Author Archives: shahishaharyar

About shahishaharyar

Chartered civil engineer,Fellow institution of engineers India, Member Indian road congress,Member American society of civil engineers, Presented over 40 papers in various seminars,published books on environment,history,genealogy.

Development of Press in Srinagar

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Recently a seminar was held at Srinagar on “The History of publishing books in Kashmir and the responsibility of the media in the present scenario”. Many scholars presented their points of view. It urged me too to delve in to the subject of ‘development of press in Srinagar in thirties and forties’.  As rightly quoted by the historian late Dr. M Ishaq Khan that there was not a single newspaper printed or published in the J&K State as late as 1924. Only Government Gazette was the official weekly with a circulation of 900. The newspapers that were read by a limited number of people came from the neighboring province of the Punjab. The people of the state had thus no paper of theirs through which they could express their views on various social and political problems.

However the papers imported from Lahore into the dominion of Maharaja covered a substantial information regarding Kashmir affairs. Their influence on the educated class of Kashmiris was plenty. The newspapers after a couple of fitful starts took roots in the capital city of Kashmir drawing its strength from the power of Press in the Punjab, besides a more serious note was gradually introducing into discussion. The implications of these changes were felt by the Government. The most important recommendation of Galancy Commission provided for the freedom of the press and platform a free association of the people for political activity.

The first person to start in Srinagar an Urdu weekly Vitasta was Pandit Prem Nath Bazaz in 1932. This was followed by the Martand, the Sadaqat, the Haqiqat, the Kashmir-i-Jadid, the Al-Barq, the Bekar, the Khalid, the Hidayat, the Kesri, the Desh, the Rahbar, the daily Hamdard, the daily Khidmat, the Paigam, the Kashmir Guardian, the Islah, the Vakil, the Hurriyat, the Nur and the Muslim.

Thus the newspaper in Srinagar turned to be a real power in the public life. The strength of press in Srinagar arose from the organization of the liberal opinion against corruption and misrule. The Vitasta served the cause of social reform in Kashmir. It held Maharaja’s rule responsible for inaction against those who indulged in bad habits and other social evils like child marriages and juvenile smoking etc. The weekly Hamdard was started by Pandit Prem Nath Bazaz with the collaboration of Shaikh Mohammad Abdullah on August 1, 1935, with the purpose of laying foundation of “the progressive nationalism in the J&K State.” Its editorials often advocated political reform and public awakening of the people of the State. The conversion of Muslim Conference to National Conference is attributed mainly to the active writings of this weekly, though the former continued to function even after the founding of the nationalist party in the State.

When Mr. Bazaz disassociated from Shaikh Sahib, the Hamdard became a daily, when it gathered some courage to discus political, social and economic issues. It tried to reveal official secrets, rough up the administration and thereby earn their antipathy.

The Sadaqat, the Haqiqat, the New Yug and the Khalid supported the political movement started by Shaikh Saheb and his associates. The daily Khidmat initially edited by Moulana Masudi was the organ of All J&K National Conference. The Nur was brought out by Mohi-ud-Din Nur, championing the cause of the nationalists and also wrote a great deal about the distress of the laborers and cultivators. The paper boldly took the administration to task and highlighted the corrupt practices of some high officials.

Leftist ideas were advocated by the Desh of Pt. Kashyap Bandhu. The Islah was a Qadyani inspired paper, which supported the two nation theory. The Khidmat and the Muslim covered mostly the religious issues of the Muslims of the State. The Hurriyat published by Moulana Yousuf Shah advocated the cause of a separate Muslim State. The Martand belonged to Sanatan Dharam Yuvak Sabha & represented the political views of the minority of the State. It was the first paper of the state published daily. It had a circulation of 1900 in the beginning. It dwelled on the backwardness of the Pandit community & attacked social evils like child marriage, dowry and maltreatment of Hindu daughters-in-law by their mothers-in-law.

Among the English weeklies, Kashmir Times was a standard one & advocated independent views in public affairs. Pandit Gwashalal Koul was one of the founders of English weekly in Srinagar. He edited his weekly in 1934. Later in 1939 he started the Kashmir Chronicle.

With this account it is evident that the press in Srinagar made a rapid progress during 1931 and 1947. By the year 1946 three dailies were published from the city. On a number of occasions, the Government managed to counter popular journalistic opinions by issuing a stream of counter statements through the columns of the favoured section of the Press. Thus in 1946, the Press in Srinagar was emerging as an effective organ of public opinion. From the editorial comments, it was evident that the standard of journalism was improving.

Before 1947, the Legislative Assembly in J&K State, afforded little scope for the ventilation of the grievances of the people. Under these conditions, the press was unrivalled as a vehicle of popular will and opinion. The journalists of the time were drawn from the common people. Any enterprising person from the middle class could bring out a paper, be his own editor, publisher & proprietor. It is noteworthy that the freedom of press granted in 1932 coincided with the significant developments on the political plane in the sub-continent. The press offered unprecedented opportunity for the dissemination of the ideas and the popular leaders like Shaikh Abdullah, Prem Nath Bazaz, Maulana Masudi, Kashyap Bandhu many others were naturally attracted to journalism. The Association of the people from the different strata and sections of Kashmiri society made the press the best media of public opinion.

In providing momentum and leadership to political discussions, the role of press has been significant. Though the editors of the papers of Srinagar were devoid of a degree or diploma in journalism, yet they were gifted with commonsense and courage in discussing the social, economic and political problems. They were realistic and relentless in their criticism of the rulers. Thus the press during the period 1932-47 was responsible for creating a forceful public opinion and political consciousness and presenting the public point of view on important matters to the Government of Maharaja.

