Author Archives: shahishaharyar

About shahishaharyar

Chartered civil engineer,Fellow institution of engineers India, Member Indian road congress,Member American society of civil engineers, Presented over 40 papers in various seminars,published books on environment,history,genealogy.

The Birth of Himalayas

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                                              THE BIRTH OF HIMALAYAS

He set on earth  mountains standing firm lest it should shake with you…… (Holy Quran Verse 10 Ayat 31)

—  Compared to older mountain ranges like the Aravallis in India and Applachian in USA, the Himalayas are known as Youngfold mountain, being the youngest range, with world’s tallest peak of 8,848m. These extend for 2,500 km in length & 50-100 km in width in a series of parallel ridges of folds.

—  About 250 million years ago, the earth’s land was a single super continent called Pangea, which was surrounded by a large ocean.Around 200 million years ago (known as the middle permean period) an extensive sea stretched along the longitudinal area presently occupied by the Himalayas. The sea was named The Tethys. Around this period the super continent began to  gradually split into different land masses & move apart in different directions.

—  Rivers from both the northern Eurasian land mass (Angara) & southern Indian land mass (Gondwana) deposited large amounts of sediments into the shallow sea that was the Tethys.

—  There were marine animals called ammonites living in the sea of the time. The present fossil finds on peaks, point to their coast dwellings.

—  The two land masses, the Eurasia and the Indian subcontinent moved closer and closer.

—  Indian plate-one of the fastest moving tectonic plate in the world- was moving north at the rate of about 16 cms/6.3 inches per year.

—  About 70 million years ago (upper cretaceous period) the initial mountain building process started, when the two land masses (or plates) began to collide with each other.

—   As a result the already shallow seabed rapidly folded & was raised into longitudinal ridges & valleys.

—  After about 65 million years ago (upper Eocene period) came the 2nd phase of mountain building.

—  The bed of Tethys started rising again.

—  The sea retreated and the sea bed was elevated into high mountain ranges.

—  Later about 25 million years (middle Miocene period) came another mountain building which led to the formation of low Shivalik ranges.

—  Next; the mountain building phases occurred as the Indian plate pushed against the Eurasian plate which led to the Himalayan ranges rising further.

—  The last major phase occurred 600,000 years ago.

—  Although the phase of major upheaval has passed, the Himalayas are still rising albeit at a much slower rate.

—  The Indian plate is continuously moving north at the rate of about 2 cms. every year, which raise Himalayas by 5mm per year=5km per million years (being world’s highest rate of uplift )

—  This means that  Himalayas are still  geographically active & structurally unstable.

—  Some of the greatest earthquakes have occurred in history due to tectonic forces released by the interaction of the two plates.

—  For this reason, earthquakes are a frequent occurrence in the entire Himalayan region.

—  There is a recent prediction of an imminent major earthquake in Hidukush mountains.

—  For this reason, earthquakes are a frequent occurrence in the entire Himalayan region.

—  There is a recent prediction of an imminent major earthquake in Hidukush mountains.

—  Area covered in North Western Himalayas: snow clad peaks, glaciers & dense forest cover  = 33 million ha=10% of the total geographical area of the country

—  Rural Population:  J&K 75.20 %, HP 90.20%, UK 74.30 %    against the national average of 72.20%

—  It is impossible to detect the movement of the plates and uplifting of the Himalayas by casual observation.

—  However Global Positioning System (GPS) has made it possible to measure even such a slow movement of plates.

—  The Alps in Europe is another example of a mountain chain that formed due to the collision of tectonic plates.

—     Praise be to Him who left His signs for us all around ………              

 

 

 

Your fifteen minutes

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MORAL BANKRUPCY

Ministers, Bureaucrats, Preachers etc. found in the same dock.

