (either Germany or Japan) would make an alliance with Russia against either of the alifs (America or England). Most lethal and explosive weapons would be used to an extent that the alif (America or England) would be totally wiped out from the world map and its name would remain merely in the history books. This would be a punishment for them from the Almighty and the generations would remember them as the iniquitous.

Islam would dominate India for at least forty years until Dajjal would emerge from the city of Esfahan. There would be a lot of sedition, disturbance, violence and war in the region. Khorasan, Egypt, Syria and Iraq would not be an exception. The war would devastate and desolate these countries as well until the Best Year as described by the Holy Quran would come. Imam Mehdi would attain prominence. He would appear during the Hajj days and suddenly he would become famous the world over. In my opinion, Imam Mehdi would appear before Dajjal’s appearance.

The Wali further predictsajjal’s forces would be in Esfahan and his army would be consisted of Jews and Christians and I am clearly seeing it. I can also see a dust storm rising up from Kufa. Jesus Christ would also descend from the heavens. I can see thousands of riders accompanying the Christ and finally Jesus, the son of Mary, would kill Dajjal with his own sword. Look Naimat Shah! Stop and do not disclose the secrets of Allah. I am predicting these events in the Islamic year 548 Hijri.Allah knows best.

William John Macquorn Rankine (1820-1872), engineer, polymath, educator and researcher. Pioneer of thermodynamics.


William John Macquorn Rankine (1820-1872), engineer, polymath, educator and researcher. Pioneer of thermodynamics.

Engineering achievements

Rankine was a founding contributor, with Rudolf Clausius and William Thomson (1st Baron Kelvin), to the “pure” science of thermodynamics. Rankine developed a complete theory of the steam engine and indeed of all heat engines. The application of the doctrine, that ‘heat and work are convertible,’ to the discovery of new relations among the properties of bodies was made about the same time by all three. Thomson cleared the way by his account of Carnot’s work on the ‘Motive Power of Heat,’ and following James Joule pointed out the error of Carnot’s assumption that heat is a substance and therefore indestructible. Rankine in 1850, and Clausius in the same year, showed in very different ways the nature of the further modifications which Carnot’s theory required. Thomson in 1851 put the foundations of the theory in the form they have since retained.

Rankine’s ideas on thermodynamics regarded energy as being classified into two kinds, kinetic and potential, and his thermodynamic theory was developed by considering the transformation of one into the other. He began with the hypothesis that matter was constituted by molecular vortices (without considering the cyclic process) and obtained the quantities “pressure”, “specific heat”, etc., from that consideration. His classification of energy was similar to, but not exactly the same as, that of Clausius. Both Rankine and Clausius approached the second law of thermodynamics from the point of view of the transformation from one kind of energy to the other. But whereas Clausius considered the conversion between heat and work and the flow of heat from high to low temperature in a cyclic process, Rankine concentrated on the change from kinetic (molecular) to potential energies, and related this change to heat flow by use of his “heat-potential” function.

The entropy function was defined by Rankine and later extended by Maxwell. Rankine identified the phenomenon now known as “fatigue” in the metal of railway axles, wrote on earth pressures in soil mechanics, and the stability of walls. He also developed methods to solve the force distribution in frame structures and worked on hydrodynamics and the design of ships.

Rankine was one of main developers of systematic programmes of training for engineers. On his arrival in Glasgow University engineering was part of the Faculty of Arts, but was not recognised as a subject qualifying for graduation in Arts. By the time of his death a B.Sc. degree was introduced. Rankine emphasised the mutual dependence and harmony between sound theory and good practice, and he was responsible for establishing the University’s famous sandwich courses in co-operation with leading industrialists in Scotland. Rankine worked closely with Clyde shipbuilders, especially his friend and life-longCOLLABORATOR James Robert Napier to make naval architecture into an engineering science. He was a founding member and first President of the Institution of Engineers & Shipbuilders in Scotland in 1857.

His Life

Age Event Year
Born 5th July in Edinburgh, Scotland, the son of David Rankine, civil engineer 1820
8 Attended Ayr Academy 1828
10 Attended Glasgow High School 1830
14 Attended Scottish Military and Naval Academy 1834
16-18 Attended classes at University of Edinburgh 1836-38
18 Gold Medal for An Essay on the Undulatory Theory of Light 1838
18 Pupil of civil engineer John Benjamin MacNeill 1838
22 Associate of Institution of Civil Engineers on 7th March 1843
24 Employed under Locke and Errington on Caledonian Railway projects 1844
28 Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh on 7th January 1849
30 Published On the mechanical action of heat, especially in gases and vapours 1850
31 Awarded Keith Prize by Royal Society of Edinburgh 1851-53
33 Fellow of the Royal Society of London 1853
34 Awarded Keith Prize by the Royal Society of Edinburgh 1854
35 Regius Professor of civil engineering and mechanics at Glasgow University 1855
37 First President of Institution of Engineers and Shipbuilders in Scotland 1857
37 Awarded Doctor of Laws, Trinity College, Dublin 1857
38 Published Applied Mechanics 1858
39 Published The Steam Engine and other Prime Movers 1859
Commissioned captain in Glasgow University Corps of Rifle Volunteers 1859
40 Senior major in Glasgow University Corps of Rifle Volunteers 1860
42 Published Civil Engineering 1862
43 Elected to American Academy of Arts and Sciences 1863
46 Published Shipbuilding, Theoretical and Practical 1866
48 Elected to Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences 1863
49 Published Machinery and Millwork 1869
Appointed to Board of Enquiry into sinking of HMS Captain 1869
51 Vice President of Royal Society of Edinburgh 1871
52 Died on 24th December at 8 Albion Crescent, Dowanhill, Glasgow 1872
52 Buried on 28th December at Sighthill Cemetery, Glasgow, after a service in Glasgow University chapel 1872

His Legacy

His works on the steam engine, machinery, shipbuilding, applied mechanics, etc., became standard textbooks; and he did much for the new science of themodynamics and the theories of elasticity and of waves. The thermodynamic cycle for the analysis of the maximum efficiency of a heat-engine or heat pump using condensable vapour as working fluid is still called the Rankine Cycle. The Rankine Theory on earth pressure continues to be featured in geotechnical text books. His manuals of engineering science and practice continue to influence engineering education. They were republished for many decades after their launch in the 1850s and 1860s. He published several hundred papers and notes on science and engineering topics, from 1840 onwards. The Institution of Engineers and Shipbuilders in Scotland, which he co-founded, continues to thrive.