The press has gone a sea change after 1947 and with the increase of education and readership, besides turmoil of events; the demand of newspapers too has multiplied, with the result that presently we have more than forty local dailies and online news services available in J&K State. In spite of the availability of online news services, the thirst for the printed news papers cannot be quenched. The press continues to influence and shape the public opinion as before. In this connection some of the leading English dailies like Greater Kashmir, Kashmir Times, Rising Kashmir, Kashmir Images, Kashmir Reader, Kashmir Observer etc; and in Urdu The Daily Aftab, Kashmir Uzma,The Srinagar Times, The Chattan, The Uddan etc. are the few among the long list of the popular dailies.

With the development of publishing of newspapers, the publishing of books by the publishers in the local printing presses also received a boost. The early printing presses that came into existence here were Government printing press, Kohinoor printing press, Noor Mohammadi press, Falah-i-Aam press, Vasanta printing press, Shalimar Art printing press, Broca’s press, National printing press etc. Before their existence, most of the Persian and Arabic books were published outside J&K State particularly by Munshi Nolkishore press and other presses at Lahore, Amritsar, Kanpur, Lucknow, Agra, Bombay, Hyderabad, Calcutta, Karachi etc. However now there is a mushroom growth of printing presses here, but quality printing is still preferred by the book publishers from outside the state.

With the modern electronic printing, it has become now possible to print a book in a matter of days both in color and black & white. The whole process of printing and publishing has got exceedingly revolutionized. At the same time with the availability of the books on internet, the habit of reading books is dwindling, but in spite of all this development, a book continues to be one’s best friend and has its own charm against the advanced internet facility.

 

 

Natural Resources of the North western Himalayas Threats, Evaluation & Conservation

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(1)                           Introduction:

About 40 million years ago Indian plate crashed into Eurasian plate at the geographically breakneck speed of 4 inches per year to form the Himalayas-

The collision created Himalayan Mountains welded together by warped and shattered rock interlocking to form the highest chain on earth.

(2)                          Area covered :

North Western  Himalayas  comprise of three states viz. J&K, Himachal Pradesh (HP) & Uttrakhund (UK), covering an area of about 33 million hectares, forming about 10 % of the total geographical area of the country.

(3)                           Location & Cover :

The region occupies the strategic position in the northern boundary of the nation and touches international boundaries of Nepal , China & Pakistan.

Most of the area is covered by snow-clad peaks, glaciers of higher Himalayas & dense forest covers of mid Himalayas.

(4)                           Population

The region comparatively shows a thin and dispersed human population due to its physiographic conditions and poor infrastructure development.

The rural population in HP, J&K and UK constitutes 90.20, 75.20 and 74.30 % respectively as compared to the national average of 72,20 %.

The livestock population in the region has increased substantially during last three decades and is 21.33 million against human population of 29.53 million  (1: 1.38)

(5)                            The Dominant Sector:

The agriculture including livestock continues to be the dominant sector despite the fact that the area is exposed to adverse and harsh geographical and agri-silviculture conditions.

(6)                          The Climate :

The Himalayas exhibit great diversity in climate, physiography, soil & vegetation between the outer and inner Himalayas, ethnicity, resource availability and agricultural practices controlled by altitude.

The region experiences coldest temperatures in the world during winter. Mostly the hill stations of the Western Himalayas like Srinagar, Pahalgam, Shimla, Manali (Kallu valley), Kangra, Dharamsala, Maclodganj, Chambra & some regions in UK like Kamaon, Garhwal experience monsoon showers.

 

(7)                             Major Natural Resources:

The major natural resources of Western Himalayas are water, forests, floral and faunal biodiversity.

Forests constitute the major share in the land use of Northwestern Himalayan region covering an area of about 1101, 2023, and 3486 thousand ha in Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, and Uttarakhand, respectively (Ministry of Agriculture 2009). Forests are the second largest natural renewable resources after water. The forest cover and canopy densities has a major role to maintain the hydrological regime in the region as well as to feed the adjoining plain areas for agricultural production. The very dense forests having canopy density more than 70 %.

(8)                          Mountain Ranges :

The mountain ranges in this region are usally 50-100 Km wide and 1000-5000m high. Dhandhar range in HP, Pir Panjal in J&K and Mussorie in UK are some of the important hill ranges.

(9)                          Soil loss :

The estimated annual soil loss from north western Himalayas is approximately 35 million tons, which is estimated to cost around US $ 32.20 million.

(10)                      Fodder need :

Strategies by planting fodder trees or grass in the waste/degraded lands (representing 7.9, 9.8 & 11.5 % of the geographical area  in HP, J&K & UK respectively) is  needed for enhancing the fodder production

(11)                        Growing Plants:

Climate of the region is conducive for growth of a large variety of plants ranging from tropical to temperate due to different altitudinal ranges varying from 100m above msl to more than 4000 m amsl i.e. sub tropical to cold temperate alpine zone.

(12)                      Medicinal & Aromatic plants :

The region is the natural abode of large number of medicinal and aromatic plants and the value of medicinal herbs from forests is enormous.

(13)                      Hydrological Potential :

The hydrological potential of these states consists of vast & rich water resources as glaciers, rivers & lakes. The high altitude areas of lesser and greater Himalayas are covered with glaciers and snow fields & are the origin of a number of perennial  rivers, which heavily drain into Indus and Gangetic basins & form a most fertile Indo-gangetic region of the country, known as “food bowl of India”.