Every now and then some kind of scandal is reported in the media either from the quarters of the top brass like ministers-(the so-called elected but not selected public representatives) or the top bureaucrats – (the educated elite of the society) or the common hooligans. Although the treatment to this disease prevailing among human beings has been devised by many doctors of morality over the years, yet the same seems to be failing now-a-days, for which root cause needs to be found and treated permanently; instead of slip-shod methods or spot treatments, used by the present set-up at the helm. There is a lacuna in our education system, where children in very early age are loaded with heavy bags of books exceeding their own weight, but not carrying a single book on real moral education. Before the introduction of modern system of education, the child was sent to learn Quran, Shaikh Sadi’s Karima-Nami Haq and then Gulistan Bostan, Ikhlaq-i-Mohsini, which are based on stories with a moral end, and the same would remain inscribed in the child’s mind throughout his life. Later on, even the subject of Dinyat- taught till 5th primary was also removed from the curriculum with sinister designs. It appears that Iblis has succeeded in his mission in distracting the people from their moral path. All this is responsible for the present day moral bankruptcy that we face at the level of ministers supposed to be the law-makers, but functioning as law-breakers and also at the level of bureaucrats reared in a system devoid of moral education. In earlier days, the common man would inculcate fear of punishment of judgment-day through the sermons of Imams on Friday prayers, which too has lost its effect as many religious heads too have reportedly indulged in immoral activities. The respect and fear of elders too has been lost. The process of the building of morals starts from mother’s lap, so first of all, the parents have to set up an example- a role model, for the child to follow; next the proper moral education needs to be introduced in the curricula for all the classes; besides dire legal punishments need to be imposed in public to the culprits to serve as a deter for others. The present situation has been predicted by Shaikh-ul-Alam about eight centuries back as:

“Wetha hukhan hendhar grezan- teli mali aasi wandahar raj”

i.e. The rivers will dry up and the polluted drains will gush forth; that time the apes shall be the rulers.

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MORAL BANKRUPCY

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MORAL BANKRUPCY

Ministers, Bureaucrats, Preachers etc. found in the same dock.

Every now and then some kind of scandal is reported in the media either from the quarters of the top brass like ministers-(the so-called elected but not selected public representatives) or the top bureaucrats – (the educated elite of the society) or the common hooligans. Although the treatment to this disease prevailing among human beings has been devised by many doctors of morality over the years, yet the same seems to be failing now-a-days, for which root cause needs to be found and treated permanently; instead of slip-shod methods or spot treatments, used by the present set-up at the helm. There is a lacuna in our education system, where children in very early age are loaded with heavy bags of books exceeding their own weight, but not carrying a single book on real moral education. Before the introduction of modern system of education, the child was sent to learn Quran, Shaikh Sadi’s Karima-Nami Haq and then Gulistan Bostan, Ikhlaq-i-Mohsini, which are based on stories with a moral end, and the same would remain inscribed in the child’s mind throughout his life. Later on, even the subject of Dinyat- taught till 5th primary was also removed from the curriculum with sinister designs. It appears that Iblis has succeeded in his mission in distracting the people from their moral path. All this is responsible for the present day moral bankruptcy that we face at the level of ministers supposed to be the law-makers, but functioning as law-breakers and also at the level of bureaucrats reared in a system devoid of moral education. In earlier days, the common man would inculcate fear of punishment of judgment-day through the sermons of Imams on Friday prayers, which too has lost its effect as many religious heads too have reportedly indulged in immoral activities. The respect and fear of elders too has been lost. The process of the building of morals starts from mother’s lap, so first of all, the parents have to set up an example- a role model, for the child to follow; next the proper moral education needs to be introduced in the curricula for all the classes; besides dire legal punishments need to be imposed in public to the culprits to serve as a deter for others. The present situation has been predicted by Shaikh-ul-Alam about eight centuries back as:

“Wetha hukhan hendhar grezan- teli mali aasi wandahar raj”

i.e. The rivers will dry up and the polluted drains will gush forth; that time the apes shall be the rulers.

 

Hazrat Khwaja Moin-Ud-Din Naqshbandi (RA)

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After screening the facts from the recorded history, it appears to be authentic that Hazrat Khwaja Khawand Mahmood migrated from Kashghar, Bukhara to Gujrat  in  in the reign of Akbar. The author of Tuhfa Naqshbandya Khwaja Abdur-Rahman Naqshbandi writes about his ancestor:

