Monthly Archives: January 2011

SHEIKH ZAYED (GRAND) MOSQUE ABU DHABI

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MosqueThe majestic Sheikh Zayed Mosque is the most imposing religious and national landmark in Abu Dhabi to date. It is also arguably one of the most important architectural treasures of contemporary UAE society-initiated no less by the late HH Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan, who is fondly thought of as father of UAE.The Mosque is seen as a construction to ‘unite the world’, using artisans and materials from countries such as Italy, Germany, Morocco, India, Turkey, Iran, China, Greece and the UAE. More than 3000 workers and 38 renowned contracting companies took part in the construction of the Mosque. The initial architecture design was Moroccan, but it evolved to include many global features, including exterior walls that are of traditional Turkish design. Natural materials were chosen for its design and construction due to their long lasting qualities, including marble, stone, gold, semi- precious stones, crystals and ceramics.
The 22,412 sq. km.  Mosque site is equivalent to around the size of five football fields and can accommodate 40,960 worshippers. The mosque features 82 domes of Moroccan design and all decorated with white marble. The main dome’s outer shell measures 32.8 meters in diameter and stands at a height of 70 meters from the inside and 85 meters from the outside—the largest of its kind , according to the Turkish Research Centre for Islamic History and Culture. The Mosque has about 1000 columns in its outer areas which are clad with more than 20,000 marble panels inlaid with semi-precious stones, including Lapis Lazuli, red agate, amethyst, abalone shell and mother of pearl. The 96 columns  in the main prayer hall are round in shape and inlaid with mother of pearl.  Additionally, the Mosque has four beautiful minarets standing at almost 107 meters each at the 4 corners of the Mosque. Reflective pools, totaling 7,874 sq. meters and laden with dark tiles, surround the Mosque, whilst colored floral  marble and mosaics pave the 17,000sq. meter courtyard which is decorated with white marble from Greece. The pool reflects the Mosque’s spectacular image, which becomes even more resplendent at night. The entire exterior and interior presents a dazzling look with reflective lights without any power cuts ever. The underground parking accommodates the vehicles visiting/praying in the mosque.
An equally impressive interior design complements the Mosque’s awesome exterior, Italian white  marble and inlaid floral designs adorn the prayer halls and the Mosque’s interior walls have decorative gold glass mosaic features, particularly delicate on the western wall. The main glass door of the Mosque is 12.2 meters high, 7 meters wide and weighs about 2.2 tones. The main prayer hall features the world’s largest chandelier under the main dome—being 10 meters in diameter, 15 meters in height and weighing over 9 tones. The M0sque’s seven colored chandeliers from Germany, feature  thousands of Swarovski crystals from Austria and some glasswork from Italy and c0st about US $ 8.2 million (AED 30 million)
The main prayer hall can fit in around 7,126 worshippers and also features the world’s largest  hand-knotted carpet. Designed by Iranian artist, Al Khaliqi, the carpet was hand-crafted  by 1,200 artisans in small villages near Mashhadin  in Iran, a region renowned for its carpet making expertise. The artisans were flown to Abu Dhabi to stitch the carpet pieces together for the final fitting. Consisting of 2,268,000,000 knots, the Mosque carpet is estimated to be valued at US $ 8,2 million (AED 30 million). The Qibla wall 9 facing the direction of the Holy City of Mecca) is 23 meters high and 50 meters wide and is subtly decorated so as not to distract worshippers from prayer. Gold-glass mosaic has been used in the Mehrab ( the niche found in the middle of the Qibla wall)
The ninety nine names (qualities) of Allah featured in the Qibla wall exemplify traditional Kufi calligraphy, designed by the prominent UAE calligrapher—Mohammad Mandi. The Qibla wall also features subtle fiber—optic lighting which is integrated as part of the  organic design. In total three separate calligraphy styles—Naskhi, Thuloth and Kufi—are used throughout the Mosque and were drafted by Mohammad Mendi (UAE), Farouk Haddad (Syria) and Mohammad Allam (Jordan)
The Mosque has 80 Iznik panels—highly decorated ceramic tiles popular in the 16th century—with features distinctly in Istanbul’s imperial  and religious buildings. Traditionally hand crafted each tile was designed by Turkish calligrapher Othman Agha. Different types of marble have been used throughout the mosque and include Sivic from Greece and Macedonia, used in the external cladding ( a total area of 1,15 119 sq. meters of cladding has been used on the Mosque including the four minarets); Lasa from Italy used in the internal elevations, Makrana from India used in the annexure of the offices, Aquabiana and Biano from Italy, Fast White and Ming Green from China.
World Records:
The Sheikh Zayed Mosque made some world records. 

  • The Carpet laid out on the vast expanse is the “ WORLD’S LARGEST CARPET” made by Iran’s Carpet Company. It measures 5,627 sq. meters (60,570 sq.ft.) and was made by around 1,200 weavers, 20 technicians and 30 workers. The weight of the carpet is 47 tons—35 tons of wool and 12 tons of cotton. There are 2,268,000,000 knots within the carpet costing US$ 8.2 million.
  • The Mosque also holds the largest chandelier. There seven imported chandeliers from Germany made from gold plated copper and fitted with millions of Swarovski crystals. The largest chandelier has a 10 meter (33 ft.) diameter and 15 meter (49 ft.) height.
  • Both of these records were previously held by the Sultan Qabus Grand Mosque in Oman.
  • Architects: Mohammad Ali Al-Ameri, Spatium, Halcrow, Speirs and Major Associates.
  • Domes: 82 domes of seven different sizes.
  • Dome diameter (outer): 32,2 meter (106 ft,)
  • Minaret Height: 107 meter (351 ft,)
  • Construction Cost: 2 billion dirhams (US $ 545 million)

Er. Mohammad Ashraf Fazili FIE

Chief Engineer (Retd,)

THE STORY OF A FISH THROWN ON GROUND IN FLOODS IN RIVER SHOOR

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This is a story of the ancient times related by a saint, when the inhabitants of a city went through a state of misery, torture and punishment for their misdeeds as is happening nowadays in our state too. It is said that once upon a time there was a sudden storm, which caused a heavy flood in the river Shoor passing by the side of a city. The water over flew the banks of the river carrying all the floating objects in to the depressions and also leaving some of these on the elevated ground when the waters receded. A huge whale sized fish got stuck in a depression in a far off land from the city. The news of the landing of the fish spread like wild fire in the city and the people rushed along with the chopping equipment to bring there share of the flesh of the fish  to make a grand feast at their homes. Each one cut a piece of flesh from top to bottom without any consideration of the fact that the fish was alive feeling the pain at each cut received by it. No one took pity on the poor soul and there was hardly any one left in the city who did not take his share except one poor potter who could not afford to reach the far off place at the cost of his time and energy. However his wife insisted on him to get their share and one day he left along with his wife on a horse driven cart to the said spot but found only a Skelton left as the fish was big enough to suffice for the six long months. The couple was disappointed, however when the potter went close to its head, he found some portion of flesh still left, as he attempted to remove it with his axe, to his surprise he found the eyes of the fish still rolling and he was moved and took pity on the poor creature that was tortured. The potter explained this to his wife, who also sided with him and called for return empty handed. As they started their return journey, a voice called them back to their surprise, the voice came from the fish; since every one has taken his share why are you leaving empty handed. On this the potter said, ‘ I found still  signs of life in you and now you are talking also. How can we be so cruel? A living person must not injure another life.’ The fish told them to wait and opened its mouth vomiting two shining pearls like two suns and told the potter that one pearl is the compensation for the labor you put in the journey this far and the other pearl I entrust you to keep it safely in your possession. The poor potter tied the pearls in a handkerchief and then tied around his forearm under the sleeve of his shirt—the only safe place he could find. The couple returned home fast with the disappointment. ————— After many years a new king got enthroned in the country, who ordered all the citizens and the villagers to meet him along with their presents according to their status as per the prevailing custom. Whoever met him with the presents was a loser of the same as the king kept some rude guards around, who would gag and even chain the person raising his voice against the atrocity. This resulted in to the blaming, counter blaming and even animosity against each other. An innocent person would be hurt for no fault of his with a false blame and he would be arrested and would be tried in the court where the king would pass the judgment and any one passing that side by chance would be hanged then and there.  The person called by the king would be asked, ‘Who has made you in this shape and form and given you this figure?   The person                                                                             would reply that our creator is the One who created the Earth and the Sky. Then he would ask, ‘Who is my creator? All would reply– It is He and none else. They would also say,’ It is He who created every thing that our eyes see.’ He is the One who created things after mingling atoms of opposite nature like water, fire, soil, and air. He is the creator of Jinn’s, Angels, and mankind, besides that of diamonds and different kinds of rocks. He is the One who created you and us and whatever is existing between the earth and the sky. With these answers the self made king would get angry and red hot like the sun and would order the executioner to slash the neck of this helpless person with the sword and who could dare to question such a cruelty? With this type of question– answer session the king stopped all means of approach of these people who used to make excuses.’