More Information

Other Selected Publications:
On the causes of the unexpected breakage of the journals of railway axles, and on the means of preventing such accidents by observing the law of continuity in their construction. Minutes of the Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers. Vol.2, pp.105-107 (1843).
Description of a method of laying down railway curves on the ground Minutes of the Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers. Vol.2, pp.108-111 (1843).
On the Means of improving the Water Supply of Glasgow. Glasgow: 1852.
On the mechanical principles of the actions of propellers. Naval Architecture Transactions. Vol.6: 13-39. 1865.
Report on the design and construction of masonry dams. The Engineer. Vol.33, pp.1-2 (5 January 1872).
Songs and Fables. London: MacMillan. 1874.

Other sources:
Ten British Physicists of the Nineteenth Century Alexander MacFarlane. New York. 1919
Investigation, appraisal and re-use of a cast-iron structural frame. MN Bussell and MJ Robinson. The Structural Engineer, Vol.76, no.3, pp.37-42 (February 1998)
Biographical Dictionary of Civil Engineers, Volume 2: 1830-1890. Peter Cross-Rudkin and Mike Chrimes (eds.) London: The Institution of Civil Engineers. 2008.
W.J.M. Rankine and the rise of thermodynamics. K Hutchison. British Journal for the History of Science, Vol.14, no.46, pp.1-26 (1981).
Fatigue testing instruments Robert C. McWilliam in Instruments of Science: an historical encyclopedia. R. Bud and D J Warner (eds.) New York: Garland for the Science Museum and the Smithsonian. 1998.
Fortuna Domus. A series of Lectures delivered in the University of Glasgow in commemoration of the Fifth Centenary of its foundation. J B Neilson (ed.) Glasgow: Morgan & Scott for the University of Glasgow, 1952.
W.J.M. Rankine: a commemorative lecture. R V Southwell. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers, Part 1. Vol.5, pp.177-193. (1956).
Rankine: his life and times H B Sutherland. London: The Institution of Civil Engineers. 1973.
Professor William John Macquorn Rankine. H B Sutherland. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers, Vol.132, no.4, pp.181-187. (November 1999).
History of the Strength of Materials. S P Timoshenko. New York: McGraw-Hill. 1953 (reprinted New York: Dover. 1982).
Oxford Dictionary of National Biography entry (full text available to subscribers and UK library members)

The Rankine Absolute Fahrenheit Scale.
Rankine, a small impact crater near the eastern limb of the Moon.
The Rankine Lecture is hosted by the British Geotechnical Association of the Insitution of Civil Engineers. It is widely viewed as the most prestigious invited lecture in geotechnics.
The Rankine Hugoniot equation for propagation of shock waves governs the behaviour of shock waves normal to the oncoming flow.
The Organic Rankine Cycle was derived to use organic, high molecular mass fluid with a liquid vapour phase-change occurring at a lower temperature than the water-stem phase change. It was exhibited in 1961 and enables Rankine Cycle heat recovery from low temperature sources such as biomass, industrial waste heat, geothermal heat, solar ponds.
The method for setting out circular curves by chaining and angles at the circumference fully exploited the accuracy of the theodolite is called the Rankine Method (although it had been derived concurrently by others engaged in railway surveying).
Rankine Body is a concept used in computing the flow of liquid around a body or surface.
The Rankine Gordon formula is still applicable to cast iron columns.
Rankine Vortex model is a mathematical approach to describing the velocity profile through vortices in real viscous fluids.

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TO CITE THIS PAGE: MLA style: “Scottish Engineering Hall of Fame”. Date of viewing.



Institution of Engineers (India) J&K State Center



by:  Er. Mohammad Ashraf Fazili FIE



Today we are living in an age of knowledge explosion. What we studied at Graduation level half a century back, is being taught now at Primary level and the school going children are feeling to be under stress. So is the case with the grown-ups; it has become difficult to keep pace with latest developments of knowledge as every hour some new discovery/ invention takes place. In earlier days the pace of development was much slower and it would take a long time for the news/technology to reach other places. Acquisition of knowledge has been human endeavor right from the beginning. According to a Hadith:  “One has to learn knowledge right from cradle to the grave.” From the following details, we can have an idea of the history of the development of knowledge right from the earliest times, when each era has been a knowledge era according to its own limitations:

The Dawn of History:  Around 1-2 million years ago several humanoid species existed according to fossil finds. For 200,000 years, the dominant human species in Europe and Asia were Neanderthals, who were driven to extinction around 30,000 years ago, by new arrivals from Africa-Homo Sapiens.

The Neanderthals appeared in Europe about 250,000 years ago-the name comes from the Neander Valley near Dusseldrof Germany, where remains were first found in 1856. There is ample evidence that the Neanderthals were cultural beings. Skillfully wrought stone tools and jewellery has been found. Graves showed that they buried their dead with some ceremony. They also used fire – vital for survival in the cold climate of the period. About 30,000 years ago they were outclassed by the more adaptable Homo-sapiens also known as ‘Cro-Magnon man’, named after the place in Dordogne France, where they were first found.

Mitochondrial Eve: In 1986, researchers at the University of California concluded that all humans were descended from a single woman who lived in Africa some 200,000 years ago. They based this on analysis of DNA taken from the mitochondrial specific parts of the human cell. This DNA differs from DNA in the cell nucleus and it passes only through the female line. It mutates at a very rapid but steady rate. It appears that her lineage has survived to present day.

Various Ages:

The Stone Age -(Upper Paleolithic)- 45,000 – 10,000 years ago

Early humans were already expert flint workers by the Upper Paleolithic period. More than 100 distinct tools and weapons have been found at sites in Europe and the Near East. Typical features of Upper Paleolithic cultures included:

Stone spearheads, arrowheads and blades

Bone and ivory tools and weapons (fishhooks, needles and spear throwers)

Jewellery and clothing made of skins sewn using bone needles.

The ceremonial burial of the dead.

Cave art and statues.

The Stone Age –Neolithic- from 12000 years ago:

The later Stone Age saw the development of farming which replaced hunter gathering as the primary mode of existence. By the end of Neolithic, humans had learned to cultivate many crops, wheat barley in the Near East, maize in the Central America, rice in China and potatoes in South America. Farming created surpluses, allowing populations to grow and establish permanent settlements. Other features of Neolithic included:

  • The domestication of animals (by 6000 BC in China and Mesopotomia)
  • A new tool-for example, axes to clear forests and bring new land under cultivation, hoes, sickles and grindstones.
  • The use of pottery to store grain.
  • The construction of the earliest villages and towns, other surrounded by walls to corral livestock (Jericho and Catal Huyuk)
  • Tombs built of stone.