(14)                        Hydropower Potential in HP:

Catchment area & hydro power potential of different rivers in Himachal Pradesh

Major Basin Tributary-   Area (sq,kms)      -Hydropower pot.(MW)

(a)  Indus

Chenab                        – 7,500            – 3,032

Ravi                            – 5,451               – 2,159

Beas                            – 20,402            – 4,604

Sutlaj                          – 20,000           – 10,355

Total                          – 53,353           – 20,150

(b) Ganga

Yamuna                     – 2,320               – 592

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Total (a+b)                    – 55,673           – 20,742

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© Mini-Projects                                         –     750

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GT                                      - 55,673            – 21,492

(15)                       Hydro Power in J&K State:

 

Potential assessed by Dr. Ramshoo : 25,000 MW

Potential assessed by J&K PDC         : 20,000 MW

Chenab                  – 10,654 MW

Jhelum                    – 3,141 MW

Indus                       – 1599 MW

Ravi                         –    417 MW

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Total                           – 15,811 MW

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Exploited                    -2327 MW

(16)                        Lakes in J&K State:

A unique culture emerged on the banks of lakes surrounded and protected by Himalayan mountains on all sides. In Srinagar in Dal Lake entire community living in boats depends on lake for subsistence. These hospitable clain their decent from prophet Noah. In Ladakh a small community of nomads still herds yalks along the shores of giant Pangong lake. In the northern part of the state in Baltistan, a series of high altitude lakes exists in the high mountain valleys above Skardu. J&K abounds with such natural treasures.

Various lakes  of the State include : Dal  (8 x 6.4 km),Nigeen , Anchar (8×3 km), Manasbal (5x1km), Wullar (16×9.6km), Hokersar(5×1.5km), Konsarnag (5x3km), Gangabal,Sheshnag, Neelnag, Tarsar Marsar, Sherasar, Sukh & Dukh- the two frozen lakes at Harmukh.

(17)                      Threats to Water Bodies:

With deforestation, increasing tourism & steady urban growth along the shores of some lakes and rivers, the centuries old balance between man and nature has been disrupted and desperately needs to be restricted.

Deforestation and the consequent erosion of the top-soil is having a devastating effect on the rivers & lakes. The silt & the soil being washed off of the barren mountain sides is rapidly transferring the Himalayan water ecosystem while hastening the shrinkage of large lakes.

(18)                      Dal Lake endangered:

Dal lake has shrunk in size as compared to 1907 records by 50 % in volume, from 22 to 11 sq. kms. the lake has also changed in other ways as well and presents an example of environmental degradation in a Himalayan lake eco-system. The process of eutrophication has begun to set in which results when lake waters become artificially enriched with nutrients, causing abnormal plant growth. Runoff of chemical fertilizers from the vast drainage basins around the lake, sewage and other oxygen demanding wastes, which bring in 15 tons of phosphorous & 300 tons of nitrogen every year combine to place the lake’s internal life process under severe stress. Oxygen levels fall, the fish die out & the lake loses its aesthetic appeal Decaying organic matter produces disagreeable odours & unsightly green scum of algae and weed infested waterways.

(19)                       The KEWA Report:

Although Dal has not reached such an advanced level of eutrophication, the process has begun to set in. Tourism has added increased pressure on the delicate environment of the Dal, for instance the number of house boats around the Dal lake has grown to 1400 from 400 in 1975. If current trends continue, the experts opin that the Dal lake will be destroyed within 80 years-Brar- Numbal mini lake in the heart of the city is a living example of this.

The KEWA report concludes with a series of suggested solutions for safeguarding of J&K lakes & waterways including the possibility of eco-tourism & environmentally sound urban planning. It is hoped that this report will bring about awareness in the administration and among inhabitants of J&K with the hope that the threat to J&K lakes can be averted.

(20)                      Lakes in HP :

Water from Beas & Sutlej rivers has been stored in Poong Dam & Bhakra Govind Sagar reservoirs having capacity  of 7290 & 9621 million cubic meters resp. for irrigation & power generation. It is major source of irrigation to Punjab, Haryana & Rajasthan. The catchment area of Ganges in India is approx. 8,63,000 sq. kms., which covers 26,20 % of total geographical area of the country, particulaly of northern states of India & is considered most fertile region of the world.

(21)                      Hydro power & Lakes in UK:

 

—  Projects under operation: 3,165 MWs

—  Projects under development stage : 14,388 MWs

—  LAKES in UK : 31 natural lakes cover 300 ha and 8 large sized man-made reservoirs in Tehri & Udhan Singh Nagar.covering an area of 20,075 ha.  Tehri dam is largest in UK followed by Sharda reservoir  with 6880 ha water area and Nanak Sagar reservoir with 4084 ha water area –the third largest.. These are used for irrigation purposes.

(22)                       Soil Conservation & Ecosystem Strategy:

The growing stock of trees outside the forest land (ToF) under agro forestry or social forestry has played a significant role to enhance the GDP of the country from 1 to 1.70 %. The tree cover increased significantly during last 3 decades when ICAR initiated.  All India Research Project on Agroforestry (AKRP-AF) during 1982-83 & farmers were encouraged to grow fodder trees & enhance their income & to meet their domestic demand.