With his cruelty even the thunder would cry for help and the lightning would shower fire. Even the sky cries for help on the cruelty of cruel people and calls for the refuge of God. This ruler turned the Allah’s creation in to a terrible restlessness and misery. Any one who raised his voice against this cruel behavior; would be removed from the surface of earth as if he never existed . The people were threatened, tortured, grieved and put to innumerable trouble. Some were beheaded by the use of cutting saw; some were axed like a wooden log. Some were burnt alive by immersing them in the hot oil, some were charred with heat. Some were ordered to be drowned; some were roasted alive on fire. In the long run every one whether cruel or wronged one, his blood was sucked and they were destroyed. This chaos continued for a period of six months, which seemed to be as long as six years and th the people got crushed under the cruelty. A year of enjoyment seems to pass in a moment and a day of vexing seems to be as long as a year of the dooms day. Then one day the king of such grandeur ordered to welcome the leader of the people –the potter, who was yet to meet the king. On hearing this the potter and his wife became restless, they wept, draped in to the dust– turned their heart and soul in to a sincere prayer to Allah praying for their safety at the hands of this cruel king. With shivering legs the potter entered the durbar of the king, but the king spoke to him in a soft and friendly manner with great respect and etiquette. A similar question was put to the potter,’ Who is your creator?’ And he replied that my creator is the one who created this earth and the sky. Then came the other question, ‘who is the one who shaped me in this form and made me such a king?’ When the question was heard by the potter, an unknown voice told him to reply like this, ‘O King, We are the people who made you like what you are. Excuse us we are your makers. It is our deeds that come as our rulers. We are ruled by our desires and that which we wish and deserve. Our misdeeds have made the king’s temperament like what we see who is controlling us. The king’s form and behavior is the reflection of our bad deeds. It is a sorry state of affairs that our misdeeds follow and run after us even when we are dead. These misdeeds take the shape of scorpions and snakes in the hell fire and become our companions. It is as you sow so shall you reap. Now he who is saved with the grace of Allah,  turns to the good deeds and  is blessed by the declaration that his face shall be smiling and shining on the Day of Judgment. With this different answer of the potter the durbaris were stunned. The king was happy on this statement of the potter and all his anger vanished from his face and mind. The king got up and took the potter in to a private room. The potter was fearing for his life. Here the king asked for the return of the thing entrusted to the potter, who was tight lipped due to the fear and with the passage of time he had forgotten the event of the fish and the two pearls. At last he gathered the courage to ask the king. ’You are a king and I am the one who remains drenched in the mud day and night, what business I have with the king?’ The king laughed at this and wiped the face of the potter with kindness and said,’ O fool of a person, Can’t you recognize me? You are just like an animal as if clad in a human skin and I am an eclipse of the moon. I am neither the king nor a man. I am the same fish, now can you recognize me? Return me the shining pearl that I entrusted you with for its safety. Then the potter could recall the event and fast raised his sleeve and presented both the pearls to the king. On this the king told the potter that he has escaped the wrath and punishment due to his own good nature and choosing of mid course. These pearls are yours and are gifted to you. I am neither the fish, nor the king nor the river creature, neither I devour people like wild animals like lion or tiger. I have been dropped from the sky on the orders of the Almighty Allah and am an angel. I was sent to this nation in the form of a fish to test them. I was grounded due to the heavy storm. On hearing about me the people came and overpowered me and cut me in to pieces of their choice, when I was observing all this in a state of helplessness and the people least bothered about the pain I was put to suffer. No one took pity on my torture. When no mercy was left in their hearts and they felt pleasure in torturing me for their benefit, they were caught in the revenge at my hands. Here the author/poet addresses to his own self:-

“O my ignorant heart look upon your condition and learn a lesson according to your understanding. This world is a hot stage for action and its reward depends upon whether one’s actions are good or bad. If you perceive with your own eyes, every moment looks as if like a scene of doomsday portrayed on the screen. Whatever you have done yesterday becomes the burden for today (whether good or bad). The nightingale of Shiraz– Sheikh Saadi has nicely composed a couplet in Persian language, which when translated reads:’ whatever you sow so shall you reap. If you sow thorns you will not get daffodils.’

At last the king asked the potter not to breed any ill will against him, as whatever treatment he met on the hands of this cheat nation was not of his doing but was the compensation they had earned for their misdeeds. They were punished and the scores got balanced and you got your reward. Now you can take as much as you wish from the treasury, having gold, diamonds, pearls etc. Besides I am happy with you and you also be happy with me and go and find a place for a better and comfortable living for yourself. After this discourse the king entered the four walled room in the palace. The next day when the concerned people went that side, they found the king’s place vacant. They searched for him all over but found no trace of him. He seemed to have vanished like a bird, finding the chance to escape. Before this the potter took some of the diamonds, pearls and other costly goods whatever he liked and  took leave of the angel and started a new life. From the existing wealth and the one that he got, he donated it to the poor and the needy. During the day time he would distribute and during the night hours he would serve people the eatables. Whole of the night, he would spend in a cave and would remain busy in prayers and thanksgiving till it would be dawn. At last he passed away from this mortal world, but his story of kindness remained to live for ever. Who ever chose a life of the mid course was remembered with good memory after his death. It is the law of nature that if a strong person does not take pity on a weak creature, he too shall meet weakness just like a tiny hair with the passage of time. Similarly if a healthy person does not take pity on a sick one, a time will come that he too shall weep on getting pain and suffering. He whoever became happy over others misery, shall soon suffer meet the same state. O’ the one who has been wronged, don’t get offended by the cruelty, you will surely see that the cruel man’s house gets destroyed. Although the pain and the relief; the justice and the injustice are the twins right from the day one, still who is there to take things lightly? According to Hazrat Moosa (AS) whatever falls on us is nothing but a test for us. The proper thing is to say What Hazrat Adam said while turning his face towards Allah: “ O God I have wronged myself” and say,’ O god forgive our sins. Be compassionate on us and save us from the loss’ The poet then addresses to himself: ‘Run away from the extravagance. A lengthy story does not find acceptability. The excesses of the cruel get increased by our own misdeeds, neither we concentrate in a permanent manner, nor we have a fixed goal i.e. who will be our savior in the waywardness, excepting the one Great Personality, who is the intercessor of the sinners and mercy for all mankind. The like minded should collect from all the corners and collectively pour their heart’s blood like rain, with bear heads and feet, thumping their chests, with their eyes wet and lips dry and pray against this cruelty and invoke his help with heart rendering prayers, so that he becomes our intercessor and we get rid of the calamity. It is firmly hoped that he will intercede us and we get the place of peace and tranquility. He is all intelligent and we are the ignorant lot. We shall continue to pray like that till it is granted.

A similar situation as of today existed in Kashmir when the original book Majmmoa Masmooa  containing this story, was written by Pirzada Ghulam Rasool Shiva  Zoonimari ( d.1288 AH) ,when people were taken forcibly for beggar (potters to hilly areas) and the farmer had to surrender half of his produce-living hungry for the six months in a year, besides other atrocities. A sincere prayer had come to their rescue with an open letter to Maharaja Ranbir Singh  sent By Pirzada Ghulam Hasan Fazili Khoihami—the historian and the son of Pirzada Ghulam Rasool Shiva against the atrocities of Wazir Punnu.

This story has been translated in Urdu and printed in the book “Hamare Aslaf Aur Mashaikh-i-Kashmir” by Er. Mohammad Ashraf Fazili published in 2007 AD by Iqra Publications, Yemberzal Complex Court Road Srinagar.

Er. Mohammad Ashraf Fazili (Retd. Chief Engineer.)

September,2010.

EVOLUTION OF SRINAGAR THE SUNCITY (272 B.C to 2000 A.D.)

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Sri stands for the Sun and Nagar for the city hence The Sun City.

272—231 B.C.——King Asoka founded Sri Nagra at Purana Dishtina (now Pandrethan)—old capital. A Sun temple having a pyramidal roof, stone carvings are the only remains of the original old capital.

631 A.D.—— King Parvarsena ii built his town close to Kohi Maran (hillock) which lies in the centre of the present city. He named it as Parverpora. Although safe from floods, the site had a limited area.

725—753 A.D.—King Lalitaditya burnt down Parverpora and built his capital Parihaspora about 20 Kms. away from the Srinagar city centre.

9th century A.D.—Suyya –the Minister engineer of King Awantivarman undertook the drainage of Kashmir valley, which was mostly submerged, thus vast lands for cultivation and also for the settlement were made available.

1128 A.D.—Zulchu Khan invaded Kashmir and burnt the city of Lalitaditya.

14th century.—King Rinchan Shah (Sultan Sadr-ud-Din) built his city at Budhgair on the right bank of river Jhelum. Central Asian architecture was introduced by the Muslim missionaries. The tomb of the first muslim missionary Bulbul Shah Sahib still exists aloft in Budhgair. ( A recently discovered manuscript records burial of Sayid Mohammad Baqir in 655 AH in Theun village near Wusan Kangan, who had come from Iran along with 1002 Sayids—a century earlier than Bulbul Shah.)

1342-54 A.D.—Sultan Ala-ud-Din extended Rinchan’s city along right bank of river Jhelum and built a new town Ala-ud-Din pora—now covering Khankahi Mualla and Malik Angan.

1429-70 A.D.—king Zainul Abidin built his capital 3 Kms. away from the city on north side and named it Nav-Shahr (new town) and opened a navigable channel (Nalla Mar) between Dal and Anchar Lake and also built the first bridge on river Jhelum called Zaina Kadal leading to the expansion of the city on the left bank as well.

15th. Century—Muslim rulers added 5 more bridges on river Jhelum.

1566-1752 A.D.—Mughals constructed mosques, gardens, a rampart/ fortification around central hillock of Kohi Maran, where King Akbar had built a township named Nagar nagari.

1752-1829—In Afghan rule Amir Mohammad Khan (1770-76) built a fort named Shergarhi on left bank of river Jhelum and a bridge on river Jhelum called Amira Kadal.