The Metal Ages:

  1. The Bronze Age –from 3000 BC

The first experiments were made in Iran and Turkey some 9000 years ago. Copper and gold were the first metals to be used for tools and weapons, followed by bronze (an alloy of copper and tin). The Bronze Age featured:

  • Copper and bronze tools and weapons (spearheads, arrowheads, chisels, saws).
  • The practice of trade throughout Europe.
  • Early mines and ore extraction methods.
  • High standards of craftsmanship, jewellery, statues and decorations.
  1. The Iron Age: from 1200 BC

Iron was first used long before the Iron Age. The Hittites of Anatolia made iron weapons between 2000 and 1200 BC. Iron working spread in Greece in about 1000 BC, and to Northern Europe, Asia and Africa by about 750 BC. It was brought to Britain by the Celts- members of Iron Age  culture originating in the Austrian Alps. Iron had three advantages over bronze. It gives a sharper, harder wearing edge, it did not need to be combined with another metal, and supplies were plentiful. It was used for nails, tools, weapons, cooking utensils, jewellery and also for religious articles. The European Iron Age is conveniently said to end with the spread of Roman Empire. There was no iron age in Americas, where iron was introduced by European colonists.

Civilization is closely linked to the development of cities. Urban life emerged as agriculture started to support artisans, traders, government and organized religion as well as people living in the land. From about 3000 BC, cities grew on the banks of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in Mesopotamia (‘Between the Rivers’) part of the ‘Fertile Crescent.’ They were independent city states at first, then part of empires. At the same time Egypt grew in power, and the eastern Mediterranean became a crossroad for traders and empire-builders.

Land marks of civilization: Many of the major development that we associate with Western civilization first emerged in the Fertile Crescent after 10,000 BC.

Cities: Some of the world’s oldest cities are found in the Middle East, such as Jericho founded 8,350 BC, Catal Huyuk in Anatolia Turkey was the largest city in the world. It flourished 6,250-5,400 BC.

Wheel: The wheel started off in Mesopotamia 3,500 BC as a potter’s tool. It was used for vehicles after 3,200 BC.

Legal Systems: Hammurabi (1792-1750 BC), king of Babylon, codified the oldest known laws. The Jewish Torah dates from the 4th century BC.

Writing: Around 3,300 BC, the Sumerians developed one of the earliest writing systems, a picture based script called Cuneiform, impressed in clay tablets. In about 1100 BC the Phoenicians created a sound based alphabet, later the basis of all European scripts.

Astronomy: The city of Ur was the birthplace of astronomy. By 1000 BC the Babylonians were predicting lunar eclipses and tracking planets.

Mathematics: The number system of Mesopotamia gave us the 60 minute hour and 360 degree circle.

Monotheism: Belief in a single all-powerful God was a key feature of Judaism, and later of both Christianity and Islam.

Important landmarks in the History of the world:

The Prehistoric World: 100,000 years ago

Dawn of History: 10,000 BC – 323 BC

Ancient Egypt: 5000 BC – 30 BC

Ancient Greece: 2000 BC – 146 BC

Judaism: 1200 BC – 70 AD

Ancient Rome: 753 BC – 406 AD

The making of Europe: 402 AD – 1066 AD

Christianity: 4-6 BC – 1453 AD

Islam: 570 AD – 1492 AD

The middle Ages: 1000 AD – 1485 AD

India: 5000 BC – 1857 AD

China & Japan: 6000 BC – 1905 AD

Africa: 7000 BC – 1914 AD

Ancient America: 5000 BC – 1890 AD

The Age of Exploration: 1492 AD – 1779 AD

The Renaissance: 1305 AD – 1633 AD

Clash of faiths (Christianity): 1415 AD – 1633 AD

Age of kings: 1643 AD – 1772 AD

Europe in turmoil: 1775 AD – 1815 AD

Creation of United States: 1607 AD – 1890 AD

The Industrial Revolution: 1701 AD – 1913 AD

New Nations and Empires: 1783 AD – 1901 AD

First World War: 1914 AD – 1918 AD

Russian Revolution: 1861 AD – 1924 AD

Second World War: 1939 AD – 1945 AD

End of Empire: 1940 AD – 1990 AD

The Cold War: 1945 AD – 1990 AD

New World Order: 1980 – to-date.

 Adler’s classification of knowledge:

All subjects fit under or under a combination of constructsscienceengineering, or humanities. Engineering overlaps with the other subjects. Mortimer J. Adler classified knowledge into six divisions: Logic, Mathematics, Science, History and the Humanities, Philosophy, and Preservation of Knowledge. The structure below is based on Adler’s classification.




Philosophy (interdisciplinary)

Communication (interdisciplinary)

Engineering (interdisciplinary)

Science (Natural science)



Medicine (interdisciplinary)

Psychology (interdisciplinary)







Geography (interdisciplinary)


Engineering (interdisciplinary)

Medicine (interdisciplinary)

Humanities (Social science)


Philosophy (interdisciplinary)

Communication (interdisciplinary)



Psychology (interdisciplinary)

Ethology (Animal behavior)




Geography (interdisciplinary)




Engineering is an interdisciplinary branch that overlaps with other top-level categories.


The list of scholars/scientists in different fields, produced by the world in different countries in different eras runs in to thousands. A few to be named are: Plato-347 BC, Socrates 399 BC, Aristotle- 322 BC, Galileo (1642 AD),  Archimedes- 212 BC, Ptolemy, Hippocrates, Sigmund Freud- 1839, Pythagoras 500 BC, Euclid 300 BC, Brahmagupta 670 AD, Al Khwarzmi 850 AD, Al-Kindi, Al-Razes, Ibn-i-Rushd (Averros), Ibn-i-Sina (Avecina), Aven Zoor (Ibn-i-Zoar), Al-Hazan (Abul Hasan), Al Mamun, Ibn-i-Junus, Nasir-ud-Din Tusi, Albani, Al-Batan, Al-Bucasis of Cordova, Issac Newton 1727, Einistien etc.

A history of ingenuity:

Humans are an ingenious species. From the moment someone bashed a rock on the ground to make the first sharp-edged tool, to the development of Mars rovers and the Internet, several key advancements stand out as particularly revolutionary. Among innumerable inventions, these are our picks for the 10 most important inventions of all time.

The wheel: Before the invention of the wheel in 3500 B.C., humans were severely limited in how much stuff we could transport over land, and how far. Wheeled carts facilitated agriculture and commerce by enabling the transportation of goods to and from markets, as well as easing the burdens of people traveling great distances. Now, wheels are vital to our way of life, found in everything from clocks to vehicles to turbines.

The compass:Ancient mariners navigated by the stars, but that method didn’t work during the day or on cloudy nights, and so it was unsafe to voyage far from land. The Chinese invented the first compass sometime between the 9th and 11th century; it was made of lodestone, a naturally-magnetized iron ore, the attractive properties of which they had been studying for centuries. Soon after, the technology passed to Europeans and Arabs through nautical contact. The compass enabled mariners to navigate safely far from land, increasing sea trade and contributing to the Age of Discovery.

