The Oxford dictionary describes music to be (1) sounds, tones, rhythm, singing, instrumentation, orchestration, harmonization, harmony, euphony,  cacophony, dissonance, counterpoint, polyphony etc.; (2) melody, tune, song, chorus, opera etc; (3) symphony, hornpipe, tango etc. (4) jazz, swing, rhythm and blues, pop, folk, rock etc, (5)  pitch, timbre, resonance, overtones, harmonies etc.


Nature is full of music. The chirping of birds, the sound of gushing waters of streams, waterfalls, rainfall, hissing sound of springs, blowing of winds through trees, buzzing of bees, crackling of frogs, singing of crickets, even warning sounds produced by mosquitoes before biting, communicating sounds produced by whales, lightening with thunder etc. all these confirm presence of different forms of sounds in natural environment.

Music has a stimulating effect on the brains of animals and human beings. It has been observed that cows produce more milk when surrounded with music, similarly bulls work more efficiently in music. Even plants grow faster in music as observed by me when I was a student of degree engineering in Annamalai University in 1959-63, where one Prof. TCN Singh was conducting research on this subject and was awarded by French University for his research.


 Music of Kashmir, Jammu and Ladakh

Kashmiri music reflects the rich musical heritage and cultural legacy of the Jammu & Kashmir region in India. Traditionally the music composed by ethnic Kashmiris has a wide range of musical influences in composition. Due to Kashmir’s close proximity to Central Asia, Eastern Asia and Southern Asia, a unique blend of music has evolved encompassing the music of the three regions. But, overall, Kashmiri Valley music is closer to Central Asian music, using traditional Central Asian instruments and musical scales, while music from Jammu is similar to that of North India and Ladakhi music is similar to the music of Tibet.


Chakri is one of the most popular types of folk music played in Jammu & Kashmir. Chakri is played with musical instruments like the harmonium, the rubab, the sarangi and the nout. Chakri was also used to tell stories like fairy tales or famous love stories such asYousuf-ZulaikhaLaila-Majnun, etc. Chakri ends with the rouf, though rouf is a dance form but few ending notes of Chakri which are played differently and on fast notes is also called Rouf. It is a very important part of the Henna Night during weddings for Kashmiri Pandits and the Kashmiri Muslims.

Rouf or Wanwun

Rouf is a traditional dance form usually performed by boys on certain important occasions like Eid, marriage and other functions. Rouf includes


Ladishah is one of the most important parts of the Kashmiri music tradition. Ladishah is a sarcastic form of singing. The songs are sung resonating to the present social and political conditions and are utterly humorous. The singers move from village to village performing generally during the harvesting period. The songs are composed on the spot on issues relating to that village, be it cultural, social or political. The songs reflect the truth and that sometimes makes the song a bit hard to digest, but they are totally entertaining.

Sufiana Kalam

Sufiana Kalam is the classical music of Kashmir, which uses its own ragas (known as maqam), and is accompanied by a hundred-stringed instrument called the santoor, along with the Kashmiri sazwasooltabalasetar and harmonium. Sufiana Kalam has been popular in Kashmir since arriving from Iran in the 15th century and has been the music of choice for Kashmiri Sufi mystics. The dance based on the sofiyiana kalam is the hafiz nagma.


Music and musical instruments find mention in the earliest texts like the Nilmatapurana and Rajatarangini by Kalhana. The very fact that it was a KashmiriAbhinavagupta (the great philosopher), who wrote a commentary called Abhinavabharati on Bharata’s Natyashatra shows how much importance was given to music in the ancient times. The most popular folk instrument is the santoor (Shat-tantri-veena), a hundred string percussion instrument which is played by the goddess Sharada (the goddess of learning and art in ancient Kashmir). Henzae and Wanvun is a music form sung by Kashmiri Pandits on religious and cultural festivals and in weddings.

The most notable Kashmiri santoor player from Kashmir is Pt. Bhajan Sopori. Pt. Bhajan Sopori, has also given santoor recitals in Iran, from where this instrument has originated. However. the Kashmiri santoor looks and sounds different from the original Persian santur and Bhajan Sopori’s ancestors were key in adapting the santoor.

Ladakh region

One of the main features of a Ladakh marriage is the recitation of lengthy narratives by singers in unusual costumes. Popular dances in Ladakh include the Khatok Chenmo (only when headed by an aristocratic family member), Kompa Tsum-tsak (meaning three successive steps), Jabro (dance steps from western Ladakh), Chaams (sacred dance by lamas), Chabs-Skyan Tses (dance carrying a pot), Raldi Tses (swordsmanship dance) and alley yaato (Zanskari Dance and Song Sequence).