1810 A.D.—A dominant fort was built by Atta Mohammad Khan on the top of the hillock Kohi Maran.

1819-46 A.D.—In 1835 in Sikh rule Mahan Singh constructed gurdawara Chatti Padshahi. A navigable flood spill channel—Tsunti Khul constructed from Ram Munshi Bagh to Basant Bagh.

1846-1947 A.D.—Dogra rulers selected Shergarhi as their palace but later on shifted to Lake Front and used the Shergarhi as secretariat.

2nd half of 19th century—devastating floods, fires, famines and earthquakes struck the city but restoration was made simultaneously.

1890’s—Residency established, new schools, 1st intermediate college (S.P. College) and Central Library opened and piped water supply to city started.

1921-31—A silk factory and Govt. Woollen mill, Banihal Cart Road connecting Jammu and Rawalpindi constructed. Barbar Shah Bridge constructed, Gupkar road widened, Boulevard on Dal fringe connecting city with Mughal gardens, housing colonies came up at Wazir Bagh, Ram Munshi Bagh, Karan Nagar, Amar Singh Degree College, and S.M.H.S. Hospital got established.

1947—Dogra rule ended.

1947-1999—Srinagar city recorded a faster growth, but in a most haphazard manner. Small housing colonies of Jawahir nagar, Balgarden, Nursingh ghar, Sutra Shahi, Batamaloo, Chanapora, Bemina, Lal Bazar, Buchpora etc., Construction of Kashmir University, Regional Engineering College, Medical College, New Secretariat building, a good no. of educational institutions, hospitals,3 no. stadiums, fruit mandi, industrial estates, HMT, Bemina Woollen Mills, National Highway by-pass (17) Kms. got constructed.

1947-2000 A.D.—There was a sizable increase in other physical and social infrastructure but not commensurate with the population growth in the city.

Srinagar Municipality was established in Dogra rule in 1886. In 1960 it covered an area of 28 Sq. Kms. in2000 SMC consisted of 17 wards with 952 mohallas and/ or villages and covered an area of 177 sq. Kms.

The 1st Master Plan 1971-1991 was extended till 2000 and a new Master Plan for 2000-2021 was prepared by the SDA and approved by the Govt. for implementation. It was recommended that an Apex Agency headed by a Senior Officer be appointed for ensuring periodical review of the Master Plan, its implementation and achievements of targets, monitoring of urban growth and development, failing which this Master Plan will be another plan on the shelf. We have lost 10 golden years and zonal plans are yet to come up and future progeny will curse us for the haphazard growth of the expanded city.

Er. Mohammad Ashraf Fazili

Chief Engineer (Retd.)

NATURE THE BEST TEACHER

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Like migrant birds, a good number of people move out of the valley to escape the chilly weather that forces people to wrap up in many layers of clothing. Nature is a good teacher as the birds travel thousands of kilometers all the way even from Siberia to the warmer regions including Kashmir- in search of food and congenial weather conditions. Once a person lands outside the crucible valley, he finds relieved by shedding the layers of clothing, additional heating devices like kangri—fire pot, hot water bottles, blowers, hamams etc. To add to all these miseries the erratic power supply makes a person frustrated.
In the recent past people living in the old city of Srinagar in the closely huddled houses with narrow lanes having at least 2 ft. thick walls made of sun- dried bricks lined with fire- burnt bricks on the outside and mud plaster from inside. Wooden ceilings and mud flooring, mud plaster, wooden skirting up to window bed level, smaller windows with paneled/ jail shutters were more comfortable with lesser heat loss during winter. The narrow lanes were also serving as a barrier to heat loss in winter or exposure to the direct sunlight during hot summer days.
The present day cement plastered / tiled/ marble floor houses located in the open areas are devoid of such facilities causing orthopedic problems to people and frequent exposure to people accustomed to hamams. People using hamams can not stay away from these for a long period. In short our lives have become more uncomfortable as compared to the simple living conditions of our near past. This is despite the fact that that much advancement has been made in the technologies for providing heating system to the structures.
It appears that the pinching weather conditions combined with deprived facilities and the political/economic instability, all contribute to the peevish nature of an unfortunate Kashmiri.
When looking back from an outside country, one wonders how and when shall we be able to catch up with the fast pace of development of infrastructure like 6 lane roads, high- rise buildings, uninterrupted power supply, effective traffic control of the increasing population, the development of gifted tourist industry, antipollution drive of the water bodies and exercising of free mind to creative thinking. This would pave the way for our physical, mental and spiritual development.
Allah says, ‘The destiny of nations cannot be changed unless and until they rise to change themselves.’ Besides ‘God helps those who help themselves.’ This is a universal principle and that is the only way open to us, if we want to live in a better world.
Er. Mohammad Ashraf Fazili
Chief Engineer (retd.)

ROLE OF ENGINEER IN SOCIETY

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By

Er. Mohammad Ashraf Fazili FIE, MIRC.*

The creation right from an invisible micro-organism up to the limitless Space/ Universe, covering all animate/ inanimate objects in-between can all be termed to be the result of Engineering Science. This whole creation is the manifestation of an All Powerful, Secret Brain, Perfect Designer, who has done all arithmetic, geometry, chemistry, physics astronomy, mechanics, balance, proportion and what not of the Earth and of the Space beyond the Secret Space that manifests itself in everything above, upon and below the Sun, the Secret Being that exhibits its concern of science in everything & everything that is or is not the concern of scientists or an engineer. Nothing is emotional, accidental, playful, by chance, by the way, by the mood. Each minute detail is the evidence of a master planning, engineering, fitting & balance.

Science works on laws & principles which remain unchanged throughout time & space. Had the laws of Nature been changing, there would have been no science, no material progress of human being. This brings us to the question, who made these laws & why? Besides what & how one has to dwell on, who? & why? Whereby one gets introduced to Nature, which is a definite, planned, designed, prescheduled, predestined purposeful handi-work of the greatest Mechanic, Engineer, Architect, Planner, Artist & scientist. In this machinery, every atom, every electron, proton, neutron counts & every cog calculates. Nothing in the least is immature, uncalculated, irresponsible, half baked, insecure or unwise.

He is the Allah, the Creator, the Shaper out of naught, the fashioner. (Quran)

It is He Who created the heavens & the earth in true proportions. (Quran 39:5-6)

Of the heavens & earth when He decreeth a matter He saith it to “be” and it is. (Baqra 117)

Once I happened to attend “ National Anatomical Society Conference” of Doctors at Jammu. The then Governor Mr. B. K. Nehru gave at home at Rajbhavan to all the participant doctors. While getting introduced one by one, he asked me, ‘How come an engineer among doctors?’ put came my reply, ‘Sir, God is a perfect engineer & it is man who polluted this earth & that is why you find so many doctors around.’ This generated a hearty laughter among all present

.The Supreme Creation:
————————————————————————————————————* The author is Honorary Secretary of ‘The Institution of Engineers (India) J&K State Centre, Srinagar.

Of all the life on this planet, the man is the Supreme Creation of the Lord. He is a vicegerent – a Khalifa.

“I will create a vicegerent on Earth”

It is He Who hath made you “His agents,
inheritors of the Earth. (Anam : 165)

It is He Who hath created for you all things
That are on Earth (2: 29)

And He taught Adam the names of all things.

By the names of things according to commentators means the inner nature & qualities of things & things here would include the feelings. Man was thus able to love & understand love & thus plan & initiate as becomes the office of vicegerent. The Angels acknowledged this. Man has many qualities which are latent or which he may wish to suppress or conceal, to his own detriment.

Again knowledge is already existing, we only explore it to claim to be scholars, scientists, doctors, engineers etc.

Thus it is clear that man is just the custodian of Earth. On the contrary whatever is in or around the Earth, it is for the service of man.

However the status of man as inheritor of the Earth belongs only to him, who is righteous, the keeper of the law, the self controlled one. The unrighteous, the evil doers, are orphans in this universe & are trespassers in the treasure houses of the Earth. He who is unrighteous cannot for long draw nourishment & substance from the Earth. The evil-doers cannot in reality over possess the Earth or have power over it.

“Allah has promised, to those among you who believe & work righteous deeds, that He will, of a surety grant them the land, inheritance (of power) as He granted it to those before them” (Al-Noor: 55)

Engineer’s role as vicegerent:

Amongst the vicegerents (khalifas) i.e. human beings, engineer is charged with the acts similar to those of God but on a minor scale. While Allah creates, fashions things out of nothing. He has to say : Be & it is: an engineer has to work with the already existing matter. He engineers the manufacture process, causes functioning, looks after the maintenance, upkeep, repair , dismantling & reconstruction of the objects that are in use for man. Thus he has to prove worthy of the charge of a deputy (khalifa) bestowed upon him.

The Engineer is a professional, trained to create engineered systems for the benefit of mankind. He designs these systems, produces goods & services which help in socio-economic & human development in many ways. Try to think of it for a while. You cannot go through a day’s life without making use of things the engineer helps to create; namely starting from a needle you sew with to the sewing machine, from bicycle to the spaceship, the house you live in, the road & bridges you use, the car in which you travel, the fan or AC in your work place, the refrigerator in your kitchen, the watch on your wrist, the telephone & now cell-phone in your pocket, the radio or TV set in your living room & much more. The list is unending. All these systems are connected with the people’s lives, their economic prosperity, social well-being, recreation & over all happiness in a peaceful condition without strife & without damage to the natural environment. Thus engineer has a role not only to benefit the society but also in the designing of the society itself. ( The Role Of Engineers Designing Society is explained in the annexure to this paper.)