(23)                       Other Renewable resources:

Amongst other renewable resources are deposits of Boron, lead, lithium, coal, chromium, ores of iron, copper, tungsten, zinc and deposits of building materials like limestone, dolomite & marble. These deposits occur across length and breadth of Himalayas cutting across international boundaries. Due to mineral deposits many cement industries have come up during last 3 decades.

(24)                       Biodiversity:

The Himalayas present a store house of biodiversity, where flora and fauna vary extensively with climate diversity from one region to the other and this biodiversity is used for developing new varieties / hybrids in agriculture and horticulture crops to enhance the productivity.

(25)                      Intensive Agriculture:

Intensive agriculture is practiced in Kangra, Kullu in HP & Kashmir valley in J&K and Doon valley in Babhar and Tarai region in UK. In these low hills, agriculture fields are terraced in some parts except plain areas and fruit plantations are raised along with several arable crops such as paddy, maize, pulses, wheat, oil seeds, potatoes and vegetables etc. Cultivation is practiced upto 2500 m elevation.

(26)                      Floriculture:

Floriculture is also fast emerging as an important cash generating activity of the production systems in certain areas. Fruit orchards of several species are found in the hills of HP, J&K and UK. Plantation on agriculture lands was not common in the past as enough forests were available in the vicinity, however after claring the forests for plantation of fruit trees as orchards in the hills during last 4-5 decades has created acute shortage of firewood and fodder and has compelled the farmers  to grow trees on their farmlands as a part of their farming systems to meet their daily needs of fuel, fodder and timber.

 

(27)                        Indigenous Agro Forestry Systems:

Various indegenous agro forestry systems occur in different agro climatic zones of the region.

A homestead (Kyaroo) is operational  farm unit in which a number of tree species for fodder, timber and fuel wood are raised along with livestock, poultry and/or fish to satisfy the farmer’s  needs.

In Kyaroo multiple crops  are present in a multitier canopy configuration. The fodder trees & bamboo for both timber & fodder are managed in upper storey, whereas middle storey is constituted of bushes of bushes like medicinal plants etc.

 

(28)                      Plantation:

The fruit trees like plum, pear, lemon & citrus etc. are grown for domestic use. Wide variation in the intensity of tree cropping is noticeable in different places.

Plantation crop combination play a major role in national economics. The important plantation crop of the Himalayan region is tea. Besides  bamboo groves are grown in most of the areas.

(29)                      Vision of a Saint:

Over about 700 years back Shaik-ul-Alam said: “Food is Subservient to Forests.” ان پوشہ تیلہ یلہ ون پوشہ

The Birth of Himalayas

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                                              THE BIRTH OF HIMALAYAS

He set on earth  mountains standing firm lest it should shake with you…… (Holy Quran Verse 10 Ayat 31)

—  Compared to older mountain ranges like the Aravallis in India and Applachian in USA, the Himalayas are known as Youngfold mountain, being the youngest range, with world’s tallest peak of 8,848m. These extend for 2,500 km in length & 50-100 km in width in a series of parallel ridges of folds.

—  About 250 million years ago, the earth’s land was a single super continent called Pangea, which was surrounded by a large ocean.Around 200 million years ago (known as the middle permean period) an extensive sea stretched along the longitudinal area presently occupied by the Himalayas. The sea was named The Tethys. Around this period the super continent began to  gradually split into different land masses & move apart in different directions.

—  Rivers from both the northern Eurasian land mass (Angara) & southern Indian land mass (Gondwana) deposited large amounts of sediments into the shallow sea that was the Tethys.

—  There were marine animals called ammonites living in the sea of the time. The present fossil finds on peaks, point to their coast dwellings.

—  The two land masses, the Eurasia and the Indian subcontinent moved closer and closer.

—  Indian plate-one of the fastest moving tectonic plate in the world- was moving north at the rate of about 16 cms/6.3 inches per year.

—  About 70 million years ago (upper cretaceous period) the initial mountain building process started, when the two land masses (or plates) began to collide with each other.

—   As a result the already shallow seabed rapidly folded & was raised into longitudinal ridges & valleys.

—  After about 65 million years ago (upper Eocene period) came the 2nd phase of mountain building.

—  The bed of Tethys started rising again.

—  The sea retreated and the sea bed was elevated into high mountain ranges.

—  Later about 25 million years (middle Miocene period) came another mountain building which led to the formation of low Shivalik ranges.

—  Next; the mountain building phases occurred as the Indian plate pushed against the Eurasian plate which led to the Himalayan ranges rising further.

—  The last major phase occurred 600,000 years ago.

—  Although the phase of major upheaval has passed, the Himalayas are still rising albeit at a much slower rate.

—  The Indian plate is continuously moving north at the rate of about 2 cms. every year, which raise Himalayas by 5mm per year=5km per million years (being world’s highest rate of uplift )

—  This means that  Himalayas are still  geographically active & structurally unstable.

—  Some of the greatest earthquakes have occurred in history due to tectonic forces released by the interaction of the two plates.

—  For this reason, earthquakes are a frequent occurrence in the entire Himalayan region.

—  There is a recent prediction of an imminent major earthquake in Hidukush mountains.

—  For this reason, earthquakes are a frequent occurrence in the entire Himalayan region.

—  There is a recent prediction of an imminent major earthquake in Hidukush mountains.

—  Area covered in North Western Himalayas: snow clad peaks, glaciers & dense forest cover  = 33 million ha=10% of the total geographical area of the country

—  Rural Population:  J&K 75.20 %, HP 90.20%, UK 74.30 %    against the national average of 72.20%

—  It is impossible to detect the movement of the plates and uplifting of the Himalayas by casual observation.