Mahboobi Ilahi Hazrat Khwaja Khawand Mahmood Naqshbandi entered this paradise in 1010 H in the reign of Akbar,  by the route of Gujarat and in 1017 H constructed ‘Khanqah Faiz Panah’ in Mohalla Sikandar Pora, now known as Khwaja Bazar and appointed his son Hazrat Kh. Moin-ud-Din as his successor for the propagation of Naqshbandi order and as caretaker of Naqshbandi Khanqah and that of  the jagirs attached to it.Himself he settled in Lahore in the reign of Shah-i-Jahan (1037-1076), When Zafar Khan Ahsan was the Governor of Kashmir. He settled in Dar-us Saroor Lahore, where his other sons  were residing. He got constructed a Jami Mosque and a Madrasa at Begum-Pora Lahore near Shalimar Garden there. He died there in 1052 H.
Kh. Azam Dedmri writes in ‘Waqat-i-Kashmir':
“In the Mohalla where his progeny resides, he got constructed  a Khanqah for his disciples, where there was actually the house of the King of Kashmir Husain Shah and built a small mosque. When the Naqshbandi order progressed and the circle of disciples expanded, he intended to construct a vast Khanqah and it is said he was blessed in a dream by Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) and got shifted the Khanqah of Hazrat Mir Baba Uwaisi at Isham village and a small mosque was built in its place at Isham. Tarikh-i-Hasn states that Husain Shah Chak had established a vast garden  near the ziarat of Hazrat Kh. Moin-ud-Din Naqshbandi and had passed a water channel (Lachma Khul) through it with installation of fountains and in the Mughal period Hazrat Kh Khawand Mahmood occupied it and constructed  a Khnqah in it.
The records of history reveal that Hazrat Khwaja Moin-Ud-Din Naqshbandi (RA) had entered Kashmir in 1010 H in the reign of Akbar, along with his father Hazrat Khwaja Khawand Mahmood (RA) and his family but had to leave Kashmir along with his father and reside at Lahore on the royal orders and later on Kh. Moin-ud-Din returned to Kashmir for permanent settlement and to propagate Naqshbandi order and look after the affairs of Khankahs and the disciples. Besides propagation of Naqshbandi order, he performed the job of writing books and took care of Khankahs and after his death , when all his three sons had died in his very life-time, the affairs were managed by his pious wife named GUL BEGUM- ( the daughter of Awrangzeb’s sister wedded to Kh. Abdur-Rahim Dahbidi ). Besides his grandson Kh. Nizam-ud-Din was too young to take this huge responsibility.
Histories are surprisingly silent about the details of the efforts made by Kh. Moin-ud Din Naqshbandi in propagation of Naqshbandi order, his teaching of disciples in Khanqah, sermons and other engagements, but whatever details could be obtained are mentioned here-under:
“Hazrat Khwaja Moin-ud-Din Naqshbandi got educated and initiation under the famous Islamic Muhaddis Hazrat Sheikh Abdul Haq Muhaddis Dehlavi. He obtained knowledge of Hadis also from him. Initial education he had received from his father. After obtaining the certificate of Fiqh and Hadis from Sheikh Abdul Haq Muhaddis Dehlavi, he got engaged in the religious engagements and when he shifted from Lahore to Kashmir for staying permanently and to promote Naqshbandi order as recorded in various histories of Kashmir- all the known Scholars, Fuqaha, Fuzala called on him and their association continued with him till the last day. Among these renowned scholars were Mulla Mohammad Tahir ( son of renowned Fazil, Faqih, Scholar Moulana Haidar Allama- who too was the disciple of Hazrat Sheikh Abdul Haq Muhaddis Dehlavi and a handwritten manuscript copy of Sheikh Muhaddis Dehlavi in five orders-(Qadirya, Shazilya, Madinya, Chistya and Naqshbandya) bestowed to Allama Haidar bin Feroz Kashmiri, is presrved in our library as our ancestor Sheikh Mohammad Moomin Shah Sayid Suhrawardy was a contemporary of Allama Haidar and a direct disciple of Allama Baba Dawood Khaki (RA)) , Mulla Abul Fatah kaloo, Mulla Yousuf Muddarris, Mulla Abdul Gani, Sheikh Ahmad Mufti, Kh Allama Haidar Charkhi (mentioned above) and other religious scholars. Religious discourses were held with these great scholars and guidance  to the thirsty seekers of the way was also thus provided. It was after the intercourse with such scholars that Kh. Moin-ud-Din Naqshbandi produced the book FATAWA NAQSHBANDIYA.”