Engineers, by the very nature of their work, have a responsibility to society. In this role, they have extensive professional responsibilities & they have to address ethical dimensions of engineering problems, designs,& interactions. Students of engineering should graduate with experience in working in teams, have strong written & oral communications skills, & be well versed in the economic, social, environmental, & international context of engineering professional activities. In this connection fora like this august body of Diploma Engineers Association and The Institution of Engineers (India) J&K State Centre can be of great help & we must make it a point to register ourselves as members of these & other such organizations at State, National & International level.

In particular, engineers have a duty to Society to understand & abide by their discipline’s Codes of Ethics. All such codes address the three primary duties of an engineer—duty toward society, fiduciary responsibility towards employer or client, & safeguarding the reputation & status of the engineering profession.

I had an opportunity to attend the 20th. Indian Engineering Congress in Kolkata in last December, where besides other things it was stressed in the presidential address by Prof (Dr) S.C. Naik that more & more scientists, engineers & technologists be inducted in all the planning process, be it in private or government sectors, so as to reap their benefits in future days. A proper blending between scientists, engineers, technologists & planners can usher an era of changed scenario in which the only motto of all will be national development at the earliest focusing our traditional value of ‘Unity in Diversity.’ For the first time ever, all the nine members of China’s elite Politburo Standing Committee, the highest tier within the Communist Party of China, are engineers.

J&K STATE:

The J&K State is low on developmental scale, as its literacy is about 50 % only. The GDP is low. Agriculture is the major occupation of the 80 % population living in villages. Small scale industries are few. Handicrafts are growing at a low pace. Though tourism is a potential industry, yet income from it is still marginal. Health services are inadequate. Weaker sections of the population are not empowered. To add to all this, the last 16 years have been catastrophic.

The state is however well placed on the resources side. Hydropower is still less exploited source. Silk production of quality is below potential limits. Scientific Horticulture is still in infancy. Human talent & skilled craftsmen are a great asset & resource. Women have shown great perseverance, commercial & managerial skills & skills in handicrafts. Tourism is vastly unexploited & is yet to explore a rich store- house of cultural traditions of yore. Nature’s bounties are plentiful & even horticulture & food processing industry & medicinal / aromatic plants are largely undeveloped. On communication side road development including six-laning & construction of railways is in progress. Alternative Inland transport on rivers & lakes & providing of Metro services could be the future targets. Srinagar shall be shortly facing land hunger & vertical development for housing shall be the only solution.

The engineer’s role can clearly be defined in the above context, which at the outset relates to the contemplating of feasible projects, which can be undertaken in various sectors & which have the potential of being unique to our geographical & economic setting. Secondly the engineer’s role is to create the infrastructure for which projects both as engineers in the private as well as public sector & thirdly & most vitally, to work as managers & business entrepreneurs in developing manifold systems & processes for various sectors of the economy. Innovation & creativity are critical in this respect.

Thus there is unlimited scope for innovation in engineering to help new unique enterprises. Proper manufacture of timber products, extraction of pharmaceutical products & perfumes manufacture of materials for handicrafts, horticulture industry, housing development. Institution building for education, mini, micro &macro hydel power plants, computer software & hardware, manufacture of electronic goods & daily food products, developing quicker transport facilities, drainage, sewerage facilities, solid waste disposal schemes of towns & cities, sanitation projects, protection of water bodies disaster mitigation & management are a few in the long list of some engineering tasks that will require professional engineering services. Thus engineers have a great role to play in J&K State to build infrastructure & put a stop to the environmental deterioration. The scope is unlimited but the need to create a social climate & have a will to succeed; which again is an important part of the engineer’s role in J&K State. Engineers have the capability of making a difference to socio-economic development in a big way. They must help improve productivity, which is very poor at present. Engineers must help people in making more skilled persons. “People must be freed to generate wealth from these skills rather than being constantly tripped by middlemen & red tape.” Thus the engineers must accept the challenge & act to achieve that goal. There is no other way.’ as told by Milton Friedman—the Noble Laureate in Economics.

Nietzshe the famous philosopher says:

“There is more wisdom in the construction & the working of the body & mind of a scientist than he can ever think of. There is more wisdom in the making of an ant than what all the libraries of the world can tell.”

Dr. Alexix Carrol – Nobel prize winner in philosophy asserts that:

“Science by worshipping the Maker of matter, & not matter exclusively would restore to man the summit of his development in intelligence, in moral science, in virility.”
Prof. Eddington asks:

“Matter is matter. But what about the education training & confidence of the Scientist?”

The Maker & Master has given you not only a brain but also a soul. Why? Thus the study of science of material leads an engineer close to the appreciation of the disciplined laws of Honesty & Truth of the Maker. As Max Werthiemer declares “Science is rooted in the will of truth. With will to truth it stands or falls. Lower the standards slightly & the science becomes diseased at the core…. The will to truth, pure & unadulterated, is among the essential conditions of its existence

THE INSTITUTION OF ENGINEERS INDIA

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Saturday, July 01, 2006

THE INSTITUTION OF ENGINEERS (INDIA)

The Institution of Engineers (India) established in 1920, is the single largest professional body of Engineers & Technologists in the world, having over five lakh members including around 90,000 Corporate members i.e. Fellows, Members, Associate Members. The IE(I) is deemed as University & about 5000 engineers get created every year through it, almost at no cost to the Government; thus helping in a big way to Human Resource Development. The IE(I) has 94 State/Local Centers in the country & 6 Chapters abroad.

OBJECTIVES

The main objectives of The IE(I) are:
Promote & advance Engineering knowledge.
Establish local association of members.
Disseminate information on Engineering subjects.
Promote the study of Engineering & establish educational institutions.
Advise Government at all levels on matters affecting Engineering.

AUTONOMOUS FORA

Autonomous fora working independently in IE(I) are:
1 Engineering Staff College of India (ESCJ).
2. Water Management Forum (WMF)
3. Rural Development Forum (RDF)
4. Sustainable Development Forum (SDF)
5. Safety & Quality Forum (SQF)

Besides Engineering Divisional Boards there are a number of other committees working independently & recommendations made to Apex Committee – Committee on Advancement of Technology & Engineering (CATE)

INTERNATIONAL REPRESENTATION

The IE(I) represents the country on the following International bodies:
1. World Federation of Engineering Organization (WFEO)
2. Common Wealth Engineering Council (CEC)
3. World Mining Congress (WMC)
4. Federation of Engineering Institution of South & Central Asia (FEISCA)
5. World Energy Council (WEC)
6. International Federation of Prestressed Concrete (IFPC)
7. (Provisional Membership) Engineers Mobility Forum (EMF)

THE 20th. ENGINEERING CONGRESS held in December 2005 in Kolkata recommended:
Induction of more & more Scientists, Engineers & Technologists in all planning process in Private/ Government sectors to reap their benefits in future. A proper blending between Scientists, Engineers, Technologists & Planners can usher an Era of Changing Scenario. All the nine members of China’s elite Politburo Standing Committee, the highest tier, are Engineers for the first time.

The Technical Experts have opined that:
THE INLAND WATER TRANSPORT SYSTEM in Water Bodies would have multiple benefits of reducing pressure on road traffic, revive water transport, become a source of revenue generation, help control & prevent pollution, provide alternative transport system, stop encroachment on peripheries, & generate employment besides serve as a great tourist attraction as in Amsterdam, Venice and other tourist resorts.

MAN HAS LEARNT TO FLY IN AIR FROM BIRDS, SWIM IN WATER FROM FISH BUT HE HAS YET TO LEARN TO WALK ON GROUND LIKE A HUMAN BEING.

The Omnipresence of the Prophet by Dr. G. F. Haddad

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“The Prophet, sall-Allahu `alayhi wa sallam, said: “My life is a great good for you, you will relate about me and it will be related to you, and my death is a great good for you, your actions will be exhibited to me, and if I see goodness I will praise Allah, and if I see evil I will ask forgiveness of Him for you.” (Hayâtî khayrun lakum tuhaddithûna wa yuhaddathu lakum wa wafâtî khayrun lakum tu‘radu a‘malukum ‘alayya famâ ra’aytu min khayrin hamidtu Allâha wa mâ ra’aytu min sharrin istaghfartu Allâha lakum.)”