Traditional music includes the instruments surna and daman (shenai and drum). The music of Ladakhi Buddhist monastic festivals, like Tibetan music, often involves religious chanting in Tibetan or Sanskrit as an integral part of the religion. These chants are complex, often recitations of sacred texts or in celebration of various festivals. Yang chanting, performed without metrical timing, is accompanied by resonant drums and low, sustained syllables. Religious mask dances are an important part of Ladakh’s cultural life. Hemis monastery, a leading centre of the Drukpa tradition of Buddhism, holds an annual masked dance festival, as do all major Ladakhi monasteries. The dances typically narrate a story of the fight between good and evil, ending with the eventual victory of the former.[9]Weaving is an important part of traditional life in eastern Ladakh. Both women and men weave, on different looms.[10] Typical costumes include gonchas of velvet, elaborately embroidered waistcoats and boots and hats. The Ladakh Festival is held every year from September 1 to 15. Performers adorned with gold and silver ornaments and turquoise headgear throng the streets. Monks wear colorful masks and dance to the rhythm of cymbals, flutes and trumpets. The yak, lion and Tashispa dances depict the many legends and fables of Ladakh. Buddhist monasteries sporting prayer flags, display of thankas, archery competitions, a mock marriage and horse-polo are the some highlights of this festival


Folk music of Kashmir

The valley of Kashmir which is surrounded by the snow-clad Himalayas is one of the most beautiful spots in the world. It is a vast expanse of flat country with rich alluvial soil, lofty and glacial mountains, crystal streams, lofty crags, torrents, broad lakes, shady Chinar groves and pine forests. Kashmir’s picturesque beauty has been immortalized in paintings, songs and poetry. The culture of Kashmir is distinct and diverse, encompassing the various habits and lifestyles of the people inhabiting in it’s region. During their long periods of independence, isolation and solidarity, the people of Kashmir developed a unique culture making everlasting contributions to learning and literature. For a long time, Kashmir was a separate kingdom, and the history of Kashmir is a chronicle of Kings and courts. The history and tradition of folk music and dance in Kashmir valley goes back to thousands of years


Instruments Used with the Traditional Music of Kashmir

In this chapter, I have written about the instruments which are used with the folk music of Kashmir, followed by the description of those instruments which are used with the Sufiana Mousiqui. The history of the instruments, the technique of playing, and the material they are made of and much more has been discussed in the Chapter.
Raj Tarangini mentions specifically about the art of music and musical instruments in this region in distant past. The ancient musical instruments used in Kashmir had been more or less a reflection of the Indian musical instruments in usage during that time.
According to Pandit Kalhana, the folk musical instruments like earthen pots, brass vessels etc. were used by Kashmiri people from very early times. In Kashmir 4th century A.D. tile, found during excavation from Harwan, is showing the impression of a female musician playing on a drum. The other person is shown playing a veena in an artistic pastime. The king Bhiksacara (1120-21) A.D., who himself played these instruments was fond of “Chhakri” (folk choral singing) which continues to be popular in Kashmir valley since Kalhana’s time and even earlier to that.
Raj Tarangini mentions an instrument called “Hadukka” which can be compared to a big pipe.
According to B.C. Deva, the string instruments, Rabat) and Sarangi, came to Kashmir with the influence of Muslims. The whole subcontinent was affected by the culture of the new rulers. In music, we came across new Ragas, new styles and new instruments like Rabab and Sarangi. Rabab traveled with the bards and minstrels of Afghanistan and joined the folk group instruments in Kashmir. Some scholars say that it must have been introduced into Kashmir at the time of Zain-ul-Abidin. The most popular instrument used in folk music is the Rabab, which was borrowed from Persia.
Both the instruments, Rabab and Sarangi, used in folk music ‘Chhakri’ from 14th century onwards opened a new chapter in Kashmir for music and its musical instruments. According to V .N. Bhatkhande, the Muslim rulers had brought with them their own system of music with n­ew melodies, new interpretations, new types of songs and new Talas, which in course of time got fused with Hindu music and gave rise to modern Hindustani music. In a similar way, artists from Central Asia, during Sultanate period brought with them their art, music, musical instruments and culture resulting in wonderful interaction which in course of time gave birth to Kashmiri classical music which is known as Sufiana Mosiqui. It borrowed its style from Persian music. The cultural interaction has resulted in a unique form and an interesting synthesis of the various types of classical music preserved by Kashmir. It was in this period that the Kashmiri music reached the heights of perfection under the patronage of rulers and saints. Many improvements were brought out in the conventional instruments to render them more useful to the art. The instruments like Santoor, Saaz, Setar, Rabab and Sarangi are resultant inventions and innovations and denote the developments, which took place during this period.
The musical instruments have played a key role in the evolution of Kashmiri Sufiana Mosiqui. This mosiqui has deep impression on the listener and it is in the nature of very serious music. The Kalam or the verses are also peculiar and this style of music has been very selective in this respect. Similar is the case of instruments used in this Mousiqui, which have been selected with due thought. The instruments used by the sufiana musicians are quite different from those used in Indian Classical Music, Kashmiri folk music and other styles. The prominent instruments include Santoor, Kashmiri Setar (Sehtar) and Saaz-i-Kashmir, the percussion instrument for providing rhythmic variety is Tabla which replaced/Wasul or a Dolke called Dokra, used previously.