Some of the disciples of Kh. Moin-ud-Din Naqshbandi (RA) who are mentioned in various references are: Moulana Abdul Hakim son of Kh. Abdul Kareem Bandey Baldimiri, Akhoond Mulla Tayyib (Sayid), Mulla Abd-ur-Rahim Faffoo, Kh Haidar Natnoo Allama–also disciple of Sheikh Muhaddis Delavi, Moulana Abul Fatah Kaloo -also disciple of Kh Haidar Natnoo Allama (as stated above). The other scholars associated with the Naqshbandi Khanqah were: Mir Mohammad Ali Qari (d.1070 H), Mulla Husain Khubbaz (d.1189H)), Shah Mohammad Sadiq Qalandar (d 1093), Hazrat Kh. Ahmad Yasvi Naqshbandi (d1114 H), Sheikh Abdur-Rahim Qadiri, Mulla Abdur-Razak Gojwari (1122H), Mulla Kazim Chaoo (d 1120 H), Mulla Mohammad Abid Topigaroo (d. 1122 H) etc.
The other authored by Kh. Moin-ud-Din Naqshbandi are  mentioned in the history as: Fatawa Naqshbandiya, Kanzul Saadah, Miratul Qaloob, Sair-i- Khairul Bashar, Mirat-u-Tayibah, Risal dar Ahwal-i- Khwaja khawand Mahmood, Maqamat, Mashariqul Anwar, Risala dar-raddi-Mulahidah, Tafsir-i-Mushif Majeed and Risala Raddi Shahtiyat-i- Mulla Akhoond Shah
Kh. Moin-ud-Din Naqshbandi has connected his family tree upto Hazrat Qutb-ul-Irshad Kh. Ala-ud-Din Attar who was married to the daughter of Hazrat Kh. Baha-ud-Din Naqshband (RA). The chain is as: Hazrat Kh. Khawand Mahmood s/o Hazrat Mir Sayid Shareef s/oKh Zia-ud-Din s/o Mir Mohammad Naqshbandi s/o Kh Taj-ud-Din s/o Kh. Ala-ud-Din s/o Kh Husain s/o Kh Ala-ud-Din Attar (RA)
The chain of initiation is from Hazrat Moulana Mohammad Qazi Khalifa of Hazrat Kh Ubaidullah Ahrar detailed as:  Hazrat Kh. Khawand Mahmood- Khalifa of Kh Ishaq- Khalifa of his father Moulana Khwajagi Sayid Ahmad Kasani- Kh/o Moulana Lutfullah kh/o Makhdoom Khwajagi Ahmad Kasani- Kh/0 Hazrat Moulana Mohammad Qazi- Kh/o Hazrat Qutb-ul-Urafa Khwaja Ubaidullah Ahrar (RA)
With the efforts of his father the order of Naqshbandiya was revived in Kashmir after over 100 years. His disciples were spread in Kashmir and Lahore, among whom was Hafiz Khadim of Lahore – a famous person who was equipped with the exterior as well as the interior knowledge. Besides there were others whose names are inscribed on the wall of Khanqah Naqshbandya and about some of whom Kh Moin-ud-Din mentions in Maqamat.
When Hazrat Khwaja Moin-ud-Din reached the age of 70, signs of illness appeared on his body and he passed away on 29th Muharram 1085 H and was burried  in the Khanqah-i-Faiz Panah. Since then every year on 29th Muharram falls his Urs day. The other Urs day of Hazrat Khwaja Baha-ud-Din Naqshband of Bukhara (RA) – the founder of Naqshbandi order is celebrated on 3rd Rabi-ul-Awal every year. In Kashmir after the Asr prayers of the Urs day,  special prayers are held called Khoja Digar in which people in great numbers participate.
Er. Mohammad Ashraf Fazili (Retd. Chief Engineer)

 

 

Tibb-e-Nabawi ~ Healing by ISLAM, both for the body & soul, for the doctor & patient, for the sick & healthy

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 Tibb-e-Nabawi ~ Healing by ISLAM, both for the body & soul, for the doctor & patient, for the sick & healthy

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بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحِيمِ وَالنَّجْمِ إِذَا هَوَى مَا ضَلَّ صَاحِبُكُمْ وَمَا غَوَى وَمَا يَنطِقُ عَنِ الْهَوَى إِنْ هُوَ إِلاَّ وَحْيٌ يُوحَى عَلَّمَهُ شَدِيدُ الْقُوَى