—  However Global Positioning System (GPS) has made it possible to measure even such a slow movement of plates.

—  The Alps in Europe is another example of a mountain chain that formed due to the collision of tectonic plates.

—     Praise be to Him who left His signs for us all around ………              

 

 

 

Your fifteen minutes

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MORAL BANKRUPCY

Ministers, Bureaucrats, Preachers etc. found in the same dock.

Every now and then some kind of scandal is reported in the media either from the quarters of the top brass like ministers-(the so-called elected but not selected public representatives) or the top bureaucrats – (the educated elite of the society) or the common hooligans. Although the treatment to this disease prevailing among human beings has been devised by many doctors of morality over the years, yet the same seems to be failing now-a-days, for which root cause needs to be found and treated permanently; instead of slip-shod methods or spot treatments, used by the present set-up at the helm. There is a lacuna in our education system, where children in very early age are loaded with heavy bags of books exceeding their own weight, but not carrying a single book on real moral education. Before the introduction of modern system of education, the child was sent to learn Quran, Shaikh Sadi’s Karima-Nami Haq and then Gulistan Bostan, Ikhlaq-i-Mohsini, which are based on stories with a moral end, and the same would remain inscribed in the child’s mind throughout his life. Later on, even the subject of Dinyat- taught till 5th primary was also removed from the curriculum with sinister designs. It appears that Iblis has succeeded in his mission in distracting the people from their moral path. All this is responsible for the present day moral bankruptcy that we face at the level of ministers supposed to be the law-makers, but functioning as law-breakers and also at the level of bureaucrats reared in a system devoid of moral education. In earlier days, the common man would inculcate fear of punishment of judgment-day through the sermons of Imams on Friday prayers, which too has lost its effect as many religious heads too have reportedly indulged in immoral activities. The respect and fear of elders too has been lost. The process of the building of morals starts from mother’s lap, so first of all, the parents have to set up an example- a role model, for the child to follow; next the proper moral education needs to be introduced in the curricula for all the classes; besides dire legal punishments need to be imposed in public to the culprits to serve as a deter for others. The present situation has been predicted by Shaikh-ul-Alam about eight centuries back as:

“Wetha hukhan hendhar grezan- teli mali aasi wandahar raj”

i.e. The rivers will dry up and the polluted drains will gush forth; that time the apes shall be the rulers.

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MORAL BANKRUPCY

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MORAL BANKRUPCY

Ministers, Bureaucrats, Preachers etc. found in the same dock.

Every now and then some kind of scandal is reported in the media either from the quarters of the top brass like ministers-(the so-called elected but not selected public representatives) or the top bureaucrats – (the educated elite of the society) or the common hooligans. Although the treatment to this disease prevailing among human beings has been devised by many doctors of morality over the years, yet the same seems to be failing now-a-days, for which root cause needs to be found and treated permanently; instead of slip-shod methods or spot treatments, used by the present set-up at the helm. There is a lacuna in our education system, where children in very early age are loaded with heavy bags of books exceeding their own weight, but not carrying a single book on real moral education. Before the introduction of modern system of education, the child was sent to learn Quran, Shaikh Sadi’s Karima-Nami Haq and then Gulistan Bostan, Ikhlaq-i-Mohsini, which are based on stories with a moral end, and the same would remain inscribed in the child’s mind throughout his life. Later on, even the subject of Dinyat- taught till 5th primary was also removed from the curriculum with sinister designs. It appears that Iblis has succeeded in his mission in distracting the people from their moral path. All this is responsible for the present day moral bankruptcy that we face at the level of ministers supposed to be the law-makers, but functioning as law-breakers and also at the level of bureaucrats reared in a system devoid of moral education. In earlier days, the common man would inculcate fear of punishment of judgment-day through the sermons of Imams on Friday prayers, which too has lost its effect as many religious heads too have reportedly indulged in immoral activities. The respect and fear of elders too has been lost. The process of the building of morals starts from mother’s lap, so first of all, the parents have to set up an example- a role model, for the child to follow; next the proper moral education needs to be introduced in the curricula for all the classes; besides dire legal punishments need to be imposed in public to the culprits to serve as a deter for others. The present situation has been predicted by Shaikh-ul-Alam about eight centuries back as:

“Wetha hukhan hendhar grezan- teli mali aasi wandahar raj”

i.e. The rivers will dry up and the polluted drains will gush forth; that time the apes shall be the rulers.

 

Hazrat Khwaja Moin-Ud-Din Naqshbandi (RA)

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After screening the facts from the recorded history, it appears to be authentic that Hazrat Khwaja Khawand Mahmood migrated from Kashghar, Bukhara to Gujrat  in  in the reign of Akbar. The author of Tuhfa Naqshbandya Khwaja Abdur-Rahman Naqshbandi writes about his ancestor:

