Kashmir-Its Re-organization (Ref: Tarikh-i-Hassan)
When Jalal-ud-Din Akbar occupied the big country, i.e. India, he divided his country into 19 provinces, out of which Kashmir was the nineteenth province. The list of provinces is stated as:
- Province of Shahjahanabad Delhi
- Capital Province Akbarabad alias Agra
- Allahabad Province
- Awadh Province
- Patna Province famous as Azeemabad
- Province of Bengala
- Orissa Province
- Aurangabad Province
- Province of Brar
- Province of Khandlees
- Province of Malwa
- Province of Ajmeer
- Province of Gujarat
- Province of Multan
- Province of Lahore
- Province of Kabul
- Province of Kandhar
- Province of Kashmir
There are 58 districts in Kashmir Province, of which 6 districts are situated towards north-east corner: Ladakh, Askardu, Kanju, Nagri, Hasoora and Gilgit. Eight districts are towards north-west: Domiyan, Dardoo, Damtoor, Pakhlee, Kalak, Kagan, Drawah and Karnah, six districts are towards south-west corner: Poonch, Rajouri, Nowshehra, Khul, Banihal, Maruvadwan. Thirty eight districts are associated with Kashmir, in which one is the city of Srinagar and every district is named as Pargana.
During the period of Akbar Shah, the settlement records produced by Asif Khan to the highest office, contains 38 parganas for Kashmir and the settlement records maintained under the administration of the entire population of Kashmir. In origin, they were the same 38 parganas, to which Qazi Ali added two parganas of Dawah and Karnah, and divided the pargana of Sairamwazah into two and the foty villages towards Maraj were named as Havelli and eight villages towards Kamraj, were included in Sairamuwazah pargana.
At present (Hasan’s time), the old system has changed and there are only 34 parganas as per official records. The people in the past have divided Kashmir into two districts. The eastern district was referred as “Maraz”,while as the western district was named as “Kamraz”. The city of “Srinagar” as a district is sandwiched between them.
The City of Srinagar:
In the beautiful Kashmir region, the city of Srinagar is very famous. It is gifted with asll scenic charm. Its length from Nowshehra to Amirakadal is 4 miles and the width fron Chechbal to Naidyar is ——–miles and circumference is ——–miles.
In the middle of Srinagar city flows sweet water channel, reminds of Harwanand by whose waters the fertile lands are irrigated throughout the year. The river divides the city into two parts. One towards north and the other towards south. The northern part is very wide and delightful often, grand mosques and old building structures are cofined to this part of the city. “Mar” channel- (now extinct)- a reminiscent of Sultan Zain-ul-Aabideen flows in summer in the southern part, and four branch channels flow out of it. One is ‘Daulat Kul’, which flows through the house of Khajgan-i-Naqshbandi; second, the Sayid Buzarg Shah canal, which flows through Khanyar; third the Kawdara Canal and the fourth the Tarabal and Lachmi Kul, which is remembered after the wife of Lalal Thakoor and supplies water to northern part. On the southern part Kuta Kul, which reminds us of Yousuf Shah Chak, separates at Shergadhi and irrigates during summer season. Only two canals flow out of it, one is “Sunar Kul” and the other “Ganz Kul”. The Dudhganga canal after irrigating southern part, joind river Vyeth.
There are various lakes and wide tanks around the city, which add to its beauty and charm and provides entertainment and enjoyment to rich people. In its east is Dal Lake, Anchar Lake, Khushalsar to north, and Bemina Nambal in its south-(now extinct) and Brari Nambal lies in the middle of the city. Besides in the northern part of the city is the beautiful hill of Kohimaran and in the eastern corner lies the wonderful and pleasing hill called Kohi Sulaiman. In its west , lies the plain of Idgah, which has been endowed by Mir Mohammad Hamadani (RA) measuring 1600 ft in length and 500 ft. in width and in its centre lies the Ali Masjid. With Chinar trees and tank in its compound. At present there is agricultural land towards north of Idgah and the southern part is flat and leveled for Idgah. In the northern part of the city, is a vast plain land towards east, which has been endowed by Hazrat Mir Mohammad Hamadani (RA) and Baba Ismail Zahid and is called “Malakhah”. This is the main graveyard for people of city. (It has been fenced with iron grill recently, after many illegal encroachments by locals.)
The translator of Rajtarangini, records that the city was founded by Raja Parvaseen in 145 Bikrami / 88 AD. The said Raja planned to develop a city as a keep sake. With this thought, he searched for an ideal spot, but could not identify a spot for the settlement of the city. (The details of the towns of Kashmir shall follow in the next post)