By the Star when it goes down, your Companion is neither astray nor being misled, and neither does he speak out of his own desire, that which he conveys to you is but a divine revelation with which he is being Inspired, something that a very Mighty One Has Imparted to him. (Surah Najm ~ Verses 1 to 5)

All praise to Allah Who Created the human from soil, He is Allah Who also Made rocks from the soil which can crush the soil, He is Allah Who Created Iron which breaks the rocks, He is Allah Who Created Fire which melts the Iron, He is Allah Who Created WATER which extinguishes the fire, He is Allah Who Created AIR which can carry tons of water as clouds, & He is Allah Who Descends the rain & Gives life to dead soil.

Tibb-e-Nabawi is the divine medicine that was Gifted by Allah to Prophet Muhammad Salallaho Alaihe Wasallam by WAHEE (revelation). It is the true healing for both the doctor & patient, for the sick & healthy.

Purpose of this website is to emphasize that Tibb-e-Nabawi is a complete code of medicine, both for the health of heart (soul) & physical fitness. We ignored it for the last few hundreds of years and as a result, no one in this world considers Tibb-e-Nabwi even as an alternative medicine, you will find followers of Acupuncture, Unani, Ayurveda, Herbalism, Homeopathy, Naturopathy, etc. but very few adopt Tibb-e-Nabawi as their first priority of cure & healing.

There are many books written on Tibb-e-Nabawi, but Ibn Al Qayyam Al Jauziah’s book is the most comprehensive, Ibn Al Qayyam was a miracle of Allah’s creations, he lived for 60 years, but had an experience of 1,000 years, precision and perfection of his knowledge on ISLAM & Medicine is reflected in his book on Tibb-e-Nabawi, & we have understood that he has presented the “Diagnosis & Prescription” with curing the heart & soul primarily; prior to treat the physical ailment. He wrote:

“There is a tremendous connection between the soul and what the body suffers due to physical diseases. Only the most ignorant people will deny the effects of the soul on body and on human nature as a whole. Allah Gives the soul certain powers over the body when someone is attacked by diseases. In addition, the soul has certain effects on the body when it experiences the ailments that are caused by septic substances, especially when blood, semen or black bile is irritated. Evil forces take control of the body when it experiences such emotions and ailments, unless the person repels it with an even stronger power, such as remembering Allah, supplicating to Him, invoking and pleading to Him, giving in charity (Sadaqah) and reciting the Quran. In this case, angels will descend and will defeat and neutralize the evil effects of the devilish souls (evil forces). We have successfully tried this method many times, that which only Allah is Able to count, and we witnessed the wonderful effects of such positive forces (good souls) in strengthening one’s resolve and ridding him of bad elements. This method almost never fails”.

Disease was Created by Allah & CURE is also Provided by Allah, so why to go through the painful cycle of DMC (Disease ~ Medicine ~ CURE) ?

By disease, Allah Provides an opportunity to reduce the burden of sins, furthermore, He Needs from a Muslim to follow the true principals of SHIFA, which help a Muslim to develop & strengthen belief on his LORD, the DMC cycle creates a strong connection between a Muslim & Rahman, between a slave & his Master, between a Mo’min (Allah’s name) and a Mo’min (A Muslim).

Following are the true principals of SHIFA / Healing which cure both the heart (soul) & body :

1. Healing by Belief (Yaqeen) that Allah Has Sent the disease & Allah is the HEALER, & if the healing is delayed, it is by Allah’s Wisdom & Hikmah

2. Healing by Aa’maal-e-Saalehaat, Salaat, Sadaqah, Fast, Quran, Zikr, Duaas & Ruqya, Husn-e-Khulq, abstaining from sins, Istighfaar, etc.

3. Healing by the foods of Prophet Muhammad Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam

4. Healing by the herbs of Prophet Muhammad Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam

5. Healing by HIJAMAH; which is Sunnah & the best kind of treatment in this world

When all of the above tools are combined together, it is very difficult for any sickness / ailment to withstand the crushing power of Tibb-e-Nabawi.