Mahboobi Ilahi Hazrat Khwaja Khawand Mahmood Naqshbandi entered this paradise in 1010 H in the reign of Akbar,  by the route of Gujarat and in 1017 H constructed ‘Khanqah Faiz Panah’ in Mohalla Sikandar Pora, now known as Khwaja Bazar and appointed his son Hazrat Kh. Moin-ud-Din as his successor for the propagation of Naqshbandi order and as caretaker of Naqshbandi Khanqah and that of  the jagirs attached to it.Himself he settled in Lahore in the reign of Shah-i-Jahan (1037-1076), When Zafar Khan Ahsan was the Governor of Kashmir. He settled in Dar-us Saroor Lahore, where his other sons  were residing. He got constructed a Jami Mosque and a Madrasa at Begum-Pora Lahore near Shalimar Garden there. He died there in 1052 H.
Kh. Azam Dedmri writes in ‘Waqat-i-Kashmir':
“In the Mohalla where his progeny resides, he got constructed  a Khanqah for his disciples, where there was actually the house of the King of Kashmir Husain Shah and built a small mosque. When the Naqshbandi order progressed and the circle of disciples expanded, he intended to construct a vast Khanqah and it is said he was blessed in a dream by Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) and got shifted the Khanqah of Hazrat Mir Baba Uwaisi at Isham village and a small mosque was built in its place at Isham. Tarikh-i-Hasn states that Husain Shah Chak had established a vast garden  near the ziarat of Hazrat Kh. Moin-ud-Din Naqshbandi and had passed a water channel (Lachma Khul) through it with installation of fountains and in the Mughal period Hazrat Kh Khawand Mahmood occupied it and constructed  a Khnqah in it.
The records of history reveal that Hazrat Khwaja Moin-Ud-Din Naqshbandi (RA) had entered Kashmir in 1010 H in the reign of Akbar, along with his father Hazrat Khwaja Khawand Mahmood (RA) and his family but had to leave Kashmir along with his father and reside at Lahore on the royal orders and later on Kh. Moin-ud-Din returned to Kashmir for permanent settlement and to propagate Naqshbandi order and look after the affairs of Khankahs and the disciples. Besides propagation of Naqshbandi order, he performed the job of writing books and took care of Khankahs and after his death , when all his three sons had died in his very life-time, the affairs were managed by his pious wife named GUL BEGUM- ( the daughter of Awrangzeb’s sister wedded to Kh. Abdur-Rahim Dahbidi ). Besides his grandson Kh. Nizam-ud-Din was too young to take this huge responsibility.
Histories are surprisingly silent about the details of the efforts made by Kh. Moin-ud Din Naqshbandi in propagation of Naqshbandi order, his teaching of disciples in Khanqah, sermons and other engagements, but whatever details could be obtained are mentioned here-under:
“Hazrat Khwaja Moin-ud-Din Naqshbandi got educated and initiation under the famous Islamic Muhaddis Hazrat Sheikh Abdul Haq Muhaddis Dehlavi. He obtained knowledge of Hadis also from him. Initial education he had received from his father. After obtaining the certificate of Fiqh and Hadis from Sheikh Abdul Haq Muhaddis Dehlavi, he got engaged in the religious engagements and when he shifted from Lahore to Kashmir for staying permanently and to promote Naqshbandi order as recorded in various histories of Kashmir- all the known Scholars, Fuqaha, Fuzala called on him and their association continued with him till the last day. Among these renowned scholars were Mulla Mohammad Tahir ( son of renowned Fazil, Faqih, Scholar Moulana Haidar Allama- who too was the disciple of Hazrat Sheikh Abdul Haq Muhaddis Dehlavi and a handwritten manuscript copy of Sheikh Muhaddis Dehlavi in five orders-(Qadirya, Shazilya, Madinya, Chistya and Naqshbandya) bestowed to Allama Haidar bin Feroz Kashmiri, is presrved in our library as our ancestor Sheikh Mohammad Moomin Shah Sayid Suhrawardy was a contemporary of Allama Haidar and a direct disciple of Allama Baba Dawood Khaki (RA)) , Mulla Abul Fatah kaloo, Mulla Yousuf Muddarris, Mulla Abdul Gani, Sheikh Ahmad Mufti, Kh Allama Haidar Charkhi (mentioned above) and other religious scholars. Religious discourses were held with these great scholars and guidance  to the thirsty seekers of the way was also thus provided. It was after the intercourse with such scholars that Kh. Moin-ud-Din Naqshbandi produced the book FATAWA NAQSHBANDIYA.”

