The Kashmir Soils (Ref: Tarikh-i-Hassan)
The topography of Kashmir is divided into three categories: The flat and level land, The mountain passes and the foothills of mountains with karewas.
Category first: On an average, a part of Kashmir is a rectangular flat plain land free from sand, stones and devoid of pits and thorny bushes. Its length from Achabal spring to extreme corner of Zaingir Pargana measures about 50 Krohs in length with an average width of about 8 Krohs. The soil is ideal for wet and dry crops. The soil is brown and fertile. The crop is rich and fully grown and production is two to three times more than the highlands. There are large and small lakes like Wular, Dal, Anchar, Mansar, Pamasar, Hokarsar, Gilsar and Khushhalsar around it. Underground water and swamps, pools and reeds are dotted everywhere. The famous city of Srinagar is in its centre. Above and below are many populated villages. Through its middle flows the river Vyeth. At times, due to floods in the river the adjoining areas are inundated, which causes great destruction to building structures of the city. The population of some villages and the cropping fields and especially the lower side of the city is desolate due to floods,( This was the picture a century back, At present we find a reverse status, when most of the low-lying flood lungs have turned to housing colonies.)
Category second: Around Kashmir mountains, their central parts being flat and plain are extended towards all sides. Many villages are located on the high altitudes.
Category third: This is confined to the foothills of mountains and karewas which are circular, plain areas with a height of 100 to 200 ft above the level of category first. These are mostly flat and level and suitable for cultivation and rank third in terms of strength, growth and production of crops. In some places it is rocky, thorny and desolate. (These areas are also under the pressure of urbanization at present.)