The printing press:The German Johannes Gutenberg invented the printing press around 1440. Key to its development was the hand mold, a new molding technique that enabled the rapid creation of large quantities of metal movable type. Printing presses exponentially increased the speed with which book copies could be made, and thus they led to the rapid and widespread dissemination of knowledge for the first time in history. Twenty million volumes had been printed in Western Europe by 1500. Among other things, the printing press permitted wider access to the Bible, which in turn led to alternative interpretations, including that of Martin Luther, whose “95 Theses” a document printed by the hundred-thousand sparked the Protestant Reformation.

The internal combustion engine: In these engines, the combustion of a fuel releases a high-temperature gas, which, as it expands, applies a force to a piston, moving it. Thus, combustion engines convert chemical energy into mechanical work. Decades of engineering by many scientists went in to designing the internal combustion engine, which took its (essentially) modern form in the latter half of the 19th century. The engine ushered in the Industrial Age, as well as enabling the invention of a huge variety of machines, including modern cars and aircraft.

The telephone: Though several inventors did pioneering work on electronic voice transmission (many of whom later filed intellectual property lawsuits when telephone use exploded), Alexander Graham Bell was the first to be awarded a patent for the electric telephone in 1876. The invention quickly took off, and revolutionalized global business and communication.

The light bulb: When all you have is natural light, productivity is limited to daylight hours. Light bulbs changed the world by allowing us to be active at night. According to historians, two dozen people were instrumental in inventing incandescent lamps throughout the 1800s; Thomas Edison is credited as the primary inventor because he created a completely functional lighting system, including a generator and wiring as well as a carbon-filament bulb. As well as initiating the introduction of electricity in homes throughout the Western world, this invention also had a rather unexpected consequence of changing people’s sleep patterns. Instead of going to bed at nightfall (having nothing else to do) and sleeping in segments throughout the night separated by periods of wakefulness, we now stay up except for the 7 to 8 hours allotted for sleep, and, ideally, we sleep all in one go.

Penicillin: It’s one of the most famous discovery stories in history. In 1928, the Scottish scientist Alexander Fleming noticed a bacteria-filled Petri dish in his laboratory with its lid accidentally ajar. The sample had become contaminated with a mold, and everywhere the mold was, the bacteria was dead. That antibiotic mold turned out to be the fungus Penicillium, and over the next two decades, chemists purified it and developed the drug Penicillin, which fights a huge number of bacterial infections in humans without harming the humans themselves. Penicillin was being mass produced and advertised by 1944. This poster attached to a curbside mailbox advised World War II servicemen to take the drug to rid themselves of venereal disease.

Contraceptives: Not only have birth control pills, condoms and other forms of contraception sparked a sexual revolution in the developed world by allowing men and women to have sex for leisure rather than procreation, they have also drastically reduced the average number of offspring per woman in countries where they are used. With fewer mouths to feed, modern families have achieved higher standards of living and can provide better for each child. Meanwhile, on the global scale, contraceptives are helping the human population gradually level off; our number will probably stabilize by the end of the century. Certain contraceptives, such as condoms, also curb the spread of sexually transmitted diseases. Natural and herbal contraception has been used for millennia. Condoms came into use in the 18th century, while the earliest oral contraceptive “the pill” was invented in the late 1930s by a chemist named Russell Marker.

The Internet: It really needs no introduction: The global system of interconnected computer networks known as the Internet is used by billions of people worldwide. Countless people helped develop it, but the person most often credited with its invention is the computer scientist Lawrence Roberts. In the 1960s, a team of computer scientists working for the U.S. Defense Department’s ARPA (Advanced Research Projects Agency) built a communications network to connect the computers in the agency, called ARPANET. It used a method of data transmission called “packet switching” which Roberts, a member of the team, developed based on prior work of other computer scientists. ARPANET was the predecessor of the Internet.

Present State: Today information is a powerful tool. People are increasingly becoming dependent on information generation in the electronic media the world over. A user can now have all the latest information that he needs on his finger tips: electronic newspapers, yellow pages, telephone directories, stock exchange prices etc. Access to information as a basic right can stimulate the world’s economy to the benefit of all. The business community has now come to understand information as a valuable commodity required for planning, directing, controlling, decision-making, motivating, and fore-casting and so on to ensure positive and gainful operation.

A quarter century ago about 50,000 computers existed in the whole world. Today there are more than 150 million. A typical American car today has more computing power than the lunar-landing craft had in 1969.

If computer is the most important thing that man invented since the wheel, software is the fuel that sets the wheels of the machine running.

In 1960 a transatlantic cable could carry only 138 conversations simultaneously. Today a fiber-optic cable carries 150 million. No communication has grown faster than the internet, which already connects more than 50 million users worldwide. Anybody with a computer modem and a telephone can Tele-shop, Tele-bank, and Tele-learn 24 hours a day.

The story of telecommunications can be traced to about two centuries back ranging from first facsimile (FAX) machine of 1843 to the Digital Cellular phone in 1990.

A report by the OCED estimates that more than half of the GDP in rich economies is now knowledge based, including industries such as Telecommunications, Education, Television, Computers, Software and Pharmaceuticals.

Abstract Knowledge has been the staple source of competitive advantage for many organizations for hundreds of years. During the 1990s, the onset of Internet and Information Superhighway, allowed KM to take off. It provided more opportunities for knowledge sharing and knowledge transfer than there had been in the past. This paper discusses the paradigm shift from agricultural to industrial economy and then to new Knowledge Economy. It provides a conceptual view of Knowledge management and its key drivers- highlights the evolution and the functions of portals- also elucidates different tools and technologies which act as platform to bring people together to share knowledge in the form of expertise, competencies, and skills irrespective of time and space constraints. It concludes that the future is for Knowledge Portals that provide flexible knowledge environment for large number of users.

Keywords : Knowledge Driven Era, Knowledge Portal Technologies

1.Introduction: Knowledge and innovation have played an important role in the development of society throughout history. The transformation from Agrarian to Industrial Society and now to the Information and Knowledge Society has largely been brought about as a result of the accumulation of Knowledge and the advances in Information and Communication Technologies. Digitization, open systems standards, and the development software and supporting technologies for the application of new computing and communication systems – including scanning and imaging technologies, memory and storage technologies display systems and copying technologies have intensified the move towards Knowledge codification, increased share of codified knowledge in the knowledge stock of advanced economies. All knowledge that can be codified and reduced to information can now be transmitted around the world.

  1. 2. Paradigm Shift: “There is a central difference between the old and the new economies: the old industrial economy was driven by economies of scale, the new information economy is driven by the economies of networks” – Carl Shapiro and Hal R. Verian – Information rules.