And know that the Messenger of Allah is among you(The Holy Qur’an 49:7)

Article reproduced from: http://www.mawlid.net/
They encompass nothing of His knowledge save what He will (2:255)(He is) the Knower of the Unseen and He reveals unto none His secret,save unto every Messenger whom He has chosen (72:26-27)Nor does he withhold grudgingly a knowledge of the Unseen
Hadara hudûran wa hadâratan: diddu ghâba…wahuwa hâdirun min huddarin wa hudûrin.
“To be present (hadara)… is the opposite of being absent…said of the attendee (hâdir) among other attendees.”
Al-Fayruzabadi, al-Qamus al-Muhit.
The Omnipresence of the Prophet [1]
Ibn Khafif al-Shirazi said in his al-‘Aqida al-Sahiha (§48):
[The Prophet, sall-Allahu `alayhi wa sallam,] is knower of what is and what shall be and he gave news of the Unseen (wa [ya‘taqidu] annahu al-‘âlimu bimâ kâna wa mâ yakûnu wa akhbara ‘an ‘ilmi al-ghayb).
Meaning, in the sense of being imparted by Allah whatever He imparted to him. Our teacher the Faqîh Shaykh Adib Kallas said: “Note that Ibn Khafif did not say ‘He knows all that is and all that shall be.’”
Shaykh ‘Abd al-Hadi Kharsa told us:
The Prophet, sall-Allahu `alayhi wa sallam, possesses knowledge of all that is and knows the created universes in the same way that one knows a room in which one sits. Nothing is hidden from him. There are two verses of the Holy Qur’an that affirm this, [But how (will it be with them) when we bring of every people a witness, and We bring you (O Muhammad) a witness against these] (4:41) and [Thus We have appointed you a middle nation, that you may be witnesses against mankind and that the messenger may be a witness against you] (2:143) nor can the Prophet, sall-Allahu `alayhi wa sallam, be called to witness over what he does not know nor see
The above evidence is confirmed by the authentic Prophetic narration from Abu Sa‘id al-Khudri in the Sahih, Sunan, and Masanid:
The Prophet, sall-Allahu `alayhi wa sallam, said: “Nuh and his Community shall come and Allah Most High shall say: ‘Did you convey [My Message]?’ He shall say, ‘Yes, indeed! my Lord.’ Then He shall ask his Community, ‘Did he convey [My Message] to you?’ and they shall say, ‘No, no Prophet came to us.’ Then Allah shall ask Nuh, ‘Who is your witness?’ and he shall reply, ‘ Muhammad , sall-Allahu `alayhi wa sallam, and his Community.’ Then we shall bear witness that he conveyed [the Message] indeed, and this is [the meaning of] His saying, [Thus We have appointed you a middle nation (ummatan wasatan), that you may be witnesses against mankind] (2:143), al-wasat meaning ‘the upright’ (al-‘adl).”[2]
Ibn Hajar in his commentary of the above narration in Fath al-Bari said that another same-chained, similar narration in Ahmad and Ibn Majah shows that such witnessing applies to all the Communities and not just that of Nuh,`alayhis salaam:
The Prophet, sall-Allahu `alayhi wa sallam, said: “One Prophet shall come on the Day of Resurrection with a single man [as his Community]; another Prophet shall come with two men; others, with more. The nation of each Prophet shall be summoned and asked, ‘Did this Prophet convey [the Message] to you?’ They shall reply, no. Then he shall be asked, ‘Did you convey [the Message] to your people?’ and he shall reply, yes. Then he shall be asked, ‘Who is your witness?’ and he shall reply, ‘Muhammad and his Community.’ Whereupon Muhammad and his Community shall be summoned and asked, ‘Did this man convey [the Message] to his people?’ They shall reply, yes. They shall be asked, ‘How do you know?’ They shall reply, ‘Our Prophet came to us and told us that the Messengers have indeed conveyed [the Message].’ This is [the meaning of] His saying, [Thus We have appointed you a middle nation] – He means upright (yaqûlu ‘adlan) – [that you may be witnesses against mankind and that the messenger may be a witness against you] (2:143).”
Al-Qari said in commentary of the narration of Nuh, `alayhis salaam, cited in Mishkat al-Masabih:
“And he shall reply, ‘Muhammad and his Community’” means that his Community are witnesses while he vouches for them, but his mention came first out of reverence (li-t-ta‘zîm). It is possible that he, sall-Allahu `alayhi wa sallam, too witnesses for Nuh, since it is a context of help and Allah Most High said [When Allah made (His) convenant with the Prophets] until He said [you shall believe in him and you shall help him] (3:81). In this there is a remarkable warning that the Prophet, sall-Allahu `alayhi wa sallam, is present and witnessing in that Greatest Inspection (wafîhi tanbîhun nabîhun annahu sallallâhu ‘alayhi wa sallama hâdirun nâzirun fî dhâlika al-‘ardi al-akbar), when the Prophets are brought, Nuh being the first, and the latter’s witnesses are brought, namely, this Community.[3]
There are other verses that affirm that the Prophet, sall-Allahu `alayhi wa sallam, hears and sees the deeds of human beings. Allah Most High said: [And know that the Messenger of Allah is among you] (49:7). In the verses [Allah and His Messenger will see your conduct] (9:94) and [Act! Allah will behold your actions, and (so will) His Messenger and the believers] (9:105), the Prophet’s, sall-Allahu `alayhi wa sallam, perception is put on a par with that of the Lord of the worlds Who sees and encompasses all on the one hand and, on the other, that of all the living believers.
Shaykh ‘Abd Allah ibn Muhammad al-Ghumari said:
The saying of Allah Most High [O you who believe! Observe your duty to Allah, and give up what remains (due to you) from usury, if you are (in truth) believers. And if you do not, them be warned of war (against you) from Allah and His Messenger] (2:278-279) indicates that the Prophet, sall-Allahu `alayhi wa sallam, is alive in his noble grave, fighting the usurers with his supplication against them or with whatever suits his isthmus-life. I do not know anyone that inferred this from the verse before me.[4]
The above is further confirmed in the Sunna by the following evidence:
(1) Ibn Mas‘ud’s authentic narration of the Prophet’s, sall-Allahu `alayhi wa sallam, witnessing of all the deeds of the Umma from his Barzakh:
The Prophet, sall-Allahu `alayhi wa sallam, said: “My life is a great good for you, you will relate about me and it will be related to you, and my death is a great good for you, your actions will be exhibited to me, and if I see goodness I will praise Allah, and if I see evil I will ask forgiveness of Him for you.” (Hayâtî khayrun lakum tuhaddithûna wa yuhaddathu lakum wa wafâtî khayrun lakum tu‘radu a‘malukum ‘alayya famâ ra’aytu min khayrin hamidtu Allâha wa mâ ra’aytu min sharrin istaghfartu Allâha lakum.)[5]
(2) The authentic narration of “the Supernal Company” (al-mala’u al-a‘lâ) from Mu‘adh ibn Jabal (RA) and others The Prophet, sall-Allahu `alayhi wa sallam, said: “My Lord came to me in the best form” – the narrator said: “I think he said: ‘in my sleep’” – “and asked me over what did the Higher Assembly (al-mala’ al-a‘lâ)[6] vie; I said I did not know, so He put His hand between my shoulders, and I felt its coolness in my innermost, and knowledge of all things between the East and the West came to me.”[7]
(3) The staying back of Sayyidina Gibril, `alayhis salaam, at the point the Prophet, sall-Allahu `alayhi wa sallam, went beyond the Lote-Tree of the Farthermost Boundary (sidrat al-muntaha) and heard the screeching of the pens writing the Foreordained Decree then saw his Lord,[8] although Gibril is the closest of all creatures to Allah U and the angels do see Him according to Ahl-al-Sunna.[9]
Al-Qadi ‘Iyad in al-Shifa, in the section titled “Concerning the places where it is desirable to invoke blessings and peace upon him” cited from ‘ Amr ibn Dinar al-Athram (d. 126) the explanation of the verse [when you enter houses salute one another] (24:61): “If there is no-one in the house then say: ‘as-salâmu ‘alâ al-Nabiyyi wa rahmatullâhi wa barakâtuh.’”[10]
Al-Qari said in his commentary on al-Shifa’: “Meaning, because his soul, sall-Allahu `alayhi wa sallam, is present in the house of the Muslims (ay li’anna rûhahu ‘alayhi al-salâmu hâdirun fî buyûti al-muslimîn).”[11]
What ‘Iyad cited from al-Athram is only narrated by al-Tabari in his Tafsir from Ibn Jurayj, from ‘Ata’ al-Khurasani (d. 135):
Hajjaj narrated to me from Ibn Jurayj: I said to ‘Ata’: “What if there is no-one in the house?” He said: “Give salâm! Say, al-salâmu ‘alâ al-Nabiyyi wa rahmatullâhi wa barakâtuh, al-salâmu ‘alaynâ wa ‘alâ ‘ibâdillah al-sâlihîn, al-salâmu ‘alâ ahli al-bayti wa rahmatullâh.” I said: “This statement you just said about my entering the house in which there is no-one, from whom did you receive it?” He replied: “I heard it without receiving it from anyone in particular.”[12]