1.0 Tumbaknari

Tumbak has been a musical instrument in the good olden days in Iran and Central Asia, which was being played mostly by the women folk of these places. Many authors believe that such instrument is being used in Iran and Arabia too. May be it has come to Kashmir from these places, for the simple reason that visitors and rulers were coming to Kashmir in the olden days from Iran and middle east, which besides other things made cultural invasion on the art of Kashmir. Co-incidently, this instrument is also being played by the women folk in Kashmir, the only difference is that in Iran or Central Asia, it is now being made of wood, while in Kashmir, it is still being made of baked clay maintaining its originality. This type of instrument is used for keeping rhythm and also time that covers in a performance of music.
Dr. Rahullah-Khaliqui has written in page no. 403 of his book ‘Serguzashti Mousiqui-Iran’ about the style of playing this instrument in Iran. In Iran, this instrument is called Tumbakh or Tunbak. In west, it is tumbal or tumbari and in Kashmir, it is tumbaknaeer. The naer is added because the tail end of this instrument is like a pipe, which in Kashmiri, is called a Nore, which has in course of time, changed to naer, making the instrumental tumbaknaer. It is generally used by women folk at various occasions of merriment like marriages, Yagnopavit etc. It is struck by the fingertips to produce the desired harmonious rhythm. 
iused at farms especially on weeding of paddy crops, when rice plants are required to be freed of the unnecessary growth of vegetation. At these weeding operations, the farmers and their women folk used to sing collectively to overcome the monotonous work, using Thalej as rhythm maintainer.

 2.0 Sarang (Sarangi)

It is a stringed musical instrument played with a bow and it is in vogue in three types:

The first type is smaller in size and is used in Kashmir under the name of Sarang, which as per a belief (local) is the invention of Maharaja Sarang Dev’s time (Sarang Dev was a king of Kashmir).
The second type is slightly bigger in size than the Kashmiri Sarang and is mostly used in Bengal for Bengali music.
The third type is a full size and standard Sarangi used in Indian classical music. Its size is roughly three feet long and about eight inches wide. It has four main strings and about thirty five sympathetic side strings known as Taraba in musical language and most of them are made of steel and brass.

3.0 Kashmiri Sarang

Kashmiri Sarang is very simple in structure. It is made of a block of wood, preferably of mulberry or teakwood. The entire body is hollow from inside with two combined parts. Both the sides of the lower part are punched and the whole is covered with hide. The upper part serves the purpose of a fingerboard. Commonly its length is one and a half feet. It has two strings of gut, one of steel and another of coiled brass (making four mains trings). Besides it has eight or ten sympathetic wires/strings of steel known as ‘terban’.
It is played with a bow, made of a hard round stick of wood, to which hair of the tail of horse are fixed at both the ends, and a small wooden triangular but curved bridge is placed at one end to keep the hair light. The bow is held in the right hand and moved from one end to the other, vertically on the main strings to produce sound. The fingers namely fore, middle, ring and sometimes the little finger are used to produce notes of different pitch at different length of different strings. The fingers however do not press down the strings on the fingerboard, but are simply touched at the starting place with nails of each finger of the left hand, thus the musical notes are produced.
Besides Kashmir, in the hilly areas of Himachal Pradesh, the playing of this Sarang is common. It is also popular among the tribals of Bihar. In northern India, Sarang, besides being played with the bow-shaped stick, is also played with the ‘Kanishtha’ (the little finger) and ‘anamika’ (the finger between the middle and the little finger) of the left hand. The playing on this instrument is known as ‘purva’.