In an agricultural economy land is the key resource. In an industrial economy natural resource such as coal, iron ores are the main resources. A knowledge economy is one in which knowledge is the key resource. … One in which the generation and the exploitation of knowledge has come to play the pre dominant part in the creation of wealth. It is not simply about pushing back frontiers of knowledge; it is also about the more effective use and exploitation of all types of knowledge in all manners of economic activity. The knowledge economy is emerging from two defining forces; the rise in the knowledge intensity or economic activities, and the increasing globalization of economic affairs. The combined forces of information technology revolution and the increasing pace of technological change are driving the rise in knowledge intensity. Globalization is being driven by national and international deregulation, and by the IT related communication revolution.

  1. 3. Knowledge Management: Change is the order of the day. Increases in the organizational information and change have created a great need to manage knowledge to ensure effectiveness. Knowledge management can be viewed as the process of identifying, organizing and managing knowledge resources. These include explicit knowledge (information), ‘know how’ (learning capacity), ‘know who’ (customer capacity) and tacit knowledge in the form of skills and competencies. Key drivers for knowledge management. Some of the key drivers for knowledge management are mentioned below:
  • Achieving organizational efficiency: Knowledge management plays a significant role in achieving organizational efficiency. In the new economy, speed and responsiveness are determining success factors. Indeed, in the Internet world where customers expect services to be available on a 24-hour basis, firms have no choice but to make a quantum-leap improvement in various aspects of their services. This in turn has created the need for organizational to have organized information to facilitate their operations, information that is timely, accurate, useful and, more importantly, tailored to the organization’s need.
  • Staying ahead of the competition: In order to stay ahead of the competition, firms nowadays understand fully the need to know their customers and their competitors very well. Lee, Wee and Bambang-Walujo (1991) highlighted that intelligence gathering/market intelligence is a crucial activity that companies must undertake in today’s competitive business world.
  • Maximizing Organizational potential: The ability of an organization to innovate and create knowledge will depend largely on its ability to capture and manage knowledge. However, knowledge creation is an incremental process that requires the existence of a knowledge infrastructure. Knowledge management is about identifying and managing existing knowledge resources. It is also about making these resources available for knowledge workers to use in their work. Knowledge management professionals can play an important role in facilitating the knowledge creation process by facilitating knowledge-sharing and providing access to knowledge resources as and when these resources are needed.
  • Managing intellectual capital: In the knowledge-based economy, the value of an organization is largely measured by the value of its knowledge (or intangible) assets. Intellectual capital involves human capital, customers’ capital, structural capital and business intelligence capital. Each of these categories relies heavily on the creation and management of knowledge assets.
  1. Knowledge Portal Technologies: The World Wide Web (WWW) has paved the way for the information age. With a competitive market demanding more information from various quarters, the Web has turned out to be a variable resource. In the early days Web surfers were frustrated by the delay in finding the information they needed. The first major information retrieval leap came from the development of Web search engines such as Lycos, Excite, AltaVista, etc. While everyone lauds the Web for offering unbridled opportunities to explore and discover new things, many still want someone else to aggregate a variety of interesting content in one place instead of creating massive and unwieldy bookmark files in their browser. These new online services 9 3 are Web sites, delivering the old formula of content, community and core services, but in a new package and transformed as Web portals. Evolution of portals, Search Engines, Navigation Sites, Portals, Search Indices, Search Indices Content Management, Categorized Content, Collaboration Personalization Key Functions (Awad, Elias M. and Ghaziri, Hassan M.-2004) The main goal of a portal is to provide a single point of access to all information sources. Therefore portals must be the ultimate tools for universal integration of all enterprise applications. At the same time because every individual has different information needs and knowledge uses, portals have to deliver a personalized interface. Keeping in view the complexity of these challenges portals must include the following functionalities:
  • Gathering: Documents created by knowledge workers are stored in a variety of locations. In order to be accessible data and documents need to be captured in a common repository.
  • Categorization: This category profiles the information in the repository and organizes it in meaningful ways for navigating and searching. Portal should support categorization at all levels, including the knowledge worker and customer levels.
  • Distribution: This facility supports the distribution of structured and unstructured information in the form of electronic or paper documents.
  • Publish: This facility publishes information to a broader audience, including individuals outside the organization.
  • Personalization: This is a key component of portal architectures because it allows individuals to enhance their productivity. It is becoming a necessity for successful portals. This is due to the proliferation of information available through the portal. To take advantage of this facility knowledge workers must be able to manage or prioritize the delivery of information on task function or interest basis.
  • Search/Navigate: This component provides tools for identifying and accessing information. The knowledge worker can either browse or submit a query. Collaboration Knowledge portals provide a platform for people to engage in discussion and exchange information. The framework includes interactive facilities such as chat sessions, bulletin boards, and application sharing together with shared workspaces, whiteboards, and collaboration and authoring tools. Collaboration in the knowledge management context is the ability for two or more people to work together in a coordinated manner over time and space using electronic devices. One has to distinguish between two types of Collaborations:
  • Asynchronous collaboration
  • Synchronous Collaboration.

Below are given few advantages and disadvantages of Synchronous and Asynchronous Collaboration tools. Synchronous Collaboration, Asynchronous Collaboration, Teleconferencing, Electronic Mailing Lists. In use extensively by senior management Lists have been in use for a number of years and staff, conference telephone calls represent an extremely cost effective (if relatively expensive) collaboration technology.

Advantages: cheap technology, personal, immediate

Desadvantages: limited communication medium feedback, expensive, often does not work well across time zones, Computer Video/Teleconferencing, Web-Based Discussion Forums, Computer-based teleconferencing and there are a number of different online video- teleconferencing is a rapidly discussions forum applications in use.

Evolving technology that has tremendous Advantages : same as electronic mailing potential for distributed organizations lists except requires slightly faster Internet connection.

Disadvantages : cultural resistance, Web-Based Discussion Forums, Online Chat Forums, Lotus Notes Allow multiple users to communicate, Lotus notes is a comprehensive collaboration simultaneously by typing messages on tool that includes e-mail and groupware, a computer screen.

Advantages: comprehensive collaborative solution employing state-of-the-art technologies for communication, document management and work flow.

Disadvantages: expensive to deploy when compared with other collaboration technologies. Content Management. Another important issue handled by content management is the way documents are analyzed, stored and categorized. Once the documents have been gathered, they must be analyzed so that their content is available for retrieval and use by the system or end users. As documents enter the portal system, they are stored for later retrieval and display. However, it is not useful to simply put the documents away in their raw form. Systems typically analyze the documents content and store the results of that analysis so that subsequent use of the documents by the system and users will be more effective and efficient. As the number of documents under management grows, it becomes increasingly important to gather similar documents into smaller groups and to name the groups. This option is called categorizing.