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We have classified the contents of Tibb-e-Nabawi in these 5 categories, & many articles on this website are copied from Ibn Al Qayyam’s book “Zaad al Ma’aad“. The most beautiful words in his book are as under :

وليس طِبُّه صلى الله عليه وسلم كطِبِّ الأطباء، فإن طبَّ النبىّ صلى الله عليه وسلم متيقَّنٌ قطعىٌ إلهىٌ، صادرٌ عن الوحى، ومِشْكاةِ النبوة، وكمالِ العقل‏.‏ وطبُّ غيرِه أكثرُه حَدْسٌ وظنون، وتجارِب، ولا يُنْكَرُ عدمُ انتفاع كثير من المرضى بطبِّ النبوة، فإنه إنما ينتفعُ به مَن تلقَّاه بالقبول، واعتقاد الشفاء به، وكمال التلقى له بالإيمان والإذعان، فهذا القرآنُ الذي هو شفاء لما في الصدور إن لم يُتلقَّ هذا التلقى لم يحصل به شفاءُ الصُّدور مِن أدوائها، بل لا يزيدُ المنافقين إلا رجساً إلى رجسهم، ومرضاً إلى مرضهم، وأين يقعُ طبُّ الأبدان منه، فطِب النبوةِ لا يُناسب إلا الأبدانَ الطيبة، كما أنَّ شِفاء القرآن لا يُناسب إلا الأرواح الطيبة والقلوب الحية، فإعراضُ الناس عن طِبِّ النبوة كإعراضهم عن الاستشفاء بالقرآن الذي هو الشفاء النافع، وليس ذلك لقصور في الدواء، ولكن لخُبثِ الطبيعة، وفساد المحل، وعدمِ قبوله‏.‏‏.‏ والله الموفق‏.‏

Prophetic medicine is not similar to that offered by doctors and physicians. Prophetic medicine is indeed the effective treatment and cure provided by the revelation and the guidance of the Prophet Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam; that is coupled with a sound and perfect mind. In comparison, the majority of remedies prescribed by others are built on hypothesis, observation and experimentation.

It is a fact that many people do not benefit from Prophetic medicine because it will help only those who acknowledge and have faith in it. Thus, they believe that it will help them and they then submit to it. If Qur’an, which is a cure for whatever the heart conceals, is not acknowledged and accepted with faith, it will not provide a cure for the heart. In fact, Quran will only add more evil and disease to the hearts of the hypocrites.

Prophetic medicine is only suitable for good and pure bodies, just as Quran is only suitable for righteous souls and feeling hearts. Therefore, when the people ignore Prophetic medicine, it is like ignoring the help with the guidance of Quran, which is the most effective medicine. Again, when the medicine (Quran and the Prophetic medicine) do not work, it is due to the negativity in the body and soul that are not suitable for accepting the medicine, not because the medicine does not work. All success comes from ALLAH.

The relationship of (scientific) medicine to the Prophetic medicine is similar to scientific thought in comparison to divine revelations (to the Prophets). Indeed there are scientific phenomena and medical therapies to which even the best scientist and doctors have no real answers. Even to this day despite the advances made by science and technology, many mysteries remain. The results and comfort of spiritual therapies comes only from faith and trust in ALLAH. They come through charity, prayer, repentance and seeking ALLAH’s forgiveness. They are aided by doing good deeds, helping the helpless and relieving the afflicted. The causes for these cures are varied and defy logical analysis. And the resultant cures cannot be explained by scientific experimentation and analysis. All this is in accordance of the law of ALLAH and nothing outside it.

When a person’s heart becomes attuned to the Lord of the world, and trusting of the Creator of all ailments and their remedies, medicines which would otherwise be ineffective in an individual who is unbelieving and indifferent of heart become effective,. It has been experienced that when a man’s belief is strong, his body and soul are strengthened and they co-operate in repelling disease and overcoming it. This cannot be denied except by the most ignorant of people.

