The Karewas of Kashmir: (Ref. Tarikh-i-Hassan)

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The Karewas of Kashmir: (Ref. Tarikh-i-Hassan)

Very plain and isolated table lands (Karewas) are available through out  the length and breadth of this country (Kashmir) and are above 100-200 feet from average surface level. Some of these are connected with mountains while others though disconnected are elevated.

  • Mattan Karewa: Located towards south of Srinagar in Pargana Martand. At its bottom flow innumerable springs, the most prominent being “Bawan” and “Anantnag”. The land surface is flat and level and ideal for cultivation and habitation, but due to scarcity of water resources, it is desolate these days.

‘Ratnapuran’ records that in the beginning of Kaljug, Raja Ram Dev had built the town of Babul on the Karewah and temple ‘Martandeshor’ adjacent to the palace, whose foundations exist till date. Digging a canal from Khowerpora mountain, he made it to flow through the town. When the canal was frozen, his son RajaVasuda dug  a deep broad well in the town. After a long period of time the said town was desolate and the well got afflicted. But people while visiting the well would listen the cries from the heavens and people had the belief that two heavenly angels Harut and Marut were in a state of commotion in the well. With this ides, people began to offer presents to achieve divine proximity and fulfillment of their desires. In the year 781 AH, Hazrat Amir-i-Kabir (RA) arrived here and stayed for few days. When it was revealed to him that it was the ‘abode of satan.’ In order to do away with the myth, the well was filled up with stones and clay of temple. Later on Mir Muhammad Hamadani (RA) paid visit to this place and built a mosque over the well. One of the companions was advised to stay there, who passed his whole life there and is buried there. Later on people believed the grave of the devotee to be the “Ziyarat of Harut and Marut” and the ‘Karewa’ is referred as the “desert of Babul.”