The new technology trends in implementing portals: Portal & New Technology Directions Global, just-in-time knowledge sources and services, Analytic Tools, Intelligent Training, Collaborative Learning, Performance Support User-,task-,and situation tailored interaction, Human Computer Interaction, Collaborative Filtering Information, Brokers Knowledge, Integration Knowledge Management, Multimedia Multilingual Multi-document Digital Libraries, Seamless collaboration across geographic, temporal, organizational, and mission boundaries, Collaborative Environments, Intelligent agents to monitor, filter, search, extract, translate, fuse, mine, visualize and summarize information for a variety of operational needs, Intelligent Agents 9 6 Examples of Knowledge Portals ( UNESCO has a vital role in gathering, transfer, dissemination and sharing of data, information and knowledge. UNESCO has created public domain portals for diverse groups of users with very rich contents.

Conclusion: Knowledge is the key source of a postindustrial society and telecommunication is the key technology. The advances in information and communication technologies, the Internet revolution, and the move towards the Information and Knowledge Society have highlighted the importance of knowledge and need for Knowledge management. Collaborative applications such as e-mail, calendaring, scheduling, shared folders and threaded discussions promote knowledge sharing and knowledge transfer. Both software vendors and knowledge-aware companies are investing huge sums in the development of efficient Knowledge Management solutions. These investments and the potentials of new technologies, additional bandwidth, and future Internet services will allow for a completely new form of process-oriented, user-centered portals that will cater for sophisticated users and provide knowledge for competitiveness.

Khwaja Baha-ud-Din Muhammad Naqshband (RA) (1317-1389AD)-a great Sufi Saint of Central Asia has classified knowledge in to three categories. One is bookish knowledge. Many books were written, the author died, the book was eaten by moths or perished in fire or floods and many forms of knowledge perished this way. This is grouped as perishable knowledge. The second form of knowledge is that of verification but this too is not a reliable one. Today we say sun is stationary, tomorrow we find it is in motion or atom is indivisible but next day we find it is otherwise. Thus this form of knowledge is unreliable based on theories. A third form of knowledge neither needs books nor verification, it is transferred from person to person and this is the most reliable one. You must consider that the scholar of this knowledge has reached its climax when he says, “I know nothing”, as the ocean of knowledge has no boundaries and it is like a fathomless deep ocean. Then Khwaja says that I can contact a person who is thousands of kilometers away or who has passed away thousands of years ago. The former is known as “Tai Makan”; the later is known as “Tai Zaman” i.e. distance and time is no bar for him and surprisingly it is the lowest stage of this knowledge. This knowledge is called ‘Ilim-i-Ludni’- Spiritual knowledge. From the above presentation it appears that the exoteric knowledge is in race with esoteric knowledge. Today we hear that research is in progress in electronic teleportation of physical bodies, besides travelling in to the past. A research scholar of Astrophysics of international repute stated that only 4 % of total space is known so far, besides the dark matter in space is still unexplored. There is no edge of space and nothing exists beyond that. We are yet to know what future knowledge has in store for us and what we consider impossible today may become a reality tomorrow. Here I would like to quote Dr. Iqbal:

عروج آدم خاکی سے انجم سہمے جاتے ہیں

کہ یہ ٹوٹا ہوا تارا مہ کامل نہ بن جاۓ

Here I quote Shaikh Sadi Shirazi from his book Kareema (Scrolls of Wisdom)

درفضیلت علم              –بیچ فضیلت علم کے

بنی آدم از علم یابد کمال           —  بیٹاآدم کاعلم سے پاتاہےکمال

نہ ازحشمت و جاہ و مال و منال          —           نہ حشمت اور مرتبہ اورمال واسباب سے

چو شمع ازپئ  علم باید گداخت    –مانندشمع کے واسطے علم کے چاہئےگھلنا

کہ بے علم نتوان خدارا شناخت           –کہ بغیرعلم کےخداکونہ پہچان سکے

خردمندباشدطلبگارعلم            –عقلمندہووے طلب گارعلم کا

کہ گرم ست پیوستہ بازارعلم          —   کہ گرم ہے ہمیشہ بازارعلم کا

کسی راکہ شد در ازل بختیار           — جوکہ ہوازل میں نصیبہ ور

طلب کردن علم کرد اختیار          —       طلب کرنا علم کا کیااختیار

طلب کردن علم شد بر تو فرض          –طلب کرنا علم کا ہواتجھ پر فرض

دگرواجب ست از پیش قطع ارض         —  پھرواجب ہے واسطے اس کے کاٹنا زمین کا

برو دامن علم گیر استوار         —   جا دامن علم کا پکڑمظبوط

کہ علمت رساند بدارالقرار  –کہ علم تجھ کو پہنچائے گابہشت میں

میاموزجزعلم گرعاقلی        —             نہ سیکھ سواعلم کےاگرعقلمندہےتو

کہ بے علم بودن بود غافلی –کہ بے علم رہناہوے غفلت

ترا علم  در دین و دنیا تمام       –تجھ کوعلم دین اور دنیا میں کافی ہے

کہ کار تو از علم گیرد نظام        –کہ کارتیراعلم سے لےآراستگی




Sons of Adam from learning will find perfection

Not from dignity, and rank, and wealth, and property.

Like a taper one must melt in pursuit of learning,

Since without learning one cannot know God.

A man of wisdom is a student of learning,

For the market of wisdom is always brisk.

Whoever is fortunate as regards Eternity,

Maketh choice of the pursuit of knowledge.

This pursuit of knowledge is a duty on thy part,

Even if it be necessary to traverse the earth.

Go, seize fast hold of the skirt of knowledge,

For learning will convey thee to everlasting abodes.

Seek nought but knowledge if thou art wise,

For it is neglectful to remain without wisdom.

From learning there will come to thee perfection as regards religion and the world,

For thine affairs will be settled by knowledge.

(Shaikh Sadi Shirazi RA) (1291 AD)



A year after September -14 floods

After the September floods, the J&K Govt. stated that the state suffered the following losses:

Amount of loss:  Rs. 1 trillion

Families affected: 12.5 lakhs

Housing sector: over Rs. 30,000 crores

Business sector: over Rs. 70,000 crores

Structures damaged : 83,044 pucca houses (fully), 96,089 partially

21,162 kachha houses (fully), 54, 264 partially

99,305 huts, cowsheds.

Lives lost : 281 (186 in Jammu & 85 in Kashmir), 29 missing

Areas under flood water for over one month: posh localities of Rajbagh, Jawaharnagar & Indranagar.

Villages affected : 5642 (3,153 in Jammu & 2489 in Kashmir)

Villages submerged for over 2 weeks : 800

Bridges/culverts damaged: over 550

Roads damaged: 6000 kms.