Srinagar City- settlement pattern- a historic review-(from Heritage)

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Settlement pattern, a historic overview PDF Print E-mail
The present location of Srinagar carries an interesting anecdote. It is said that when Praverasena 11, in early part of 6th century, returned from a victorious expedition, he decided to establish a new capital which would bear his name. He was then residing at Panderethan, the old capital built in 3rd century BC. The king went out at night in order to ascertain the proper site and the auspicious time for founding the new city.
He reached a stream that skirted a ground glowing with funeral pyres. On the other bank of the stream a terrible looking demon appeared who promised him that he will identify the site and auspicious time for setting up the new city in case the King crosses the stream. The demon also stretched his ankle to enable the king to cross the stream. Praverasena took out his dagger, cut into the flesh of the demon and crossed over to the other side. The demon then showed him the site of Hari parvat, known as sarikaparvata where he then located the city. The stream in this story has been identified as Mahasarit, the present day Tchunt Kul.
Tchunt Kul links Dal Lake with River Jehlum and, till Dogra period, there was a ancient cremation ground and a Hindu Tirath at its confluence. The ancient canal system was adequately augmented by the subsequent Kings and rulers. This canal system gave another name to the city; Venice of East. The banks of the canals were linked with small bridges like Naid Kadal, Qadikadal, Rajojri Kadal etc. It was the advent of democratic Governance that resulted in loss of this unique stature of Srinagar in the annals of world historic cities.
It is not for nothing that Srinagar has not been superceded as the capital of Kashmir. There were many attempts to change the Status of Srinagar, but every time it was restored . Lalitadatya, Jayapida, avavtivaman and Sakaravarman established new capitals. The ruins at Parihaspura, Avantipura etc show sufficiently that the failure of any of these sites as capital was not due to any deficient means.
Srinagar has some exceptional natural advantages over other locations. It enjoys facilities of communication as a true centre of valley. The river provided in the past the most convenient trade and traffic route into the valley. It is the last sufficiently populated, accessible plain with abundant natural resources towards central Asia and the historical silk route. It is also on a high ground compared to its surroundings securing it from devastation due to floods. Of all the natural calamities, Kashmir has always suffered much more from floods which were followed by drought and famines.
Jehlum, around which the city grew, got its first permanent bridge during the reign of Zainul abidin in 15th century. Subsequently more bridges linked the eastern and western part of the city. For a very long time the number of bridges remained seven. These seven bridges still exist in name with Amira Kadal listed as the first bridge followed by Habba kadal, Fateh Kadal, Zainakadal, Ali Kadal, Nawa kadal and saffa kadal. The addition made to the number of bridges before Amira Kadal in the fifth decade of last century was aptly named as Zero bridge. The name reflects the sensitivity of the then rulers to the historic character of the bridges. In world travel literature, which till recent past carried laudatory references to the ancient character of Srinagar, these bridges would be quoted as an illustration. An indigenous architectural marvel, the bridges are a network of deodar logs woven to form structural girders. The deodar logs are cantilevered at a height to allow passage for boats. They add a unique feature to the cityscape. Unfortunately, these bridges are being dismantled and replaced by concrete structures.
There is no bigger proof of abject lack of appreciation for the historic character of the city among the present day planners especially engineers. There would always be a need for modern bridges in an expanding city like Srinagar. But dismantling a historic structure to make way for a new facility only reflects the shear ineptitude and insensitivity towards the heritage of the city.
Srinagar attracted men of commerce, crafts, religion and letters over the centuries. Like other historic cities, the city became synonymous with work, housing, culture and, most of all social advancement. In the process, city has undergone a transformation by which new urban culture progressively took root, with new trends and architecture. This happened around or on the influx of Syeds from Iran and other parts of central Asia in 15th Century.
Their arrival was followed by the rule of Sultan Zainul Abidin who had a deep appreciation of highly evolved urban culture of Central Asian cities. These influences brought a new kind of influence to the city, a Central Asian city tapestry comprising karkhanas, Ziarats, hammams. At a later stage Kashmir was exposed to official theocracy under the quasi independent rule of Mirza Haider Dughlat, a cousin of Humayun, the Mughal ruler of Hindustan. The city lived under this influence for a very long period, leading at times to uncertainties and ascendance of forces of destabilization. He also consolidated the forces of urbanization, a process initiated in earlier part of 15th century. The end of sultanate period and advent of Mughal rule did not affect the settlement pattern of the city. However, Nagar Nagar, the Mughal city created around Hariparbat, for the first time remained out of bounds for the common city dwellers. The decline of Mughal rule had a disastrous impact on the life and character of the city leading to its visible impoverishment.
Over the course of history the city got organized into mohallas and residential areas based on occupations. As more and more members of the family became associated with traditional crafts and skills, mohallas developed as a close knit community. Similarly clan or family based mohalas also grew in the core areas. By 19th century the city had mohallas bearing names like Qalamdanpora, Sheeshgari Mohalla, Banduk khar Mohalla, Bhand Mohalla, Bhan Mohalla, Razdan Kucha, Mir Mohalla etc etc. Ziarats, temples and shrines also became the focal points around which large habitations were established.
The river front and the areas along the canals like Nala Mar witnessed continuous array of houses with projecting wooden balconies, intricate lattice work and widow screens facing the water front. A significant urban feature of the water front was in the form of ghats. The ghats served as landing places for the transportation. Till early seventies most of the rations viz rice, flour and sugar used to be sold through public distribution system at these ghats. The ghats acted as nodal centers attracting both Hindus and Muslims at the break of day for ablution followed by bathing and washing during the day. Even today there are forty-four ghats on Jehlum which can be revitalized for leisure and pleasure usage.
There are many urs and festivals that provide occasion for festivities. Sadly the festivals like Badam wari, community singing during Ramadan and on the arrival of spring have waned. The city is fast loosing its character. The loss of traditional linkages of personal and community network in the city marks the breakdown of the social fabric. However one of the redeeming features that hold some promise for linking the city to its glorious past s the architectural elements abounding in the core areas of the city in Ziarats, houses monuments and other vernacular structures