Some of the disciples of Kh. Moin-ud-Din Naqshbandi (RA) who are mentioned in various references are: Moulana Abdul Hakim son of Kh. Abdul Kareem Bandey Baldimiri, Akhoond Mulla Tayyib (Sayid), Mulla Abd-ur-Rahim Faffoo, Kh Haidar Natnoo Allama–also disciple of Sheikh Muhaddis Delavi, Moulana Abul Fatah Kaloo -also disciple of Kh Haidar Natnoo Allama (as stated above). The other scholars associated with the Naqshbandi Khanqah were: Mir Mohammad Ali Qari (d.1070 H), Mulla Husain Khubbaz (d.1189H)), Shah Mohammad Sadiq Qalandar (d 1093), Hazrat Kh. Ahmad Yasvi Naqshbandi (d1114 H), Sheikh Abdur-Rahim Qadiri, Mulla Abdur-Razak Gojwari (1122H), Mulla Kazim Chaoo (d 1120 H), Mulla Mohammad Abid Topigaroo (d. 1122 H) etc.
The other authored by Kh. Moin-ud-Din Naqshbandi are  mentioned in the history as: Fatawa Naqshbandiya, Kanzul Saadah, Miratul Qaloob, Sair-i- Khairul Bashar, Mirat-u-Tayibah, Risal dar Ahwal-i- Khwaja khawand Mahmood, Maqamat, Mashariqul Anwar, Risala dar-raddi-Mulahidah, Tafsir-i-Mushif Majeed and Risala Raddi Shahtiyat-i- Mulla Akhoond Shah
Kh. Moin-ud-Din Naqshbandi has connected his family tree upto Hazrat Qutb-ul-Irshad Kh. Ala-ud-Din Attar who was married to the daughter of Hazrat Kh. Baha-ud-Din Naqshband (RA). The chain is as: Hazrat Kh. Khawand Mahmood s/o Hazrat Mir Sayid Shareef s/oKh Zia-ud-Din s/o Mir Mohammad Naqshbandi s/o Kh Taj-ud-Din s/o Kh. Ala-ud-Din s/o Kh Husain s/o Kh Ala-ud-Din Attar (RA)
The chain of initiation is from Hazrat Moulana Mohammad Qazi Khalifa of Hazrat Kh Ubaidullah Ahrar detailed as:  Hazrat Kh. Khawand Mahmood- Khalifa of Kh Ishaq- Khalifa of his father Moulana Khwajagi Sayid Ahmad Kasani- Kh/o Moulana Lutfullah kh/o Makhdoom Khwajagi Ahmad Kasani- Kh/0 Hazrat Moulana Mohammad Qazi- Kh/o Hazrat Qutb-ul-Urafa Khwaja Ubaidullah Ahrar (RA)
With the efforts of his father the order of Naqshbandiya was revived in Kashmir after over 100 years. His disciples were spread in Kashmir and Lahore, among whom was Hafiz Khadim of Lahore – a famous person who was equipped with the exterior as well as the interior knowledge. Besides there were others whose names are inscribed on the wall of Khanqah Naqshbandya and about some of whom Kh Moin-ud-Din mentions in Maqamat.
When Hazrat Khwaja Moin-ud-Din reached the age of 70, signs of illness appeared on his body and he passed away on 29th Muharram 1085 H and was burried  in the Khanqah-i-Faiz Panah. Since then every year on 29th Muharram falls his Urs day. The other Urs day of Hazrat Khwaja Baha-ud-Din Naqshband of Bukhara (RA) – the founder of Naqshbandi order is celebrated on 3rd Rabi-ul-Awal every year. In Kashmir after the Asr prayers of the Urs day,  special prayers are held called Khoja Digar in which people in great numbers participate.
Er. Mohammad Ashraf Fazili (Retd. Chief Engineer)

 

 

Tibb-e-Nabawi ~ Healing by ISLAM, both for the body & soul, for the doctor & patient, for the sick & healthy

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 Tibb-e-Nabawi ~ Healing by ISLAM, both for the body & soul, for the doctor & patient, for the sick & healthy

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بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحِيمِ وَالنَّجْمِ إِذَا هَوَى مَا ضَلَّ صَاحِبُكُمْ وَمَا غَوَى وَمَا يَنطِقُ عَنِ الْهَوَى إِنْ هُوَ إِلاَّ وَحْيٌ يُوحَى عَلَّمَهُ شَدِيدُ الْقُوَى

By the Star when it goes down, your Companion is neither astray nor being misled, and neither does he speak out of his own desire, that which he conveys to you is but a divine revelation with which he is being Inspired, something that a very Mighty One Has Imparted to him. (Surah Najm ~ Verses 1 to 5)

All praise to Allah Who Created the human from soil, He is Allah Who also Made rocks from the soil which can crush the soil, He is Allah Who Created Iron which breaks the rocks, He is Allah Who Created Fire which melts the Iron, He is Allah Who Created WATER which extinguishes the fire, He is Allah Who Created AIR which can carry tons of water as clouds, & He is Allah Who Descends the rain & Gives life to dead soil.

Tibb-e-Nabawi is the divine medicine that was Gifted by Allah to Prophet Muhammad Salallaho Alaihe Wasallam by WAHEE (revelation). It is the true healing for both the doctor & patient, for the sick & healthy.

Purpose of this website is to emphasize that Tibb-e-Nabawi is a complete code of medicine, both for the health of heart (soul) & physical fitness. We ignored it for the last few hundreds of years and as a result, no one in this world considers Tibb-e-Nabwi even as an alternative medicine, you will find followers of Acupuncture, Unani, Ayurveda, Herbalism, Homeopathy, Naturopathy, etc. but very few adopt Tibb-e-Nabawi as their first priority of cure & healing.

There are many books written on Tibb-e-Nabawi, but Ibn Al Qayyam Al Jauziah’s book is the most comprehensive, Ibn Al Qayyam was a miracle of Allah’s creations, he lived for 60 years, but had an experience of 1,000 years, precision and perfection of his knowledge on ISLAM & Medicine is reflected in his book on Tibb-e-Nabawi, & we have understood that he has presented the “Diagnosis & Prescription” with curing the heart & soul primarily; prior to treat the physical ailment. He wrote:

“There is a tremendous connection between the soul and what the body suffers due to physical diseases. Only the most ignorant people will deny the effects of the soul on body and on human nature as a whole. Allah Gives the soul certain powers over the body when someone is attacked by diseases. In addition, the soul has certain effects on the body when it experiences the ailments that are caused by septic substances, especially when blood, semen or black bile is irritated. Evil forces take control of the body when it experiences such emotions and ailments, unless the person repels it with an even stronger power, such as remembering Allah, supplicating to Him, invoking and pleading to Him, giving in charity (Sadaqah) and reciting the Quran. In this case, angels will descend and will defeat and neutralize the evil effects of the devilish souls (evil forces). We have successfully tried this method many times, that which only Allah is Able to count, and we witnessed the wonderful effects of such positive forces (good souls) in strengthening one’s resolve and ridding him of bad elements. This method almost never fails”.