4.0 Gagar

Gagar is a well known word in the Indian languages. Gagar is made of brass. In Kashmiri Hindu society, Gagar has a cultural importance.
In Kashmir also, at the time of Herath Festival, Gagar has an important role to play. Gagar is placed on the bangle shaped circle made of dry paddy straw which is placed on the floor, washed with clay. The Gagar is half filled with dry nuts. Then Lord Shiva and Shakti are worshipped. Thus, it can clearly be understood that Gagar holds valuable place in the religious festivals in Kashmir. It is also used in homes for storing water by Hindus and Muslims both.
The same Gagar is used with the music of Kashmir. The artist put iron rings in his fingers of the left hand and places his hand on Gagar while striking Gagar with the right hand. The sound produced is very high and thus Gagar plays an important role in creating the musical environment in the gatherings.
During festivals and temple kirtan, playing of Gagar is of great importance. Gagar might have its origin in Vedic time.

5.0 Nagada

Nagada is an instrument resembling ‘Dhola’. It has many names, like Nakkara, Nagada, Dugdugi etc. in Indian languages. According to B. Chaitanyadeva, Nagada is a changed form of the ancient Dundubhi. In Himachal Pradesh also, its similar form and structure can be found: its upper side is covered with leather of goat. Nagada is slightly smaller than the ‘Nobat’ instruments. The instrument ‘Nagadi’ is also played with it. This instrument is struck with a piece of wood and the sound is produced, it is in demand in the temples.
In Kashmir, it is used during festivals and marriage ceremonies. Mainly it is used with the ‘bhand jashan and ‘bhand natya’. It is used during paddy harvesting. The farmers consider it as an energy booster during their tiring task of farming.

6.0 Dhola

Dhola has its own history in the musical instruments of India. The first form can be traced in the Mohan Jodaro culture. One of the oldest instruments of India, Dhola is mainly traced in the villages and every state of India.
In Kashmir, it is mainly used in villages and it is mostly played with the folk dance of the bhands.

7.0 Shankh

One of the ancient instruments of India, Shankh, the sushirvadya, is associated with religious functions. In Athar­Veda, one finds reference to Shankh, though it existed long, before. In Bhagvad Gita, during the time of war, Shankh had played an important role. One finds that Shankh has been called by different names like Panch Janya Shankh, Devadatt Shankh, Mahashan Ponder Shankh and more. Even in Valmiki’s Ramayna, the mention of a Shankh can be traced.
In Kashmiri Hindu culture, Shankh is an instrument, which is played both in temples and homes.
In the temples, Shankh is played in the mornings and evenings during the prayers. In homes, it is played before the starting of havan, yagnopavit, marriage, etc. in Kashmiri Hindu marriage, Shankh is played by a person to mark the arrival of the groom. After reaching the bride’s place, the groom is made to stand on the ‘rangoli’ and Shankh is played constantly. At times, when the bride’s parents take much time to see her off, then Shankh is played to indicate the late departure, so that they hurry up. Shankh is used as the proclamation and declaration of war, victory and religious ceremonies.
Shankh has a vital role in ‘Leela’ singing. It gives religious touch to the occasions as if gods and the goddesses are summoned in a special way to make an appearance to the devotees worshipping.

8.0 Swarnai

Swar-nai, a ‘sushir vadya’, holds an important place in the folk music of Kashmir. This instrument has been mentioned in Nilamata Purana and in Kalhana’s Raj Tarangini. Swarnai holds the same place in Kashmir folk music as the Shahnai in the Indian music. This is the reason, why Swarnai is also called Shahnai in Kashmiri music.
Swar-nai is made of two words-Swar and Nai. The structure of Swarnai is slightly bigger in size as compared to Shahnai. This instrument is made of wood and its makers are the traditional makers of Swarnai. It has nine holes near the round mouth of Swarnai, there is a till type square through which the player blows the air. This is also called, Tulbarabir Tulkarav, in Kashmiri language.
The playing of Swarnai is considered very auspicious. in Kashmiri culture. This musical instrument is deeply related to marriages, festivals, shivratri, navreh, Id and other auspicious occasions of Hindus as well as Muslims. It is also used by bhands while performing in folk drama-­’Lok Natya’. Besides this, it is also widely used in ‘bachi naghma’ folk dance. During the harvest, the players of Swarnai go to farms and perform entertaining music to entertain the farmers and collect the crop for themselves. This way, melodious Swarnai is widely used in the folk music culture of Kashmir.