Islamic Productions Srinagar Kashmir (established 1983 AD/1404 AH)

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The Institution of Islamic Productions Srinagar Kashmir was set up in 1983 in by Er. Mohammad Ashraf Fazili B.E.(Hons) , CEng(I),FIE, MIRC, MASCE R/O Srinagar, when it was found that the rays of modernization have penetrated so deep in the society that even the authenticity of Divine guidance is being challenged by our educated elite. A booklet describing the uninterrupted continuation of miracles of Prophet Muhammad (SAW)- an Urdu translation of a speech made by Dr.Rashad Khalifa, published in Lahore by Dr. Ahmad Rafiq in 1976 was republished as an answer to these elements and distributed free of cost. It started a chain of other publications to illuminate the general public on other topics, with the light of guidance transferred to us through Prophet (SAW) and his Sahabis (AS)and Awliya-Allah (QS) to this date. The mission should continue onwards for the guidance of future generations. Alhamdulillah we have been able to publish following  books, booklets,papers, most of which were distributed among people:

01) Mujaza Muhammadi ks Lafani Tasalsul (Urdu) 02) Bismilla-hir-Rahman ki Tafsir (Urdu) 03) Fazilat ki Raten (Urdu) 04) Hurmat ke Mihiney (Urdu) 05) Kashmit ke Chand Buzarg Alim wa Sufi (Urdu) 06) Janobi Hind mein Islam ki Ibtida (Urdu) 07) Baba Bam-ud-Din (Urdu) 08) Mujaza Quran (Urdu) 09) Let the World know (English) 10) The Truth (English) 11) Srinagar -the Suncity 12) Mumin Kamil ke Awsaf (Urdu) 13) Hamarey Aslaf aur Mashaikh-i-Kashmir -3 volumes )Urdu) 14) Margub-ul-Qaloob (Urdu) 15) Khwaja Habibullah Attar- mukhtasar sawanih (Urdu) 16) Fragrant Flowers (English) 17) The Pearls of Deep Sea (English) 18) Glimpses of Paradise (English) 19) Our Concern (English) published in USA 20) My Life Story  (English)-published in USA [ items 16,17,18 published by and available with  Pothi.com] 21) My Reflections (English) 22) Awrad-i-Fathia (English) 23) Kibryat-i-Ahmer (English) 24) Dalail-ul-Khairat (English) 25) Qasida Burdah (English) 26) Hizb-ul-Bahar (English) 27) The Unchallenged Truth (English) { items 19,20,21,22,23,24,25,,26,27 published by and available with  Amazon.com and Pothi.com} 28) Environment in Jammu and Kashmir (English)-{item 28 published by and available at Gulshan Books Residency road Srinagar}.The books under process are: Tazkira Salikin-i-Kashmir (Urdu), Salikin-i-Kashmir (English), Jhelum Valley Civilization. All these books nave been authored by Er. Mohammad Ashraf Fazili (Retd. Chief Engineer J&K State PWD)