‘Ata’ was a pious muhaddith, mufti, and wâ‘iz from whom Yazid ibn Samura heard the statement: “The gatherings of dhikr are the gatherings of [teaching] the halâl and the harâm.”[13] His trustworthiness and/or memory were contested by al-Bukhari, Abu Zur‘a, Ibn Hibban, Shu‘ba, al-Bayhaqi, al-‘Uqayli, and Ibn Hajar, but he was nevertheless declared thiqa by Ibn Ma‘in, Abu Hatim, al-Daraqutni, al-Thawri, Malik, al-Awza‘i, Ahmad, Ibn al-Madini, Ya‘qub ibn Shayba, Ibn Sa‘d, al-‘Ijli, al-Tabarani, and al-Tirmidhi, while Ibn Rajab concludes he is “thiqa thiqa.”[14]
A Deobandi’s False Assertion against Mullah Ali al-Qari
Recently, a Deobandi writer forwarded the strange claim that al-Qari’s text in Sharh al-Shifa’ actually stated, “NOT THAT his soul, sall-Allahu `alayhi wa sallam, is present in the houses of the Muslims” (lâ anna rûhahu hâdiratun fî buyûti al-muslimîn) that is, the diametrical opposite of what al-Qari actually said!:
He [al-Qari] discussed the issue in the Sharh of Shifa, that lâ anna rûhahu hâdiratun fî buyûti al-muslimîn i.e. this notion is incorrect that the soul of our Master Hazrat Mohammed, sall-Allahu `alayhi wa sallam, is present in the homes of the Muslims. In some copies the word lâ has been dropped and has without any reason created confusion for some individuals, including Mufti Ahmed Yar Khan sahib (see Jaa al-Haqq p. 142). … In all his explicit quotes Hazrat Mulla Ali al-Qari himself negates the belief of hâdir wa nâzir. Those who have relied on his brief, indistinct quotes (out of context) are absolutely and definitely wrong.[15]
That one can actually dare to make the above claim is only because of ignorance of the Arabic language since al-Qari prefaces the statement with the word “meaning (ay),” which would be grammatically incorrect if it were followed by a disclaimer such as “not that his soul is present in the houses of the Muslims.” The truth is that no such word as lâ has been dropped because there was no such word there in the first place, and the claim that there was is nothing short of tampering (tahrîf). Furthermore, the word al-Qari used for “present” is hâdir in the masculine, not hâdiratun in the feminine, as rûh can have either gender but the masculine is more appropriate here to refer to the Prophet, sall-Allahu `alayhi wa sallam.
A Deobandi’s Denial of Prophetic Attributes
Another one of those of the same School considered by some to be knowledgeable objected to attributing the characteristics of hâdir nâzir to the Prophet, sall-Allahu `alayhi wa sallam, because, he claimed, these attributes belong to Allah U. Even if the latter premise were true, the reasoning is spurious and is like saying that because al-Ra’ûf and al-Rahîm are Divine Attributes, they cannot be also Prophetic Attributes. This sophistry was refuted by al-Qadi ‘Iyad in al-Shifa where he said:
Know that Allah has bestowed a mark of honor on many of the Prophets by investing them with some of His names: for example He calls Ishaq and Isma‘il “knowing” (‘alîm) and “forbearing” (halîm), Ibrahim “forbearing” (halîm), Nuh “thankful” (shakûr), Musa “noble” (karîm) and “strong” (qawî), Yusuf “a knowing guardian” (hafîz, ‘alîm), Ayyub “patient” (sabûr), ‘Isa and Yahya “devoted” (barr), and Isma‘il “truthful to the promise” (sâdiq al-wa‘d)… Yet He has preferred our Prophet Muhammad, sall-Allahu `alayhi wa sallam, since He has adorned him with a wealth of His names in His Mighty Book and on the tongue of His Prophets.[16]
The above evidence establishes beyond doubt that there is no impediment to the possibility of hâdir nâzir to be Attributes shared by Allah Most High with some of His servants if such two Names should be established to be His. In fact, it is known that the two angel-scribes, the qarîn, the angel of death, and Shaytan, are also present, seeing, hearing, and fully witnessing the deeds of human beings at any given time.
Furthermore, are Hâdir and Nâzir among the Divine Names and Attributes? Imam Ahmad al-Sirhindi was quoted to say: “Allah Most High is aware of each and every minor and major condition and is Hâdir and Nâzir. One should feel shame before Him.”[17]
However, the Divine Attributes are ordained and non-inferable.[18] Logic, reasoning, analogy, and other forms of interpretation are not used to infer an attribute but only Divine disclosure through the primary two sources of the Shari‘a i.e. Qur’an and Sunna. This is an elementary point of doctrine that is present in most if not all books of ‘aqîda, including the Maturidi classics. So we cannot speak of al-Hâdir, while al-Nâzir is the same as al-Shahîd where the divine Sight means His Knowledge. Imam al-Bayhaqi said:
The meaning of “The Witness” (al-Shahîd) is He Who is well aware of all that creatures can know only by way of witnessing while being present. . . because a human being who is far away is subject to the limitation and shortcomings of his sensory organs, while Allah Most High is not endowed with sensory organs nor subject to the limita­tions of those who possess them.[19] (Shâhid is also a Prophetic Name in the Qur’an.)
As for al-Hâdir it is precluded, because Hâdir in Arabic has the sense of a being physically present at a location, i.e. attributes of the created that are absolutely precluded from the Creator. Therefore Hâdir in relation to Allah Most High, like the attribute of omnipresence, may only be applied figuratively to mean that He is All-Knowledgeable, but neither “Omnipresent” nor Hâdir have actually been reported or mentioned among the Divine Attributes in the Qur’an, the Sunna, and the texts of the early Imams. Allah knows best.
When some of these rebuttals were presented to the above-mentioned objector, he replied verbatim, that “By Haazir and Naazir, we mean Allah’s knowledge is complete and comprehensive. Nothing is hidden from the absolute knowledge of Allah. In other words, he is Aleem and this quality of Allah is repeatedly mentioned in the Qur’aan.” By thus replying he has acknowledged that:
1. He used the Attributes Hâdir and Nâzir figuratively, to mean ‘Alîm.
2. He has done so on the basis of his own interpretation of the former two terms as meaning the latter term, neither (a) on linguistic bases nor (b) according to a Law-based stipulation (nass shar‘î).
To return to the statement of Shaykh Ahmad Sirhindi – Allah sanctify his soul – that “[He] is Hâdir and Nâzir,” there are also caveats:
1. Isolated statements cannot be used to invalidate a basic rule of Ahl al-Sunna in the Divine Names and Attributes, namely that spelled above as found in the doctrine of the Salaf and Khalaf on al-Asmâ’ wa al-Sifât.
2. In practical terms, Shaykh Ahmad Sirhindi was careful to frame his statement within an affirmation of the sincere murîd’s consciousness of the all-encompassing nature of Divine Knowledge within the ladder of spiritual process in the Naqshbandi Tarîqa, just as the Shuyukh of the Shadhili Tarîqa teach their murîds to say, “Allâhu hâdirî, Allâhu nâziri, Allâhu ma‘î.” These expressions are meant to induce scrupulous Godwariness and in fact all refer to the attributes of Divine Knowledge without any resemblance whatsoever to the hudûr or nazâr of created beings other than in name.
3. In doctrinal terms, Shaykh Ahmad Sirhindi means something other than what those who use hâdir in the Arabic language and in relation to the Prophet, sall-Allahu `alayhi wa sallam, mean. Namely, he means hâdir not in the normal creatural sense of “present” but in the non-creatural sense of “Divine Knowledge of Things in their Essence” (al-‘ilm al-hudûrî). This is explained by him at length in his epistle 48 of Volume Three to the Prince, Zadah Khwaja Muhammad Sa‘id, titled “The Secret of His Nearness and the Self-Disclosure of His Essence.” This is a highly peculiar, specialized sense that should be treated thus unless one is interested in making Shaykh Sirhindi say other than what he means.
4. Some of our contemporaries – who are known by the title of Mufti – innovatively use the same phrase in terms of a stipulation of ‘Aqîda, giving rise to legitimate doubt as to what they mean by their use of the phrase, a doubt fortified by their adding made-up provisions or conditions such as “Hâdir and Nâzir cannot be applied to anyone besides Allah.” By saying this they have invalidated the sine qua non pre-requisites of the judge for receiving witnesses to any and all cases that require witnesses. Rather, they mean to say, “cannot be applied to anyone besides Allah in the sense they are applied to Allah” while they can be applied to others besides Allah in the sense that applies to creatures.