9.0 Khasya

In Kashmiri folk music, round cup made of bronze is called khos’. Usually khos is used for drinking Kahva (a type of Kashmiri tea) in Kashmiri Hindu families. Beneath the round form of Khos is smaller round portion on which it stands. Khasya is the plural form of Khos. Whenever there is a religious gathering, marriage or yagnopavit, Tumbaknar, Ghat, two Khasya are played with both the hands. The Hindu women are more proficient in playing it. It is a ‘Ghan Vadya’. The sound is produced by striking both the Khasya with each other.

10.0 Thaluz

Thaluz is a Kashmiri word. The instrument is called by different names in different regions of north and south­Jhanjh, Jhalari, Manjir, Thali Kans, Kanjaam, Illatalam, etc.
This instrument can be seen in temples of north and south during religious prayers in the mornings.
ashmiri Thaluz is made of bronze, its round portion is around 13 cms. 30 cms. It is widely used in the folk functions of Kashmir. Thaluz is mentioned in Kalhana’s Raj tarangini and Nilamata Purana. The use of instrument is mainly confined to the temples. On Saturday nights, in temples of Kashmir, usually Jagrans’ are performed and many musical groups do kirtans, the whole night. Thaluz is then played by the performers, to summon the diety in invocation to the place ofworship.

11.0 Rabab

The word ‘Rabab’ is pronounced as Rabab in Persian and Rabab in Arabic, which in Arabic is Rab-O-Raba; literary meaning to collect, to make available, to arrange or to manage.
It has been controversial to assert about the origin of Rabab, which was however initially played with a bow but now it is played with a mizrab precisely with a plectrum.
One school of thought suggests that this instrument has been brought to India from the middle East by the foreign intruders perhaps by Sokandar Zulqurmein in the past. Others suggest that Tansen, the celebrated musician invented it, as is mentioned in Ain-i-Akbari. Abu Naser­farabi is of the opinion that this instrument, originally played with a bow, was in fact successfully tried and played with a mizrab later on, in Middle East. One more lover and thinker of music Aullya-Chalbi of Arabia is of the opinion that Rabab was made in Arabia by one Abdullah before the birth of Prophet Mohammad of Islam.
However, in the encyclopedia of music, by A-Lavience, Rabab is said to be an Indian musical instrument, which was existing before 5000 BC during the time of king Ravana and was then known as Ravanastram, the strings of which were made from the guts of deer. Again, one more English ­author Rawlinson has written in his book ‘ancient Monarchies’ that Rabab was made in Iran. Nothing can be said authentically about its origin but it is one of the oldest stringed musical instruments known in the field o music, though it has undergone many changes in its form structure and manner of playing
The present day Rabab is made of seasoned mulberry wood. It is about three to three and a half feet in length. One end of the body is round and the diameter is about a foot. The round part is covered with parchment. This round part gradually joins the neck by becoming curved and narrow.
A piece of very thin wood is fixed at the top of the open part to cover it that serves the purpose of the fingerboard of the instrument. Four guts of different thickness are used in it as strings, in place of metal strings. The entire body of instrument is hollow from inside. It is played with a plectrum made of coconut shell, bone or of any hard metal.

12.0 Noet

It is a simple earthenware pot, usually for collection of water in rural India. Now a days it is usually made of brass or copper, but for musical purposes only the earthenware pot is traditionally used in Kashmiri music. It has a big round belly having a small open round mouth at the upper portion. It is the oldest type of drum variety known to the mankind.
In shape, the Noet of Kashmir is not different from the Ghatam of the South or the Matki of Rajasthan. They are used as the instruments in the music in those state which proves the fact that they might have begun their journey from the same cultural background. Their skill and style of playing might have differed in accordance with the traditions prevalent in respective regions.
In Kashmiri language, the original words ‘Kalash’ or ‘Ghat’ might have lost their existence and Noet might have gained popularity due to the fact that it was associate, with ‘uV'(nat). in due course of time the word ‘nat kalash might have lost the word ‘kalash’ and become popular as ‘noet’. Such reference has been made in Nilmata Purana
(i.e. reasted clay pot players-Bhands)
Kalhana in Raj Tarangini frequently refers to this instrument.
(they played on their balded heads exactly as the earthen pot instruments were played).
The tradition is maintained by the natives living in, the distant rural areas of Kashmir, who spend their evenings in practicing this ancient art. The name of Mohan Lal Aima is worth mentioning here, who did a deep and thorough study of Noet playing and thus revived the art and its ­importance for us.

13.0 Nai (Flute)

In Kashmiri language, the normal meaning of ‘Nai’ is related to flute. In Kashmiri folk music, the prevalence of Nai is older than two thousand years as we get its description in Nilamata Purana.
“Punyahved shabdin vansi venurvenaya sut magadh shabden tatha vandisvanenc”
Nilamata Purana described banshi as well as venu and in the modern era even the Kashmiri artists, especially of Anantnag, are proficient in playing two types of flutes.