Carcasses removed from Srinagar city: 1500

Garbage : hundreds of tons removed

6-9 months children vaccinated: 7 lakhs

Many deliberations were held by various organizations regarding the devastating floods; one was the two day seminar held in November -14 at Lalit Palace Hotel, organized by the Deptt. of Earth Sciences Kashmir University and Centre for Dialogue and Reconciliation (CDR). The participants in the seminar were: Central Water Commission-(CWC), National Institute of Hydrology-NIH, National Geographical Research Institute-NGRI, Central Ground Water Board-CGB, National Disaster Management Authority NRSC/ISRO and National Green Tribunal, India Meteorological Department (IMD) and State Government Agencies- Irrigation & Flood Control (IC), Public Health Engineering (PHE), Rural Development, LAWDA, Srinagar Development Authority-(SDA), IMPA, Agriculture Department , academia from Kashmir University, Indian Institute of Technology-NIT Srinagar, Jammu University, and various segments of the civil society, including experienced professionals. I had also an opportunity to participate in the seminar.

Various issues were deliberated upon like: Important contributory factors – Geography of Jhelum Basin, Extreme weather Event, Overflow of Jhelum, Heavy Rainfall (ruling out the cloudburst, ethical question of Kandizal & Illegal Mining), Visible damage in the Kashmir valley,Preventive Measures Suggested by the Experts & other measures, Initiatives taken post September floods for overcoming shortcomings, Road Ahead, Initiatives suggested by the experts, Key Issues, Short term and Urgent recommendations, Urgent Long-term Recommendations besides the Long-term Recommended Measures.

The seminar proved to be an excellent opportunity for exchange of ideas between experts from different field. The real challenge lies in dealing with the problems on the ground and overcoming the existing obstacles.

Sushoba Barve the Executive Director of Centre for Dialogue and Reconciliation has put forth the findings  discussed at the seminar on the subject held by CDR.

What measures are required for flood mitigation in the Jhelum basin? We cannot prevent floods but steps can be taken to manage floods better. At a seminar on the Kashmir floods last year, experts put forward many suggestions.

In the process of urbanization, Srinagar has lost many wetlands and water bodies over the decades. Flood spill channels have been encroached upon and residential colonies have come up there. During the floods of last year, these areas were the worst affected. Floodwaters followed he natural path and inundated whatever came in their way. Restoration of wetlands, water bodies, and  the removal of encroachments in the flood spill channels should be high on the list of the state government.

Coordination needed

In J&K, the Irrigation and Flood Control department has no power over Lakes, Waterways and the Wullur Lake as these come under separate authorities. Coordination and decision making was difficult during the 2014 floods. As all the lakes, water bodies and the river are integrated, there needed to be swift coordinated response by Irrigation and Flood Control Department. Instead it was delayed.  Control of all the water bodies/lakes and wetlands in the Jhelum Basin needs to be brought under one regulatory authority for their integrated management, being a single catchment area served by the same wetland. Maharashtra created such an authority some years ago for this purpose and has now an integrated and cohesive policy.

Revision of the existing land use policy and building codes is required along with strict enforcement and implementation to minimize human and economic loss. Urban planning is going to be a challenge for the Srinagar Development Authority, in the light of last year’s floods. Should horizontal development of Srinagar stop? Land for housing is scarce, as a result people have built houses on wetlands.

Among the issues that were discussed by experts after the floods was the question of whether  the railway line obstructed the floodwaters, thus making Srinagar more vulnerable. Proper studies will have to be undertaken to find out the truth and suggest remedies for the future. This also raises the question of the urgent need to have an environmental impact assessment of all existing and future developmental projects to ensure minimum loss of public properties, livelihoods of people and the infrastructure.

As people and communities are almost the first respondents in any natural disaster, comprehensive community-based disaster risk reduction plans need to be prepared at the district level on priority and communities given training on how to handle such emergencies. Several Indian states already have such trained community response teams.

For several years, the J&K government’s proposal for the construction of an alternative flood channel has been pending before the Central government. Following the floods, there has been a loud public demand that this be undertaken urgently. This involves massive expenditure. Although the experts had supported it, there is new evidence that is making it necessary to have a relook at this proposal. Academics have been continuously doing studies since the floods bringing out new facts. According to some expert observations, there is evidence to show that the floodwaters from Srinagar were not moving towards Wullar Lake as should have naturally happened. Further studies are needed to determine the causes for this – if it is true – and more so to make Srinagar less vulnerable.

All this makes it abundantly clear that knowledge-driven, all-inclusive multidisciplinary flood planning needs to be initiated on a priority by engaging technocrats with relevant expertise to develop insights into flooding mechanisms in the Jhelum Basin building on comprehensive existing studies and last year’s experience.

As the 8 hour travel time for water wall was precious to act in September-14, so was the year that has passed since September last and no practical steps seem to be taken on ground at least by way of time bound dredging (deploying floating/other dredgers) of river Jhelum and FS channel that would increase the carrying capacity of river from 25,000 to 45,000 cusecs and of FS channel from 5000 to 10,000 cusecs to carry the brunt of minor floods. The shortfall of other 65,000 cusecs out of the total 1,20,000 cusecs warrants long term measures as recommended by the experts.

Meanwhile people could not wait and they have gone ahead with the restoration of their damaged structures/shops with over-delayed or even false promises of aid from the rulers, which is supposed to be their genuine right and not a gift from the rulers.

Er. Mohammad Ashraf Fazili (Former Chief Engineer)

KASHMIR owes its name to KASH TRIBE, Not to mythical KASHYAPA (From Face book write up)


Mudasir Ahmad Sufi's photo.

~KASHMIR owes its name to KASH TRIBE, Not to mythical KASHYAPA….. Know your Roots!!!~