5. Those who use Hâdir and Nâzir in relation to the Best of Creatures, our Master Muhammad, sall-Allahu `alayhi wa sallam, , mean it in the creatural sense of his noble soul or noble essence being physically and spiritually present wherever Allah Most High wishes. One who denies that the Prophet, sall-Allahu `alayhi wa sallam, can be present in that sense, has left Islam.
6. None of what the opponents bring up as supposed proofs actually invalidates the use of Hâdir and Nâzir for the Prophet, sall-Allahu `alayhi wa sallam, among other shared Names as we have already demonstrated. For example, Allah Most High is Ra’ûf and Rahîm, and He is Nûr, and He is al-Shâhid – the Witness – and al-Shahîd – the Giver of testimony – all five attributes being also given by Him in His Own Pre-Eternal Speech – the Qur’an – to the Prophet himself, sall-Allahu `alayhi wa sallam.
7. If it comes to scholarly quotations, they should accept that the attributes of Hâdir and Nâzir are applied to the Prophet, sall-Allahu `alayhi wa sallam, by the Ulema of Ahl al-Sunna such as Mulla Ali al-Qari as cited above, and countless others such as the Friends of Allah known to keep company with the Prophet, sall-Allahu `alayhi wa sallam, day and night, among them Shaykh Abu al-‘Abbas al-Mursi, Shaykh Abu al-Hasan al-Shadhili, and Shaykh ‘Abd al-‘Aziz al-Dabbagh, probably also Shaykh Ahmad Sirhindi himself – may Allah sanctify their secrets.
Ibn al-Qayyim said in al-Ruh:
This is a subject about which men are troubled. There are those who say, “The sciences, all of them, are latent in the soul, and only its occupation with the world of sensation prevents its examination of them; so, if it is detached in sleep, it see some of them in accordance with its preparation; and when its detachment by death is more perfect, its sciences and its experiential knowledges there are more perfect.” This statement has in it both what is right and what is groundless; not all of it is to be rejected and not all of it is to be accepted. For the detachment of the soul informs it of the sciences and experiential knowledges which are not received without detachment. But if it should be detached altogether, it would not be informed of the knowledge of Allah with which His Messenger was sent, and of the details of what He told by past messengers and peoples that are gone; and details of the Return and regulations of the Hour and details of command and prohibition, and Divine Names and Attributes and Acts, etc., that are not known except by Revelation; although the detachment of the soul is an aid to it for knowledge of that, and the drawing of it from its source is easier and nearer and greater than what is given to the soul engaged in the labors of the body.[20]
Another objection was raised and disseminated on a website titled, “The Belief that the Prophet Comes to the Milad Meeting” with the following text:
Some people also believe that Rasulullah, Sall-Allahu alayhi wa sallam, comes to this function and due to this belief, they stand up in respect and veneration. This is absolutely untrue. Rasulullah, Sall-Allahu alayhi wa sallam, does not arrive at any “Eid-e-Milad-un Nabee,” function. He is in his Rawdha-e-Mubarak (grave) at Madinah Munawwarah and will emerge from it at the onset of Yawmul-Qiyaamah, or the Day of Judgement. … The following Ayat and Hadith testify to this fact: The Qur’an, addressing Rasulullah, sall-Allahu `alayhi wa sallam, announces explicitly: [Lo! Thou wilt die, and Lo! They will die. Then Lo! On the day of resurrection, before your sustainer, you will dispute]. [Az-Zumar 39:30-31] At another place, Rasulullah, sall-Allahu `alayhi wa sallam, is addressed together with the rest of mankind: – [Then Lo! After that you surely die, then Lo! On the day of resurrection you are raised (again)] [Al-Muminun 23:16] Rasulullah, sall-Allahu `alayhi wa sallam, himself has said in a Hadith: – “My grave will be the first to be opened on the day of Qiyamah and I shall be the first person to intercede and the first person whose intercession shall be accepted.” These Ayat and Hadith as well (and there are others) prove that all of mankind will be raised from their graves on the day of Qiyamah, with Rasulullah, sall-Allahu `alayhi wa sallam, being no exception. On this, there is consensus of the entire Ummah.[21]
The Reply of Ahl as-Sunna wal-Jama`at
The reply is: Does this Mufti have knowledge of the unseen and the gift of ubiquity? For he positively affirms that the Prophet, sall-Allahu `alayhi wa sallam, (1) is not present at a given Mawlid function and (2) is not possibly present at any place other than in Madina, in his grave! So then, he allows that the other Prophets can be in Bayt al-Maqdis praying, and in Makka making tawâf, and in the Seven Heavens, but he insists that our Prophet – upon him and them blessings and peace – is confined to his Noble Grave?
Yet testimonies from the great Awliyâ’ and Sâlihîn of this Umma have flown uninterruptedly for a thousand years to the effect that the Prophet, sall-Allahu `alayhi wa sallam, was and continues to be seen by countless pure eyes in countless different locations. Read the fatwa to that effect in Shaykh al-Islam al-Haytami’s Fatawa Hadithiyya (p. 297), entitled: “Question: Can the Prophet, sall-Allahu `alayhi wa sallam, be seen in a wakeful state?” The answer is yes, and if he is seen, then he is present. There is no need to ask “how”. Sayyid Ahmad Zayni Dahlan said in his book al-Usul li al-Wusul ila Ma‘rifat Allah wa al-Rasul, that when the walî is said to see the Prophet, sall-Allahu `alayhi wa sallam, “in a waking state” (yaqazatan), “it means that he sees only the spiritual form (rûhaniyya) of the Prophet, sall-Allahu `alayhi wa sallam, , not his physical form.” But our Shaykh, Sidi Mustafa al-Basir commented on this: “Is there any impediment to seeing him in his physical form, or to his coming to a place in his physical form?” and Shah Waliyyullah al-Dihlawi said in his book Fuyud al-Rahman (p. 116-118) that the presence of the Prophet, sall-Allahu `alayhi wa sallam, in the office of imam at every prayer “is a fact” and that “the noble Rûh of the Prophet, sall-Allahu `alayhi wa sallam, is similar to a physical body.” Many valuable pages were recorded from the disclosures of Shaykh ‘Abd al-‘Aziz al-Dabbagh on this issue by his student `Ali ibn al-Mubarak in al-Ibriz
Yes, we do know with positive knowledge that he is in al-Madina al-Munawwara – but in the state of Barzakh. That state, by the decree of Allah Most High, is governed by laws other than phenomenal laws of time and place. Imam Malik said in the Muwatta’: “It has reached me [i.e. from the Prophet, sall-Allahu `alayhi wa sallam, with an authentic chain as is well-known concerning Malik’s balâghât] that the souls [of the dead] are free to come and go as they please.” Further readings about this can be found in Sayyid Muhammad ‘Alawi al-Maliki’s Manhaj al-Salaf,[22] Kitab al-Ruh by Ibn al-Qayyim, or al-Tadhkira by al-Qurtubi.
Furthermore, there is an Islamic rule of law (qâ‘ ida) that says, al-ithbâtu muqaddamun ‘ala al-nafy meaning: “Affirmation takes precedence over denial”; and another one that states, man ‘alima hujjatun ‘alâ man lam ya‘lam, meaning: “The one who knows is a conclusive proof against the one who does not know.” Even in the matter of a simple hadith narration there are things we know and things we do not know, as that Mufti is eminently aware.
As for the verses and hadith quoted by the objector to the effect that the Prophet, sall-Allahu `alayhi wa sallam, will die and be raised, the quoter himself concludes, “These Ayat and Hadith as well (and there are others) prove that all of mankind will be raised from their graves on the day of Qiyamah, with Rasulullah, sall-Allahu `alayhi wa sallam, being no exception. On this, there is consensus of the entire Ummah.” This is like the Arabic saying, “I spoke to him in the East and he answered me in the West.” There is no question about the fundamental tenet of Resurrection in Islam, and such evidence is irrelevant to the specific matters of (1) seeing the Prophet, sall-Allahu `alayhi wa sallam, present in a wakeful state or (2) his presence in the gatherings of the Sâlihîn in Dunyâ and Âkhira nor should it have been brought up in this fatwa. So this purported evidence is true, and so is the rest of the evidence that we have adduced in affirmation of the Prophet’s, sall-Allahu `alayhi wa sallam, presence with the Umma and full awareness of their states, including the saying of Allah Most High: [And know that the Messenger of Allah is among you] (49:7). Meaning, according to the majority of the commentaries: Do not lie.