1. The first type of flute is empty from inside and there are seven holes for seven swaras. While playing it, fingers of both the hands are used. This type of flute is more prevalent in the folk life.
2. The second type of flute is also called ‘Pi-Pi’ in Kashmiri language. This type of flute is made of walnut’s wood. Even this flute has seven holes but the hole from where the air is blown is absent, but its adjacent hole is put into the mouth and blown. The player sees the seven holes clearly. This instrument is used more conveniently and the player does not get tired soon. This type of flute is more famous in Kashmir

14.0 Santoor

Among the musical instruments, Santoor occupies an important place in Kashmiri music. Soofiana singing is not possible without its accompaniments. These days, it is joining popularity even outside Kashmir. Its sweet tappings create a feeling of romantic mood whereas its soft tunes remind of the transquality of the other world, which suits the mysticial temperament of soofiana music. This instrument emits loud and enchanting sounds. It requires subtle sense of turning on the part of the musicians who play it, with both hand using two sticks of twenty four centimeters called ‘Kalan’. It is debatable whether Santoor is a native instrument of Kashmir or has been brought from abroad. Opinions differ. Some scholars view that it belongs to Iran. Pt. Shiv Kumar Sharma claims that he was the first ever Santoor maestro who brought it to classical stage. Santoor is being used for mousiqui in Kashmir since thirteenth century. But, that does not prove the fact that it came from abroad and its origin could not be Kashmir thirteen centuries before Christ. Reference to Shat-tantri veena is available at several places. It might have been the original form of Santoor and in due course, might have changed to the present form. The technique of performance, linguistically analyzing ‘Shat’ word must have traveled to `Sat’ and then to ‘Sant; and ‘tantri to ‘tantar’ to ‘trir’ and finally to ‘toor’. Both together must have become `Santoor’. Had it been from foreign origin, it would have brought the name along.
Santoor is made of mulberry wood. Some scholars believe it to be related to Shakt sect. According to Shakts, triangular is a symbol of desire, knowledge and action.
They have referred to the Shakt instruments, several times, and believed that goddess Mahashakti should be worshipped accompanying these instruments. The base on which Santoor is placed is also the same shape.
Mulberry tree in Kashmir has a religious value. It is related to ‘Bhairav’. In every ‘Bhairav’ temple, mulberry tree is parted with vermilion and people worship it devotedly. In Khirbhavani, the famous Shakt pilgrimage, the goddess is sitting on the mulberry tree. The very pilgrimage is called ‘tulnuri’ meaning ‘root of mulberry’.
The shape of Santoor is trapezoid. Its right side is called ‘burn’ and the left ‘Jil’. Twelve wires on right side are of brass and those on the left are of iron. There are also twelve nobs on the right and twelve on the left side. Four wires are fixed to each nob. The production of the tune depends on the nobs. Twelve brass wires remind us of soft and sweet Shakt emotion and the throbbing tune of iron wires remind us of hard appearance of Shiva himself. The number of wires in total is ninety six. At the tune of yagnopavit, the priest wraps the holy thread ninety six times around his palm. The number is significant in itself. The tops of the nobs are inlaid in the horns of stag. This animal is found in Kashmir alone.
Twentieth century leading player of Santoor has been Tibat Bakal. At present Saz Naivaz, Kaleem, Shekh Abdul Aziz are known for their style of playing. Pandit Bhajan Sopori is making it popular on classical stage and popularizing it all over the world.

15.0 Saaz-i-Kashmir

Saaz had not originated from Kashmir. Since it has remained in vogue in Kashmir for centuries without any major modification, people preferred to call it Saaz-i-Kashmir or the musical instrument devised in Kashmir. It is played with bow, as such it is easier for the player to get microtones out of it.
According to Rouhulla Khalighi, Saaz in Persia is called Kamancha. It is the same instrument called Saaz in Kashmir and is played by a bow. He again states that the instrument has now been replaced by the violin as it is more complete. There are very few people who can play the Kamancha now-a-days.
Saaz is found all over the Islamic world and it originated from the north Iranian district, Kudristan. This type of instrument (Three stringed fiddle) is mentioned as early as the tenth century AD, by the great theorist Al Farabi. The instrument is found elsewhere in the Middle east also. Since the Kashmir Saaz is more developed and complicated, that is why people have named it as Saaz­i-Kashmir. The Iranian use this instrument for vocal accompaniment.
Saaz-i-Kashmir has three prominent strings, two made of silk. The silk string is made worthy of producing musical sound by mixing it with the skin of fish. It is tuned to Sa, while the 2nd one is tuned to SA (middle octave). The third one is not made use of, as it is not touched by the bow. On either side of the dand, there are seven strings (right side) made of steel and seven strings (left side) made of brass. Right side resonance strings are tuned respectively from Pa to Ma, whereas that of the left side from Sa to Ni (middle octave).