  • Navanagri Karewa: Situated in Pargana Chhrat and Shavra, in an isolated position.It is flat and broken and the land is mostly cultivated with paddy grown on onw side. It is devoid of trees and bushes. In the olden days Navnagri town on the karewa was built by Raja Gulkandar, hence it is called Navnagri karewa.
  • Zainapora Karewa: Located in Pargana Adwan. It has a level surface with some low lands in-between, where both wet and dry cultivation is practiced. Bushes and trees are in abundance, besides there are various villge settlements. Sultan Zain-ul-Abideen built Zainapora on this Karewa and with the construction of lofty buildings and strong majestic structures laid the foundation for his capital for supply of running water, he built a high and broad dam measuring 50-100 yards in length called “Zaina-Sathu” and by digging a canal called “Sona Kul”, making the Karewa ideal for habitation. It is said that inthose times a party of holy saints arrived in the palace. The spiritual guru (Murrabi) said to king that the saints are no less than the king in position and therefore two kings cannot share the same dwelling. Inorder to appease the saints, the king left the palace and established Nowshehra as his capital. Later on the place became desolate, the dam demolished and flow of water disappeared.
  • Bijbehara Karewa: It is pf low height and is delinked from all sides. In ancient times one of the Rajas had built his palce on its top.
  • Babapur Karewa: This Karewa is in Pargana Zainpora, adjacent to Adwan. With level land surface and invigorate climate; it is famous for its altitude. Its catchment area is gifted with wet and dry cultivation. Several villages are located on its top.
  • Khampur Karewa: Located in Nagam Pargana on way to Shopian, it is very wide and its land is ideal for wet and dry cultivation, especially for the cultivation of “moong’ having a special taste, size and energy.The Sarai of Ali Mardan Khan is located at its centre.
  • Nagam Karewa: On way to Chrar-i-Sharif, it is high, wide and cultivable Karewa, but due to non availability of water it is dry. In its centre was a an attractive spring, which is extinct now.
  • Damodar Wudar: Located on south of Srinagar in Ichh Pargana. It is about 17 miles long and 2 mile wide. It is detached from all sides and is flat. In between there are lowlands. There is no growth of bushes and trees and no flow of water. With irrigation facilities provides, the Rabi and Kharif crops are sound and energetic. It is said that Raja Damodhar, founded Damodhar city atop the Karewa.
  • Khoshipora Karewa: It is an isolated Karewa, one mile square, situated on the bank of Hokarsar on west of Srinagar. Sultan Zain-ul-Abideen built lofty mansions over its top.
  • Hanjak Karewa: Adjacent to Khoshipora Karewa, with an area of 3 square miles and cultivation of dry crops is common here.
  • Budgam Karewa: Situated in Pargana Densov and is isolated square inshape. Several villages are located on its top and people practice agriculture there.
  • Chandpura Karewa: It is a wide Karewa situated in Pargana Machan. Water is available and several villages are on its top.
  • Mukhhamah Karewa: It is 2-3 miles long Kareawa without water in an isolated position, in Manchmo Pargana adjacent to Dara mountains.
  • Chuvat wudar: Situated in Devsar Pargana this Karewa like mound is full of trees and bushes , with its back towards mountains.
  • Pattan Karewa: It is a wide mound, on which are habitations of Bangil villsage. At some places, paddy cultivation is common due to canal irrigation. The Kharif season is very productive. Dewan Nehal Chand had built the Nilhalpore village on its top.
  • Kriri Karewa: situated in Pargana Krohan it is connected with a mountain and extends to a long distance. It is fit for both dry and wet cropping. The shrine of Sayid Haji Murad Bukhari is located at its centre.
  • Ushkurah Karewa: Situated in Pargana Krohan. It is vast in length and breadth and ideal for cultivation and water is available in certain places. There are several villages. Thorns and bushes are in abundance. It is adjacent to a mountain.
  • Wagub Karewa: It is in Pargana Krohin in an isolated position with no source of water. Dry farming is common here. It is devoid of trees and is famous for its thorny plantation.
  • Bandipora Karewa: In Pargana Khuihama, there is availability of water resources. Its backside faces towards a mountain. Paddy and other crops are cultivated here. There are almond orchards on it. The building structures still existed there (till Hassan’s time.)
  • Safapore Karewa: It is in Telbal Srinagar on the bank of Mansar Spring with free flow of water. It is ideal for cultivation of Paddy and other crops. It is adjacent to a mountain.The village Safapore is in its centre.
  • Karehama Karewa: In Pargana Lal it is adjacent to Ahak mountain. It is very wide. There is plenty of water and the land is cultivable. There are some villages in it.
  • Waj Wudar: In Pargana Lal, it is adjacent to Feshal Teng mountains. It is mostly fit for dry cultivation and there is scarcity of water. Apricots grow here in plenty, which are very profitable to growers. At its foot flows the Royal canal, which meanders up to Srinagar.
  • Pandach Karewa: It is at at adistance of 3 Krohs from Baghi Mulla Shah uto Mohalla Soura. It is ideal for wet and dry cultivation. It is situated on the bank of Anchar lake. During the Mughal rule, it was rich in plantation.
  • Chendee Karewa: In Pargana Dachinpora, it is situated close to Kanalwan. It is 4 miles long in average and one mile wide. Water is available. Many villages also exist there.
  • Devapore Karewa: Situated in Sepra Simon Pargana, it is more than 4 miles wide. There are many rocky mountains.
  • Gos Wudar: Situated in Pargana Chhrat, there are many villages on it.
  • Dadi Wudar: In Pargana Dachinpora it in the vicinity of Marhama village. There are some villages on it.
  • Pampore Karewa: It is in Pargana Wehi, and is cut off from every side. On one of its sides flows the Vyeth and on the other side is a lake and in-between, there are many patches of lowlands and highlands. It has no water and is fit for cultivation of crops. About 1012 bighas of land is under saffron cultivation.

About shahishaharyar

Chartered civil engineer,Fellow institution of engineers India, Member Indian road congress,Member American society of civil engineers, Presented over 70 papers in various seminars,published books over 36 on environment,history, sufi saints, genealogy,free lance writer, travelled in India and abroad.

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