NOTES
[1] This Appendix complements the material adduced in the section titled “The Prophet’s Knowledge of the Unseen” in the third volume of Shaykh Hisham Kabbani’s Encyclopedia of Islamic Doctrine.
[2] Narrated by al-Bukhari with three chains, al-Tirmidhi (hasan sahîh), and Ahmad.
[3] Al-Qari, al-Mirqat (Dar al-Fikr 1994 ed. 9:493=Imdadiyya Maltan (Pakistan) ed. 10:263-264=Cairo 1892 ed. 5:245).
[4] ‘Abd Allah al-Ghumari, Khawatir Diniyya (1:19 ).
[5] Narrated from Ibn Mas‘ud by al-Bazzar in his Musnad (1:397) with a sound chain as stated by al-Suyuti in Manahil al-Safa (p. 31 #8) and al-Khasa’is al-Kubra (2:281), al-Haythami (9:24 #91), and al-‘Iraqi in Tarh al-Tathrib (3:297) – his last book, as opposed to al-Mughni‘an Haml al-Asfar (4:148) where he questions the trustworthy rank of one of the narrators in al-Bazzar’s chain. Shaykh ‘Abd Allah al-Talidi said in his Tahdhib al-Khasa’is al-Kubra (p. 458-459 #694) that this chain is sound according to Muslim’s criterion, and Shaykh Mahmud Mamduh in Raf‘al-Minara (p. 156-169) discusses it at length and declares it sound. Their shaykh, al-Sayyid ‘ Abd Allah ibn al-Siddiq al-Ghumari (d. 1413/1993) declared it sound in his monograph Nihaya al-Amal fi Sharh wa Tashih Hadith ‘Ard al-A‘mal. Opposing these six or more judgments al-Albani declares it weak in his notes on al-Qadi Isma‘il’s Fadl al-Salat (p. 37 n. 1). It is also narrated with weak chains from Anas and – with two sound mursal chains missing the Companion-link – from the Successor Bakr ibn ‘Abd Allah al-Muzani by Isma‘il al-Qadi (d. 282) in his Fadl al-Salat ‘ala al-Nabi (SAWS) (p. 36-39 #25-26). The latter chain was declared sound by al-Qari in Sharh al-Shifa’ (1:102), Shaykh al-Islam al-Taqi al-Subki in Shifa’ al-Siqam, his critic Ibn ‘Abd al-Hadi in al-Sarim al-Munki (p. 217), and al-Albani in his Silsila Da‘ifa (2:405). A third, weak chain is related from Bakr al-Muzani by al-Harith ibn Abi Usama (d. 282) in his Musnad (2:884) as per Ibn Hajar in al-Matalib al-‘Aliya (4:23) and Ibn Sa‘d in his Tabaqat as per al-Munawi in Fayd al-Qadir (3:401 #3771). Al-Qadi ‘Iyad cites it in al-Shifa (p. 58 #6) and al-Sakhawi in al-Qawl al-Badi‘. Al-Albani declared the hadith weak on the grounds that some authorities questioned the memorization of the Murji’ hadith master ‘Abd al-Majid ibn ‘Abd al-‘Aziz ibn Abi Rawwad. However, he was retained by Muslim in his Sahih and declared thiqa by Yahya ibn Ma‘in, Ahmad, Abu Dawud, al-Nasa’i, Ibn Shahin, al-Khalili, and al-Daraqutni, while al-Dhahabi listed him in Man Tukullima Fihi Wa Huwa Muwaththaq (p. 124) as stated by Mamduh in Raf‘ al-Minara (p. 163, 167). Al-Arna’ut and Ma‘ruf declare him thiqa in Tahrir al-Taqrib (2:379 #4160) as well as Dr. Nur al-Din ‘Itr in his edition of al-Dhahabi’s Mughni (1:571 #3793) and Dr. Khaldun al-Ahdab in Zawa’id Tarikh Baghdad (10:464). Even if al-Albani’s grading were hypothetically accepted, then the weak musnad narration in conjunction with the sound mursal one – graded sahîh by al-Albani – would yield a final grading of hasan or sahîh, not da‘îf. In addition to this, Mamduh quoted al-Albani’s own words in the latter’s attempted refutation of Shaykh Isma‘il al-Ansari entitled Kitab al-Shaybani (1:134-135) whereby “The sound mursal hadith is a proof in all Four Schools and other than them among the Imams of the principles of hadith and fiqh, therefore it is apparent to every fair-minded person that the position whereby such a hadith does not form a proof only because it is mursal, is untenable.” This is one of many examples in which al-Albani not only contradicts, but soundly refutes himself.
Shaykh Hasanayn Muhammad Makhluf wrote in his Fatawa Shar‘iyya (1:91-92): “The hadith means that the Prophet (SAWS) is a great good for his Community during his life, because Allah the Exalted has preserved the Community, through the secret of the Prophet’s (SAWS) presence, from misguidance, confusion, and disagreement, and He has guided the people through the Prophet (SAWS) to the manifest truth; and that after Allah took back the Prophet (SAWS), our connection to the latter’s goodness continues uncut and the ex­tension of his goodness endures, overshadowing us. The deeds of the Community are shown to him every day, and he glorifies Allah for the goodness that he finds, while he asks for His forgiveness for the small sins, and the alleviation of His punishment for the grave ones: and this is a tremendous good for us. There is therefore ‘goodness for the Community in his life, and in his death, goodness for the Community.’ Moreover, as has been established in the hadith, the Prophet (SAWS) is alive in his grave with a special ‘isthmus-life’ stronger than the lives of the martyrs which the Qur’an spoke of in more than one verse. The nature of these two kinds of life cannot be known except by their Bestower, the Glorious, the Exalted. He is able to do all things. His showing the Community’s deeds to the Prophet (SAWS) as an honorific gift for him and his Community is entirely possible rationally and documented in the reports. There is no leeway for its denial; and Allah guides to His light whomever He pleases; and Allah knows best.”
[6] I.e. “the angels brought near” according to Ibn al-Athir in al-Nihaya and others.
[7] Narrated by al-Tirmidhi with three chains: two from Ibn ‘Abbas – in the first of which he said “the knowledge of all things in the heaven and the earth” while he graded the second hasan gharîb – and one chain from Mu‘adh (hasan sahîh) which explicitly mentions that this took place in the Prophet’s (SAWS) sleep. Al-Bukhari declared the latter chain hasan sahîh as reported by al-Tirmidhi in both his Sunan and ‘Ilal, and it towers over all other chains, according to Ibn Hajar in al-Isaba (2:397), in the facts that there is no discrepancy over it among the hadith scholars and its text is undisputed (cf. Asma’ Hashidi ed. 2:78). Also narrated by Ahmad with four sound chains according to the typically lax grading of Shakir and al-Zayn: one from Ibn ‘Abbas with the words “I think he said: ‘in my sleep’” (Shakir ed. 3:458 #3484=al-Arna’ut ed. 5:437-442 #3483 isnâduhu da‘îf); one from Mu‘adh which Ahmad explicitly declared sahîh as narrated by Ibn ‘Adi in al-Kamil (6:2244), with the words: “I woke up and lo! I was with my Lord” (al-Zayn ed. 16:200 #22008); and two from unnamed Companions in which no mention is made of the Prophet’s (SAWS) sleep or wakefulness (al-Zayn ed. 13:93-94 #16574=al-Arna’ut ed. 27:171-174 #16621 isnâduhu da‘îf mudtarib; al-Zayn ed. 16:556 #23103). Al-Haythami declared the latter sound as well as other chains cited by al-Tabarani in al-Kabir (20:109 #216, 20:141 #290) and al-Bazzar in his Musnad, and he declared fair the chain narrated from Abu Umama by al-Tabarani in al-Kabir (8:290 #8117). See Majma‘ al-Zawa’id (7:176-179). Shaykhs ‘Abd al-Qadir and Shu‘ayb al-Arna’ut both declared sahîh the seven narrations of al-Tirmidhi and Ahmad in their edition of Ibn al-Qayyim’s Zad al-Ma‘ad (3:33 -34 n. 4). Also narrated from Jabir ibn Samura by Ibn Abi ‘Asim in al-Sunna (p. 203 #465) with a fair chain according to al-Albani. Also narrated from ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn ‘ A’ish by al-Darimi in his Musnad (2:170 #2149) and al-Tabarani through two chains in al-Ahad wa al-Mathani (5:48 -50 #2585-2586) and another in Musnad al-Shamiyyin (1:339 #597), and from Umm al-Tufayl by al-Tabarani in al-Ahad (6:158 #3385). The latter chain actually states: “I saw my Lord in the best form of a beardless young man” and was rejected by al-Dhahabi in Tahdhib al-Mawdu‘at (p. 22 #22). Also narrated from the Companion Abu Rafi‘ [al-Isaba 7:134 #9875] by al-Tabarani in al-Kabir (1:317 #938). Also narrated from Ibn ‘Abbas by Abu Ya‘la in his Musnad (4:475 #2608). Some fair narrations of this hadith – such as al-Tabarani’s from ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn ‘Ayyash and al-Khatib’s from Abu ‘Ubayda ibn al-Jarrah in Tarikh Baghdad (8:151) – have the words: “I saw my Lord” instead of “My Lord came to me,” hence Ibn Kathir’s conclusion previously cited. Al-Ahdab in Zawa’id Tarikh Baghdad (6:251-253) and al-Haytami also cited Abu ‘Ubayda ibn al-Jarrah, Ibn ‘Umar, Abu Hurayra, Anas, Thawban, and Abu Umama which brings to at least eleven (without Umm al-Tufayl) the number of Companions who narrated this hadith. The various chains and narrations of this hadith were collated and discussed by Ibn Rajab in his monograph Ikhtiyar al-Awla fi Sharh Hadith Ikhtisam al-Mala’ al-A‘la, ed. Jasim al-Dawsari (Kuwait: Dar al-Aqsa, 1406). See also: Ibn Athir, Jami ‘ al-Usul (9:548-550). Among those that considered this hadith as falling below the grade of sahîh are al-Bayhaqi in al-Asma’ wa al-Sifat (Kawthari ed. p. 300, Hashidi ed. 2:72-79), Ibn al-Jawzi in al-‘Ilal al-Mutanahiya (1:34), Ibn Khuzayma in al-Tawhid (p. 214-221) and al-Daraqutni in his ‘Ilal (6:56). Al-Saqqaf went so far as to suggest that it was forged in Aqwal al-Huffaz al-Manthura li Bayan Wad‘ Hadith Ra’aytu Rabbi fi Ahsani Sura, appended to his edition of Ibn al-Jawzi’s Daf‘ Shubah al-Tashbih.
[8] “Farafadanî Gibrîl ” in Ibn Abi Hatim and Ibn Kathir’s Tafsirs, while al-Salihi in Subul al-Huda (3:129) has “Fata’akhkhara Gibrîl” – both meaning “he left me and stayed back.” Cf. al-Maliki, Wa Huwa bil-Ufuqi al-A‘la (p. 73, 279) and al-Anwar al-Bahiyya (p. 75-77).
[9] See Abu al-Shaykh, al-‘Azama and al-Suyuti, al-Haba’ik. This leads to the issue of the precedence and preferability of the Prophet (SAWS) over all creation and his title Afdalu al-Khalq which is documented elsewhere.
[10] Al-Qadi ‘Iyad, al-Shifa (p. 555-556=Ithaf Ahl al-Wafa p. 369).
[11] Al-Qari, Sharh al-Shifa’ (2:117).
[12] 1Al-Tabari, Tafsir (18:173 #19894).
[13] Narrated by al-Dhahabi in the Siyar (6:360).
[14] Ibn Rajab , Sharh ‘Ilal al-Tirmidhi (2:780-781). Cf. al-Dhahabi’s Mizan (3:73) and al-Mughni (1:614-615 #4122) with the notes of Dr. Nur al-Din ‘Itr, and al-Arna’ut and Ma‘ruf’s Tahrir Taqrib al-Tahdhib (3:16-17 #4600) although the latter misattributes tawthîq to al-Bukhari while ‘Itr misattributes tad‘îf to Ahmad!
[15] Sarfaraz Safdar , Aakho(n) KiT (d)andak (p. 167-168).
[16] Al-Qadi ‘Iyad, al-Shifa’ as translated by ‘A’isha A. Bewley, Muhammad Messenger of Allah: al-Shifa’ of Qadi ‘Iyad (Granada: Madinah Press, 1992) p. 126.
[17] Maktubat-e-Imam Rabbani, Volume 1, Letter 78 addressed to Jabbari Khan.
[18] See Appendix titled “The Divine Names and Attributes are Tawqîfiyya: Ordained and Non-Inferable” in our translation of Imam Ibn ‘Abd al-Salam’s The Belief of the People of Truth.
[19] Al-Bayhaqi, al-Asma’ wa al-Sifat (Kawthari ed. p. 46-47; Hashidi ed. 1:126-127).
[20] Ibn al-Qayyim, al-Ruh (1975 ed. p. 30).
[21] Mufti Ebrahim Desai FATWA DEPT. Jamiat Ulema Islam. South Africa http://www.albalagh.net/qa/milad_qa2.shtml.
[22] See our translated volume titled The Prophets in Barzakh available at As-Sunna Foundation of America Publications.