Disease was Created by Allah & CURE is also Provided by Allah, so why to go through the painful cycle of DMC (Disease ~ Medicine ~ CURE) ?

By disease, Allah Provides an opportunity to reduce the burden of sins, furthermore, He Needs from a Muslim to follow the true principals of SHIFA, which help a Muslim to develop & strengthen belief on his LORD, the DMC cycle creates a strong connection between a Muslim & Rahman, between a slave & his Master, between a Mo’min (Allah’s name) and a Mo’min (A Muslim).

Following are the true principals of SHIFA / Healing which cure both the heart (soul) & body :

1. Healing by Belief (Yaqeen) that Allah Has Sent the disease & Allah is the HEALER, & if the healing is delayed, it is by Allah’s Wisdom & Hikmah

2. Healing by Aa’maal-e-Saalehaat, Salaat, Sadaqah, Fast, Quran, Zikr, Duaas & Ruqya, Husn-e-Khulq, abstaining from sins, Istighfaar, etc.

3. Healing by the foods of Prophet Muhammad Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam

4. Healing by the herbs of Prophet Muhammad Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam

5. Healing by HIJAMAH; which is Sunnah & the best kind of treatment in this world

When all of the above tools are combined together, it is very difficult for any sickness / ailment to withstand the crushing power of Tibb-e-Nabawi.

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We have classified the contents of Tibb-e-Nabawi in these 5 categories, & many articles on this website are copied from Ibn Al Qayyam’s book “Zaad al Ma’aad“. The most beautiful words in his book are as under :

وليس طِبُّه صلى الله عليه وسلم كطِبِّ الأطباء، فإن طبَّ النبىّ صلى الله عليه وسلم متيقَّنٌ قطعىٌ إلهىٌ، صادرٌ عن الوحى، ومِشْكاةِ النبوة، وكمالِ العقل‏.‏ وطبُّ غيرِه أكثرُه حَدْسٌ وظنون، وتجارِب، ولا يُنْكَرُ عدمُ انتفاع كثير من المرضى بطبِّ النبوة، فإنه إنما ينتفعُ به مَن تلقَّاه بالقبول، واعتقاد الشفاء به، وكمال التلقى له بالإيمان والإذعان، فهذا القرآنُ الذي هو شفاء لما في الصدور إن لم يُتلقَّ هذا التلقى لم يحصل به شفاءُ الصُّدور مِن أدوائها، بل لا يزيدُ المنافقين إلا رجساً إلى رجسهم، ومرضاً إلى مرضهم، وأين يقعُ طبُّ الأبدان منه، فطِب النبوةِ لا يُناسب إلا الأبدانَ الطيبة، كما أنَّ شِفاء القرآن لا يُناسب إلا الأرواح الطيبة والقلوب الحية، فإعراضُ الناس عن طِبِّ النبوة كإعراضهم عن الاستشفاء بالقرآن الذي هو الشفاء النافع، وليس ذلك لقصور في الدواء، ولكن لخُبثِ الطبيعة، وفساد المحل، وعدمِ قبوله‏.‏‏.‏ والله الموفق‏.‏

Prophetic medicine is not similar to that offered by doctors and physicians. Prophetic medicine is indeed the effective treatment and cure provided by the revelation and the guidance of the Prophet Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam; that is coupled with a sound and perfect mind. In comparison, the majority of remedies prescribed by others are built on hypothesis, observation and experimentation.

It is a fact that many people do not benefit from Prophetic medicine because it will help only those who acknowledge and have faith in it. Thus, they believe that it will help them and they then submit to it. If Qur’an, which is a cure for whatever the heart conceals, is not acknowledged and accepted with faith, it will not provide a cure for the heart. In fact, Quran will only add more evil and disease to the hearts of the hypocrites.

Prophetic medicine is only suitable for good and pure bodies, just as Quran is only suitable for righteous souls and feeling hearts. Therefore, when the people ignore Prophetic medicine, it is like ignoring the help with the guidance of Quran, which is the most effective medicine. Again, when the medicine (Quran and the Prophetic medicine) do not work, it is due to the negativity in the body and soul that are not suitable for accepting the medicine, not because the medicine does not work. All success comes from ALLAH.

The relationship of (scientific) medicine to the Prophetic medicine is similar to scientific thought in comparison to divine revelations (to the Prophets). Indeed there are scientific phenomena and medical therapies to which even the best scientist and doctors have no real answers. Even to this day despite the advances made by science and technology, many mysteries remain. The results and comfort of spiritual therapies comes only from faith and trust in ALLAH. They come through charity, prayer, repentance and seeking ALLAH’s forgiveness. They are aided by doing good deeds, helping the helpless and relieving the afflicted. The causes for these cures are varied and defy logical analysis. And the resultant cures cannot be explained by scientific experimentation and analysis. All this is in accordance of the law of ALLAH and nothing outside it.

When a person’s heart becomes attuned to the Lord of the world, and trusting of the Creator of all ailments and their remedies, medicines which would otherwise be ineffective in an individual who is unbelieving and indifferent of heart become effective,. It has been experienced that when a man’s belief is strong, his body and soul are strengthened and they co-operate in repelling disease and overcoming it. This cannot be denied except by the most ignorant of people.