The valley of Kashmir is known by its inhabitants as Kasheer because it was a settlement of a race known as Kash or Cush, Kashur means those who eat meat…… Kash or Cush was the son of Ham and a grandson Noah(A.S). He was the founder of the Kash or Cush tribe, which settled in the east. This tribe founded Kash, a village near Bagdad. These people named rivers, mountains, cities and countries after the name of their ancestor Kash or Cush. In Mesopotamia, they founded a kingdom, and the Kashan river in that country is a testimony of this fact. Kashmar, a village near Nishapur in Iran, was also founded by them. This tribe also proceeded towards Central Asia and founded many settlements. Kashmohra, a village in Merv; Kash, a village in Bokhara; Kashband and Kashania, villages in Samarkand, Kashgar, in the Chinese Turkistan, were their settlements in central Asia. In Mesopotamia, the tribe founded the towns of Kashan, Kashaf and Kashi. They also moved towards Afghanistan and founded settlements at Kashkar, Kashhil, Kashek and Kashu. While the Hindu-Kush mountains are named after them, they also founded a settlement south of this mountain range known as Kashmor.
It was Babar the founder of the Moghul dynasty in India who pointed out in his memoirs that the etymology of the word Kashmir is derived from the Kash or Cush tribe which inhabited the valley. This tribe settled in the region now known as Kashtawar, in the Chenab valley of Kashmir. Crossing the Pir-Panjal range, these people spread in the valley of Kashmir. Kush-tawar, in the Pulwama District, Kashnag, a spring in the Islamabad District, and Isae-Kush village bear the name of this tribe.
According to an old tradition (propagated by indian historians), the name Kashmir is derived from Kashyapa. However. there is no linguistic evidence to support this idea, because the whole fable of Kashyapa and his progeny is astronomical. Had Kashyapa drained the valley of its waters or found his progeny in any part of the valley, its capital would have been termed as Kash-yapa-nagar or Kash-yapa-pur, as is the way with the etymologies of that period. According to the latest geological researches, it has been established that the valley of Kashmir was a lake millions of years back and its water found its outlet by the volcanic agency through a narrow gorge at Baramulla.

Please note that the two aspects which are discussed above are ……1) Origin of Kashmiri race… and 2) Draining of lake.

Kash tribe (Muslims)>>> Buddhists>> Shaivites > Muslims…..Alhamdulillah.
Kashmiris were originally Muslims …. the fact that Islam’s advent was from the times of Adams (A.s) Islam essentially means supremacy of one God and worshiping Him alone. From Adam down to Mohammed (PBUH), it is said that there were 1,24,000 Messengers of Allah since the creation of this universe who came at different times essentially with the same message of oneness of Allah and bowing to Him and none else. The Prophet-hood has finally ended with the Advent of Prophet Mohammad, PBUH__ the Last Messenger of Allah. Therefore, Islam does not owe its origin to Prophet Mohammad (PBUH) as is commonly construed but to Hazrat Adam (A.S). That takes Islam’s origin to the period when this universe was created. Since Noah (A.S) was also one of the Prophets who came much after Adam (A.S) but long before Mohammed (PBUH), he also professed the teachings of Islam, i.e, worshiping One God and, of course, rejecting idol worshiping. In this contest, therefore, we can conclude that Kashmiris were originally Muslims.
I think one of the reasons that Kashmiris as a whole community accepted Islam(which surprised many) at the hands of Hz Mir Syed Ali Hamadani (r.a)……was their appealing lineage to the same faith, culture, tradition, behavior, …which was part and parcel to the efforts of his group….. however there were few ‘bad naseeb’ left also….

The birth place of Kash Tribe is the same, which is today known as ‘Islamic state’,
There are many theories regarding the lost tribes of Israel, some say one went to australia, others say africa, while many believe Kashmiri to be one of the tribes of israel.
However most accepted is the the Afghans (Pashtuns) being remote descendants of the “Lost Tribes of Israel” …….
According to the Encyclopaedia of Islam, the theory of Pashtun descent from Israelites is traced to Maghzan-e-Afghani, a history compiled for Khan-e-Jehan Lodhi in the reign of Mughal Emperor Jehangir in the 16th century……..
In his Travels into Bokhara, which he published in 1835, Sir Alexander Burnes wrote: “The Afghans call themselves Bani Israel, or the children of Israel, but consider the term Yahoodi, or Jew, to be one of reproach. They say that Nebuchadnezzar, after the overthrow of Israel, transplanted them into the towns of Ghore near Bamean and that they were called after their Chief Afghan they say that they lived as Israelites till (Hazrat) Khalid (r.a) summoned them in the first century of the Muhammadans. Having precisely stated the traditions and history of the Afghans I see no good reason for discrediting them…”
-Another book that corresponds with Pashtun historical records, Taaqati-Nasiri, states that in the 7th century BC a people called the Bani Israel settled in Ghor, southeast of Herat, Afghanistan, and then migrated south and east.

These book references to Bani Israel agree with the commonly held view by Pashtuns that when the twelve tribes of Israel were dispersed, the tribe of Joseph, among other Hebrew tribes, settled in the region. This oral tradition is widespread among the Pashtuns…….
The valley of kashmir depicts different geological formations from pre-Cambrian to recent age with some missing links, if we have basement salkhalas at one side, we have sub recent glacial periods, question under debate is karewa beds and evicting of water through Baramulah gorge, to this I may mention that this hasn’t been through volcanic eruption or tectonic activity only, but is a natural process of erosion by the surface water , which carves its way thought the barriers, Karewa is Pleistocene formation formed by alternative stages by deposition of red clay and silt, in between loess and other wind borne material, it is not totally of riverine or lacustrine origin, yes the sub recent alluvium is river Jhelum deposit along its banks when it was over flowing , with the result total plain area was almost submerged in the farm of a lake, particularly after the Pleistocene glaciation period, in recent times when human population existed along the foothills and higher places , still Jhelum would overflow and farm wide spread flood plain, ultimately human population shifted towards its banks, particularly along the right bank, constructed worship places and settled down in clusters all along, No hua force at all was needed to evacuate the water from such submerged areas, in very recent times left banks of Jhelum developed the settlement of human population, they shifted near to the river only for availability of drinking water, which was scarce to them along the hill slopes and higher settlements , lately bunds and flood protection works were raised to safeguard against overflow, formation of the topography and present shape of the valley is spread upon millions of years of timescale
Satisar like term exists in some earliest legends and some historical books like Rajtarangni, written in 12th century ,but Kashyap Reshi concept seems to be mythological and non-digestible on existing geological and scientific proofs coupled with archeological evidences. (Jalal Ud Din Shah- Engineering Geologist)

>As most of the research regarding the history of Kashmir has been published by Hindus, Christians, Jews and Qadianis, and owing to their biasness they have blended it, hence it becomes very difficult to decipher the truth.

>Unfortunately, the History of Kashmir has been hijacked time and again, to fool & rule the inhabitants…… The latest entrant are the QADIANIS (Non-Muslims),…who for their evil designs have tried to add their filth to it, like the belief of death of Hazrat Isa (a.s) and then grave of Hazrat Isa (a.s) in Kashmir (naoozu billah), which we out rightly REJECT……Quran is very clear about it… (…And they did not kill him, nor did they crucify him… 4:157), ((But Allah raised him (Jesus) up (with his body and soul) unto Himself (and he is in the heavens)…..4:158))…He will return to earth near the Day of Judgment.

>It is high time that Kashmiris should take the bull by its horns and purify their history from the myths, ….. Why we have to rely on Indians/Qadianis/Christians who have added their filth to it….???

>It is high time for the Govt. of J&K (Education dept.) to get the facts right, and remove the Kashyapa Myth from the school text books, which is nothing but…… ABUSE of the history of Kashmir