16.0 Setar/Sehtar

The invention of Sitar is commonly credited to Amir Khusrau, scholars, generally, refer to him as the originator of Indian Classical Sitar. Some others are of the opinion that musicians adopted Tritantri Veena and improved upon it and created Sitar. The theory which is widely accepted is that Sehtar was the instrument brought by Amir Khusrao from Iran. According to Bimal Mukherjee (The History and Origin of Sitar), by the 11th or 12th century the second Sitar had emerged, an instrument, to accompaniment to vocal music and later also as an independent instrument. A little later there was a series of Muslim invasions on north. The invaders mostly Persians and Turks, were not only brave warriors but also loved finer things of life like music. Some of them had brought along with a small instrument with three strings called Sehtar, meaning three strings. Even Abul Fazal says that another instrument called Been was like Yantra and contained three strings.
Probably the word Sitar is derived from this Sehtar. The Sitar which resembles the Persian Tambura or ud, in shape, and the Indian Veena, in principle, is itself a fusion and an epitome of the Indo-Persian culture and civilization.
Despite this opinion, same authors say that it is a gradual process of development from Tritantri Veena. Others say that the invention of Sitar is attributed to Amir Khusrao and that is probably of Persian origin. Kashmiri Sehtar or Sitar is said to be original model of Indian Sitar. This instrument is now however, comparable to Indian Sitar of these days and retains its originality. The Kashmiri Sehtar is the original instrument accompanying Sufiana Kalaam or Mousiqui which came to Kashmir from Central Asia.
Sitar is a long neck plucked lute, similar to the Persian Sitar. Curt Sach is of the view that the Arabs call it the largest variety. ‘Tanbur Kabir Turki’ or large Turkish lute. The Persian, however, do not use the word Tunbur and they designate the stringed instrument by the word Tar. This is why the people mostly called it Persian Sitar. This type of Sehtar or Sitar was widely used in Kashmir. In villages (especially in Wahthora, where jesters called Bhand live) Sufiana musicians would use Kashmiri Sitar for accompaniment of this Mousiqui. This musical instrument is specially meant for accompaniment purpose for Sufian Mousiqui unlike the Indian Sitar which is used for solo purpose only. Gradually the Sitar had come to acquire five strings by stages and the number has recently increased to seven strings. The Structure of Kashmiri Sitar is as under: it has Dand which in some is 2 wide over which frets made of threads are fixed, a Tumba which is either made of wood or that of gourd. Tumba is about one third to one fourth of the size of Indian Sitar (Tumba).

17.0 Wasul/Dokra/Tabla

Wasul or Dokra is the only percussion instrument used in Sufiana Mousiqui. Wasul is a double membrane barrel shaped drum used in Sufiana Kalam, until some seventy years ago. It is played in a manner similar to Tabla and provides the rhythm of Maqamat in Sufiana Mousiqui. About a decade ago, the Research Library Srinagar, published two manuscripts of music (Tarana Saroor and Karamat-i-Mujra) with some old paintings of musicians. One such painting was printed opposite maqam-i-Dhanasri. This painting has pictures of:

1. Two Hafizas dancers wearing Peshwaz (special dress in Kashmir for both male and female dancers).
2. Two musicians with a Sitar and Tabla type Wasul.
3. Two musicians, one carrying Sitar.

This clearly shows that Wasul had been in use as Rhythm instrument earlier to Tabla and had primacy over Tabla.
Originally Tabla had some other shape and was called Mridanga. Mridanga is accompanied with the Carnatic music. Later on, Mridanga was divided into two pieces and after undergoing modification it became the modern Tabla.
Under the later Indian influence Wasul or Dokra was completely substituted and replaced by Indian Tabla. Tabla has been found to be more convenient, easier and a suitable instrument as compared to Wasul. Sufiana Musicians have completely given up Dokra or Wasul and have adopted Tabla. Therefore, there is hardly any person who knows the playing of these instruments, as they have become totally extinct.


The loss of independence and the decay of Sultanate affected adversely the harmonious growth of the peculiar traits in the art of music which was the pride of Kashmiri Sultanate. The Shahmir Sultans in general, but Zainul Abidin, Haidar Shah and hasan Shah in particular were great patrons of art. Yousuf Shah Chak and Habba Khatun were fond of music and could play on various instruments. Mirza Haidar Douglat also enriched the music of Kashmir by various instruments.

In spite of linguistic difference, the Mughals patronized the musicians and rewarded them from time to time. Akbar had a group of kashmiri musicians at his court. Jahangir, Shahijahan and Aurangzeb rewarded the musicians and ministrels at the time of their arrival in the Subah, But towards the close of his reign, Aurangzeb directed the Subahdars to discourage the musicians and take away their instruments.

Saints, Sufis and local mystics were very fond of classical music and the art thus was patronized by them.

Kashmiri music had three distinct forms, Sufiana Musiqi, Chakri and Sahrai. The Sufiana Musiqi never filtered down to the masses. Sufiana music flourished because of the sufis, who not only patronized this art, but were also fond of it, and remained the privilege of the aristocracy only. It is no wonder that it still retains the feudal characteristics. Chakri (group songs) and Sahrai styles were patronized by the common people. Here it may be mentioned that the services of the Baghats (scattered all over the Subah)  were required by the peasantry at the time of marriage ceremonies. This class of ministrels performed jashans in honor of the emperors and Subahdars at the time of their arrival.

Saz, santoor, Sitar and Dukra were the instruments required for Sufiana music. Daf, Sarangi, lute and earthen pitcher were common musical instruments.

Khwaja Moomin Jaheel and Moulana Khwaja Mohammad were two famous critics of music of our period. Khwaja Moomin Jaheel was son of Abul Qasim Jaheel. Jaheel was  pupil of Mulla Jawhar Nanta famous musician of his time. Moomin Jaheel was a close associate of Yousuf Shah Chak, who was himself a lover of music. He has written a treatise on music also. Moulana Mohammad was the pupil of Khwaja Moomin. He excelled in this art during the reign of Shahjahan.

Among the Sufi saints, Baba Dawood Khaki approved of sama, which his preceptor Shaikh Hamza denounced. Baba Dawood urged that sama stimulates love when heard within the limits prescribed by the Sufi masters. Similarly Khwaja Habibullah Nowshehri the disciple of Shaikh Yaqub Sarfi used to hear sama. When a complaint was lodged in the court of ruler against him regarding the sama considered to be against Shariah and a team came to inspect his place. Khwaja directed his men to shut the instruments inside the cupboards, when the inspection team arrived, the instruments started to play of themselves, on which the Qazi of the time had to surrender.

There are several Persian books in the manuscript form on music in the library of J&K Cultural Academy Srinagar.


The historic event of world famous musician Zubin Mehta along with his team of orchestra playing the music concert in the historic Shalimar Garden Srinagar on 7th September 2013 has been viewed live by 140 countries and reminded the world that Kashmiris though sobbing for decades together still crave for peace, which could be brought through music, that lulls and pacifies even the crying babies before their mothers send them to sleep.

                                Quotations about Music


A painter paints pictures on canvas.  But musicians paint their pictures on silence.  ~Leopold Stokowski

Music washes away from the soul the dust of everyday life.  ~Berthold Auerbach

All deep things are song.  It seems somehow the very central essence of us, song; as if all the rest were but wrap pages and hulls!  ~Thomas Carlyle

If the King loves music, it is well with the land.  ~Mencius

Without music life would be a mistake.  ~Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche

Take a music bath once or twice a week for a few seasons.  You will find it is to the soul what a water bath is to the body.  ~Oliver Wendell Holmes

If a composer could say what he had to say in words he would not bother trying to say it in music.  ~Gustav Mahler

Why waste money on psychotherapy when you can listen to the B Minor Mass?  ~Michael Torke

And the night shall be filled with music,
And the cares that infest the day
Shall fold their tents like the Arabs
And as silently steal away.
~Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, The Day Is Done

He who sings scares away his woes.  ~Cervantes

Music was my refuge.  I could crawl into the space between the notes and curl my back to loneliness.  ~Maya Angelou, Gather Together in My Name

Were it not for music, we might in these days say, the Beautiful is dead.  ~Benjamin Disraeli

Music is what feelings sound like.  ~Author Unknown

About shahishaharyar

Chartered civil engineer,Fellow institution of engineers India, Member Indian road congress,Member American society of civil engineers, Presented over 70 papers in various seminars,published books over 36 on environment,history, sufi saints, genealogy,free lance writer, travelled in India and abroad.

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